October 1996, Volume 38 Issue 10


          Research Articles
Studies on Selection of Valuable Somaclonal Mutants in Silage Maize
Author: Liu Ji-hua and Shi Jie-cun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(10)
    The calli were induced from young embryo, shoot apex, young leaf, young infiorescences, and hypocotyl of silage maize (Zea mays). The inducing freguency of young embryo was higher than the hypocotyL but the latter was not affected by season changes. The induction of calli were different in response to different kinds and concentration of hormones. Plantlet were regenerated from repetitive subcultured calli, among which three plant lines with characteristics of more tillers and early maturity were selected. Two of the plant lines with characteristics of more tillers and early maturity were selected. Two of the plant lines have become new inbred lines: 8501 and 8502. Through several generations of experimental hybrid combination "Baidan~ 8502" characterized by high silage yield, disease resistant, prolong green period and abundant tillers, has been obtained. The silage yield was 75000¡«105000 kg/hm2 which accounted for 40% more than the CK variety and commercial varieties.
Abstract (Browse 1743)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Triterpenoids of Astragalus floridus
Author: Pan Fei, Yang Jun-shan and Feng Yu-xiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(10)
    Five compounds were isolated from the root of Astragalus floridus Benth collected from Qinghai province, they were identified with spectral analysis and chemical methods as astrasiversianin ¢õ (1), astragaloside ¢ô (2), astragaloside ¢ò (3), astrasiversianin VI (4), astramembrannin ¢ò (5), Pharmacological test showed that astragaloside ¢ô cound improve heart failure significantly.
Abstract (Browse 1901)  |  Full Text PDF       
Clonal Growth in Plants in Relation to Resource Heterogeneity:ªªForaging Behavior
Author: Dong Ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(10)
    In nature, essential resources for organisms, such as food for animals and light, water and nutrients for plants, are usually heterogeneously distributed, even at very small scale. As a result, all organisms, particularly plants mostly sessile, have a difficulty in acquiring essential resources from their environments. Animals express various types of foraging behavior to capture heterogeneously distributed essential foods. Clonal growth ( a vegetative reproductive process where by more than one individual of identical genetic composition is formed ) provides clonal plant not only with many "mouths" at different spatial positions, but also with a large spacial movability. As a clonal plant grows in environments characterized by a small-scale resource heterogeneity, its inter ramet connection permits a resource-sharing among the connected tamers. In addition, it may also allow certain ramets to respond locally and non-locally to resousce heterogeneity. This may lead to a division of labor among the connected ramets and a selective placement of ramets in favorable micro-habitats. Together these may enhance exploitation of resource heterogeneity by clonal plants, and in turn greatly contribute to maintenance or improvement of fitness. Such a behavior of clonal plants, expressed in heterogeneous environments, is to a large extent comparable to that of animals. Therefore, it has been considered as foraging behavior in clonal plants. More recently, it has been observed that phenotypic plasticity of clonal plants, which is relevant to foraging behavior, varies among species, types of genet architecture as well as among types of plants habitats. Foraging in clonal plants and its diversity have been receiving increasingly intensive investigations.
Abstract (Browse 1999)  |  Full Text PDF       
Vitamin Contents in the Hips of 38 Species of Rosa and Their Relation to Division of Sections
Author: Cao Ya-ling, He Yong-hua and Li Chao-luan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(10)
    Vitamin C, E. carotenes and major economic characters in hips of 38 species of Rosa from China were studied. There were considerable variations in vitamin C contents in the genus. The maximum amount was found in the hips of R. tsinglingensis (2576 mg/100 g), and the minimum in these of R. deqenensis (49 mg/100 g). Carotene contents varied from 0.06 to 19.24 mg/100 g. being lowest in R. xanthina, and highest in R. henryi. Difference was slight in vitamin E contents ranged from 1.34 mg/100 g (R. xanthina) to 3.86 mg/100 g (R. bracteata). Statistical analysis of 54 species of subgenus Rosa from wild populations in China has evidenced a close relationship between the division of sections and the vitamin C contents in mature hips, such as that vitamin C contents in species of Sect. Cinnamoneae and Microphylla were quite high with an average of more than 1800 mg/100 g.
