December 1996, Volume 38 Issue 12

 

          Research Articles
Chemical Constituents of Lac Host, Acacia suma
Author: Yang Cheng-yuan, Zhang Jia-yan, Hu Ying-jie, Shen Xiao-ling, Lu Wei-hua and Cai Jing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(12)
      
    Six crystallin compounds were isolated from the stem bark of Acacia surna BuchHam. ex. Wall. Based on spectral and chemical evidences, four of them were demonstrated as triacontanol, -sitosterol, daucosterin and lupeol heptylate. All were firstly reported from the plant. Among them lupeol heptylate was a new compound.
Abstract (Browse 1982)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New Diterpenoid Alkaloid from Aconitum leucostomum
Author: Wei Xiao-yi, Wei Bi-yu and Zhang Ji
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(12)
      
    Four diterpenoid alkaloids were isolated by means of column chromatography and preparative HPLC from the roots of Aconitum leucostomum Worosch. Their structures were determined from the spectral data. One of them was found to be a new compound named leucostine ( ). The other three are known alkaloids, leuconine ( ), dehydroacosanine ( ) and sepaconitine (IV).
Abstract (Browse 1912)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on Energy of Castanopsis eyrei Community in Wuyi Mountains
Author: Lin Yi-ming, Lin Peng, Li Zhen-ji, Yang Zhi-wei, Liu Chu-dian and He Jian-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(12)
      
    Based on the measurement of biomass and productivity, the caloric value of plant samples, the standing crop of energy, net energy production and energy conversing efficiency of Castanopsis eyrei community were determined. There were some differences in caloric values among the fractions of C. eyrei community being highest in that of bark and lowest in that of the microroots. The standing crop of energy in C. eyrei community was 780584.1 kJ m-2, in which the standing crop of energy accumulated in the aboveground biomass was 678913.8 kJ m-2, accounting 86. 98% of the total; that of underground was 101670.3 kJ m-2, i. e. 13.02%. Net energy production was 26856.2 kJ m-2 a-1 for this community in 1992. To the photosynthetic active radiation on the stand, the energy conversing efficiency was 1. 296%.
Abstract (Browse 1876)  |  Full Text PDF       
Vegetation History of the Southern Loess Plateau of China During the Last 100000 Years Based on Pollen Data
Author: Sun Xiang-jun, Song Chang-qing, Wang Feng-yu and Sun Meng-rong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(12)
      
    The paper deals with the vegetation history of the southern Loess Plateau, central China, for the last 100 ka based on palynological records from Weinan section. The pollen diagram of the loess-paleosol sequence at Weinan, southern part of the Plateau (109~30rE, 3424N), displays a predominence of arid shrubs or herbs (Arternisia, Chenopodiaceae) alternating with the abundance of mesic herbs (Cyperaceae, Ranuculaceae, Liliaceae etc. ) indicating a succession of steppe and meadow-steppe in turn during the last 100 ka BP. Forest vegetation developed only in some comparatively short time intervals e. g. Ulmus forest at ca. 95.190.0 ka BP (9. 509.32 m); Corylus woodland at ca. 25.021.1 ka BP (4.003.48 m) and Tsuga stand at ca. 13.711.8 ka BP (2.201.80 m). So far plant ecologists assinged the southern Loess Plateau to temperate broadleaf deciduous forest zone. Actually there are no forests on. the Plateau surfaces today. The lack of forest from the Plateau surface today is explained as being due to human interferences by plant ecologists. However, in the context of the last 100 ka BP it seems that there has been some nonhuman factors responsible for the treelessness of the Plateau, such as the free-draining nature of loess, which deserves greater consideration.
Abstract (Browse 1954)  |  Full Text PDF       
Photosynthetic Responses to Light Intensity in Intact Leaves of Some Coastal Desert and Tropical Rain Forest Plant Species in Atmospheres with Different CO2 Concentrations
Author: Jiang Gao-ming and Lin Guang-hui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(12)
      