Abstract (Browse 1930)  |  Full Text PDF       
Sporo-Pollen Dissemination and Quantitative Character of Surface Sample of Manzhouli-Dayangshu Region
Author: Tong Guo-bang, Yang Xiang-dong, Wang Su-min and Xia Liang-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(10)
    According to the profile of modern vegetation and pollen analysis of surface samples, the character of sporo-pollen assemblages from the steppe of Huluengbar to forest of Daxinganling mountain being investigated, indicated that, there existed a sylvosteppe zone in between the steppe and forest zones, in which the percentage of A. P. is a little more than that of N. A. P. (about 30%¡«70%). At the same time a nonlinear correlation was found between the percentage of pollen and the abundance of maternal plant. There were three states in the of plant/pollen system: (1)inferior position with abundance of pollen or the maternal plant both less than 30% or 20% .(2) dominant position with both over 70% and (3) mixed pisition with both between 30%¡«70%. In the first state, there existed a value of Po (pollen from another place) or Vo (short of pollen, or if none at all) in the second state, the linear correlation of pollen and plant became nonlinear and only in the third state, did the correction factor (value of R) approach constant.
Abstract (Browse 1845)  |  Full Text PDF       
Spores and Pollen from Crude Oil of Kashi Depression, Xinjiang
Author: Jiang De-xin and Yang Hui-qiu ª¤
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(10)
    Forty-six species of fossil spores and pollen referred to 30 genera extracted from the crude oil samples collected from the Kashi Depression of the Tarim Basin in Xinjiang were recorded . Based on the investigations of the palynomorphs in crude oil. the petroleum source of the petroliferous region was traced and the petroleum migration mechanism is discussed. The fossil spores and pollen found from crude oil of the Neogene reservoir of the Kelatuo Oilfield of the Kashi Depression comprised mainly Deltoidospora lineata, Cyathidites australis, C. minor, Gleicheniidites rousei, Dictyophyllidites harrisii, Cibothtmspora paradoxa, Todisporites major, Granulatisporites minor, Leptolepidites major, Klukisporites variegatus, Murospora jurassica, M. minor, Paleoconiferus asaccatus, Vi!reisporites jurassicus, V. shouldicei, V. jansonii, Alisporites thomasii, A. lowoodensis, Podocarpidites florinii, P. langii, P. multicinus, P. multesimus. Quadraeculina limbata, Protopinus scanicus. Protopicea exiliolides, Piceites expositus. P. latens, Pinuspollenites labdacus. Piceaepollenites alatus, Cedripites minor, Chasmatosporites major, C. elegans, C. canadensis, Cycadopites nitidus, C. typicus, Ephedripites tertiarius, CerebropoUenites carlylensis, Classopollis classoides, C. annulatus, Caryapollenites simplex, Chenopodipollis multiplex, Artemisiaepollenes sellularis, etc. According to the characteristics of the petroleum sporo-pollen assemblage, the Lower Jurassic Kangsu Formation and the Middle Jurassic Yangye and Taerga Formations should be the petroleum source rock series of the Kashi Depression. Judging from the palynomorphs of the source rocks found in crude oil. It might be concluded that the fossil spores and pollen together with oil beads must have been expelled from the source rocks along microfissure avenuses during the primary migration along fissures, joints faults, and unconformity planes during the secondary migration.