    The photosynthetic responses to light (A/light response) at different CO2 concentration levels were studied in five coastal desert plant species (two C4 species and three C3 species) and five tropical rain forest plant species (all C3' s) using LI-6400 Portable Photosynthesis System. The measurements were carried out in the Coastal Desert and Tropical Rain Forest mesocosms of Biosphere 2 located in Oracle, Arizona, USA. All the species measured had been growing in Biosphere 2 under very high CO2 concentrations (15004000 mol mol-1) for about four and half years. The authors measured A/light response curves in intact leaves of different species under a series of CO2 concentrations, 350 to 1500 mol ~ mol-1. Except for the C4 grass, Panicurn maximum, the initial slopes and convexity (0) of A/light curves of all the species increased with the elevation of CO2 concentration. For most C3 species the light compensation points (LCP) and light saturation points (LSP) had increased when CO2 concentrations were elevated, especialy the LSPs. But for the C4 species, changes in LCPs and LSPs were small. In all the C3 species and the C4 shrub, Atriplesc canescens, the apparent maximum quantum yield of CO2 fixation (m, app) and maximum assimilation rate (Amax) increased under elevated CO2. But both mapp and Amax in Panicum maximum (C4) decreased. The Amax in Biosphere 2 increased by 127 % when CO2 concentration was doubled (from 375 to 750 mol mol-1), and C4 species by 39%. Such great enhancement could possibly be due to the fact that the plants had developed under very high CO2 concentration and large growth rooms in Biosphere 2.
Abstract (Browse 2271)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Artificial Germination of De-exined Pollen in Brassica
Author: Xu Bing-fang, Liang Shi-ping, Zhou Chang and Yang Hong-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(12)
      
    In view of the fact that pollen deprived of exine has been shown by electroporation to be a superior receptor of foreign genes in tobacco, the authors developed a technique to isolate and artificially germinate the de-exined pollen in Brassica. Pollen grains of B. chinens/s and B. campestris var. purpurea were first hydrated at 4 in a medium containing Roberts' salts, 24% sucrose, 7.3% mannitol, 0.05% lactoalbumin hydrolysate (pH 8.5) for 18 h, followed by heat shock at 34 for 4060 min and osmotic shock for 20 min subsequently. Through this three-step procedure the exine could dehisce along the germination furrows and completely detached off, resulting in the release of pollen coated with naked intine with an isolation rate as high, as over 60%. The de-exined pollen were germinated in a modified medium containing 15%20% polyethylene glycol (MW 6000), 5% sucrose, 0.05% lactoalbumin hydrolysate and Roberts' salts (pH 8.5) with a rate of 41% in B. chinensis and 33% in the other species. However, in sharp contrast with the behavior of the intact pollen, the de-exined pollen did not germinate in the carbon and nitrogen sources free media. Scanning electron microscopic and light microscopic observations on the processes of isolation and germination of de-exined pollen were carried out. The phenomenon of exine detachment in a few plant species is reviewed. There might be some corresponding association between pollen wall characteristics and methods of isolation. The de-exined pollen may be a useful experimental system not only for introducing and transferring foreign genes, but also for investigating the role of exine in pollen germination and in sporophytic self-incom- patibility.
Abstract (Browse 1931)  |  Full Text PDF       
Problems in the Use of RAPD to the Study of Genetic Diversity and Systematics
Author: Wang Xiao-quan, Zou Yu-ping, Zhang Da-ming, Zhang Zhi-xian and Hong De-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(12)
      
    Rapid, simple and highly sensitive are the great advantages of RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) method. However, its optimum condition of amplification varies greatly among different studies and, in turn, causes much debates in terms of its reproducibility and validation of its application to the study of systemetics. For this reason the authors tried to probe into some essential factors that might affect the result of RAPD assay. The results from the authors' genetic diversity research in Cathaya argyrophylla confirmed that (a) DNA templates, whether undergoing multiple steps of purification or not, showed the same RAPD profiles, hence, most of the steps would be unnecessary: (b) RNA, no matter deprived or not from the DNA templates, had no influence on amplification; (c) DNA templates with a wide range of concentration produced the same band patterns constantly; (d) DNA templates extracted from either fresh or dry leaves produced the same RAPD results. Therefore, it was concluded that RAPD exhibited very good reproducibility. Furthermore, the authors had also discussed some problems in product analysis and data analysis of RAPD. The use of RAPD method in taxonomic study was evaluated in the study on the relationships of congeneric species of Cimicifuga, Actaea asatica and Aconitum sungpanense, and the applicability of RAPD to systematic studies of species and closely related genera, although with some limitations, was highly appreciated.
Abstract (Browse 1957)  |  Full Text PDF       
Self-Fertile Transgenic Wheat Plants Expressing Herbicide Bromoxynil Resistance
Author: Wang Xiao-jun, Liu Yu-le, Huang Yong and Tian Bo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(12)
      
    Genetic manipulation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ) by biotechnological approaches is currently limited by a lack of efficient and reliable transformation method. The authors report a reproducible protocol for rapid production of transgenic wheat via microprojectile bombardment. The experiment was carried out by using the immature embryo excised from caryopsis 14 to 18 days postanthesis and the plant expression plasmid carrying a CaMV 35S-controlled bxn gene, for resistance to herbicide bromoxynil and a selectahle marker gene NPT I. After bombarding the precultured immature embryos isolated from 13 wheat varieties with plasmid DNA-coated tungsten particle, these embryos were transferred on MS medium containing 10 mg/L geneticin G418 sulphate to select and regenerate transformants step by step. As a result, 16 transformed plants were obtained from a total of 849 bombarded embryos. The characterization of these plants by inoculation with herbicide bromoxynil and Southern analysis with bxn gene as a probe showed that 4 of the self-fertile transformed plants contained the target gene and presented herbicide resistance. In several independent transformation experiments, the fastest one took only 6 months from embryo excision to characterization of regenerated plants. Therefore, this procedure is a rapid and efficient technique for delivering foreign DNA into wheat.
Abstract (Browse 1971)  |  Full Text PDF       
Relationship Between Male Fertility and Endogenous Phytohormones in Photoperiod-Sensitive Genic Male-Sterile Rice
Author: Zhao Yu-jin, Tong Zhe, Chen Hua-jun and Jin You-ju
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(12)
      
    A spontaneous male sterile rice plant (Oryza sativa L. cv. Nongken 58S) "Photoperiod-sensitive Genic Male-sterile Rice has been found to be male sterile under long day cycles (LD) and fertile in short day cycles (SD). The period from secondary rachis-branch and spikelet primodia to pollen mother cell formation in the process of panical development was the photoperiod-sensitive stage for fertility alternation. The phenotype of this mutant was reported to be controlled by two pairs of recessive alleles. The research on relationship between the fertility alternation and phytohormone action in this mutant have been performed by Chinese scientists since 1985. In order to study the mechanism of fertility alternation in Nongken 58S, endogenous IAA, ABA, GA1 and GA4 in apical leaves and reproductive organs in different development stages under LD and SD conditions have been quantiatvely and qualitatively identified by GC-MS-SIM method. It was found that endogenous IAA in apical leaves at the stage of pistil and stamen primodia formation and in panicles at pollen mother cell stage of Nongken 58S with LD condition was deficient comparing with those in SD. Endogenous ABA level in panicles at pollen mother cell stage, in spikelets at uninucleate stage and in anthers at anthesis stage of Nongken 58S-LD were lower than those in SD. ABA levels in corresponding organs and developmental stages of wild type of rice, "Nongken 58" were always higher in LD treatment than those in SD. Endogenous IAA, GA1 and GA4 levels in anthers at anthesis stasge of "Nongken 58"-LD were increased obviously. Thus it appeared that "Nongken 58" possess stronger resistance to LD stress than Nongken 58S. It is concluded that IAA deficiency of reproductive organs at early developmental stage, ABA decrease implying poor resistance to LD stress and reduction of GAs in late developmental stages were the factors causing the anther sterility in Nongken 58S-LD.
Abstract (Browse 1900)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cloning the Deleted DNA Fragment from a Deletion Mutant of Planetree by Genomic Subtraction
Author: Bao Shi-lai, Wang Li-li, Lu Run-long, Yin Lu-ming, Li Zhen-gang and Xu Zhi-hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(12)
      
    A novel type of mutant of planetree (Platanus occidentalis L. ), which was produced via -ray irradiation, does not form lower buds yet its vegetative organs grow normally. Genetic analysis showed that this was clue to the deletion of DNA fragments in the mutant genome. Through genomic subtraction technique, a 2.0 kb DNA segment (pBS 2.0) was isolated, which is only present in wild planetree genome, but is absent in mutant genome.
Abstract (Browse 1828)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes in Kinetic Characteristics of the ABA Binding Protein(s) of the Grapevine Fruit During Its Developmental Process
Author: Zhang Da-peng, Zhang Zi-lian and Chen Jia
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(12)
      
    By using the micro-volume radio-ligand binding essay (MRLB), the changes in the kinetic characteristics of the ABA binding protein (s) of the Kyoho grapevine (V/t/s vinifera V. labrusca) fruits during the different stages of fruit development have been studied. The changes in the berry volume growth, concentration of sugar, organic acids and ABA in fruit mesocarp have been determined especially for the studies of ABA-binding protein. The dissociation constant (Kd) and ABA-binding maximum volumes (Bronx)were determined by the Scatchard plots for the ABA-binding protein (s) in microsomes of the fruits. They were: Kd =17.5, 50. 0, 6.3, 13.3 nmol/L: Bmax=98.6, 523.0, 41.6, 85. 4 pmol/g protein respectively for the fruit developmental phase , , veraison and phase . The Scatchard plots showed a rectilinear function for all of the developmental phases including veraison, which suggests in the fruit microsomes at the same developmental phase, the existence of either one kind of the same or several different kinds of ABA-binding sites of identical or similar kinetic characteristics and of high affinity. In different developmental stages, however, changes of the protein at the ABA-binding sites might occur. The binding affinity of ABA-binding protein (s) for ABA was showed to be higher at veraison stage than in other developmental phases and this binding affinity increased nearly by 10 times from the phase to veraison, whereas the concentration (Bmax) of the ABA-binding protein (s) decreased to the minimum at veraison. The reason why such low concentration of ABA at veraison is capable to trigger the onset of fruit ripening might be due to the increase of the affinity of ABA-binding protein (s) for ABA at this time. The possible functions of the ABA-binding protein (s) for fruit development during the different developmental stages were discussed, and it is suggested that the protein (s) detected could be the putative receptor (s) or carrier (s) for the action of this plant hormone in grapevine.
Abstract (Browse 1865)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Localization of Acid Phosphatase Activity in Soybean Cotyledon Cells
Author: Zheng Yi-zhi, Li Jing, Gao Yang and Tong De-juan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(12)
      
    In the cotyledon cells of the developing seeds (3550 d after flowering) and the early germinating seeds (4 8 d after sowing) of soybean (Glycine max L. ), acid phosphatase (APase) activity was mainly deposited in the protein bodies (PB) and in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In addition, in the early developing cotylendon cells, the prominent reaction product of APase activity was seen along the plasma membrane, in the cell wall and within the vesicles in the cytoplasm adjancent to the plasma membrane. And some of the vesicles seemed to be fused with the plasma membrane.
Abstract (Browse 1696)  |  Full Text PDF       
Embryological Observation on the Apomictic Rice-Ap (Shuang 13)
Author: Mu Xi-jin, Shi Guang-chun, Zhu Zhi-qing, Cai Xue and Ni Pi-chong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(12)
      
    Since 1988s, the phenomenon of multiple seedlings and multiple embryoes of apomictic rice, Ap (Shuang 13) has been interestingly concerned. Embryological investigation of Ap has been carried out with the whole dissection and conventional sectioning technique. The main conclusions are as follows: 1.8. 9 % of 5000 matured caryopsises, contained one embryo in a caryopsis, from which single seedling arose, while 8.9 % twin embryoes and 1.2 % triplet embryoes of which developed two seedlings and triple seedlings respectively; 2. In over 700 young caryopsises, 90.0%95.0% contained only one embryo, 5.0%7.0% twin embryoes, except a few of the ovules with absorptive embryo sac or embryo and endosperm. Triplet embryoes caryopsis could not be traced further due to their low frequency; 3. Authors' materials showed that all the single, twin and triplet embryoes were situated at the micropylar end in one embryo sac of young ovule and no adventitious embryo was seen outside the embryo sac of ovules. From the aforementioned results, it can be infered that albeit single embryo is derived from the egg cell yet it could be possible twin or triplet embryocs may be developed from the egg cell and one or two of the synergids either or not through fertilization.
Abstract (Browse 1736)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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