Abstract (Browse 1831)  |  Full Text PDF       
Influence of Different Concentrations of NO-3 and NH+4 on the Activity of Glutamine Synthetase and Other Relevant Enzymes of Nitrogen Metabolism in Wheat Roots
Author: Chai Xiao-qing, Yin Li-ping, Liu Xiang-lin, Yu Bao-xia, Han Qiu-e, Hong Jian-ming and Qiu Ze-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(10)
    Influence of different concentrations of NO3 and NH+ on the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS), asparagine synthetase (AS), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), nitrate reductase (NR) and the changes of GS-mRNA in wheat roots have been studied with enzymes activity assay and Northern blot. The results showed that the higher GS activity was found in roots of wheat when NH+4-N was the sole nitrogen source than when NO3-N was the sole nitrogen source. GS-mRNA of Northern blot was simillar to GS activity. 3 mmol/L NO3- promoted the activity of AS. The change of AS was independent of the change of GS. GDH activity was not been detected, and change in regulation of NR activity was not found.
Abstract (Browse 1811)  |  Full Text PDF       
Involvement of Singlet Oxygen in the Breakdown of Photosynthetic Pigments in the Leaves of Rice Seedling Exposed to Osmotic Stress and Light
Author: Jiang Ming-yi and Guo Shao-chuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(10)
    The combined effects of osmotic stress and light on the generation of singlet oxygen (102) and its relation to the breakdown of photosynthetic pigments in leaves of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L. subsp, indica cv. Shanyou 63) seedlings were studied under the condition of incubating the leaves with ¨C0.8 MPa polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution. Under osmotic stress and increasing light intensity, the production of ¹O2 monitored as p-nitrosodimethylaniline (NDA) bleaching were increased in chloroplasts, degradation of chloro- phyll (Chl) and carotenoid (Car) were accelerated and Car loss preceded Chl causing a significant increase of Chl/Car ratio. A close correlation was observed between ¹O2 production and the contents of Chl, Car and malondialdehyde (MDA). Pretreatment with scavengers for ¹O2. such as ¦Â-carotene (¦Â-Car) and histidine (His) reduced MDA content and retarded the degradation of photosynthetic pigments in rice leaves exposed to osmotic stress of -0.8 MPa and light intensity of 250 ¦Ìmol ¡¤ m- 2 ¡¤ s-1, in contrast to that with photosensitizer riboflavin (RF). These results indicate that ¹O2 which generated in chloroplast from photosensitized reactions involving triplet Chl may play a significant role in the breakdown of photo- synthetic pigments and the preferential destruction of Car in the leaves under combined osmotic stress with light.
Abstract (Browse 1791)  |  Full Text PDF       
Construction of Rice cDNA Library and Partial Sequence Analysis of 100 Randomly Selected cDNA
Author: Cao Kai-ming, Zhan Shu-xuan, Huang Wei-da, Jiang Ying, Xin Hua and Sun Chong-rong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(10)
    A cDNA library of rice (Oryza sativa ssp. indica cv. "Guangluai 4") etiolated shoot was constructed using Lambda ZAP ¢ò vector. After analysing the partial sequences of 100 randomly selected clones and database comparison to rice and other plants, 13 % cDNA clones could be identified and 12 % cDNAs had high degree of sequence similarity to partial sequence from rice or other species, whose function is still unknown. The remaining 75% cDNAs showed little or no similarity to genes in the database and might represent novel genes. It demonstrates the suitability of this library for large-scale sequencing from which more information of functional genes will result.
Abstract (Browse 1838)  |  Full Text PDF       
ITS1 Sequences of Nuclear Ribosomal DNA in Wild Rices and Cultivated Rices of China and Their Phylogenetic Implications
Author: Zhou Yi, Zou Yu-ping, Hong De-yuan, Zhou Jun-ma and Chen Shou-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(10)
    he first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) of nuclear ribosomal DNA of three wild rice species and two subspecies of cultivated rice, which are distributed in China, was amplified using PCR technique and sequenced with automated fluorescent sequencing. The sequences of ITS1 ranged from 193 bp to 218 bp in size and G/C content varied from 69.3%to 72.7%. In pairwise comparison among the five taxa, sequence site divergence ranged from 1.5 % to 10.6%. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS1 sequences using Wagner parsimony generated a single well-resolved tree, which revealed that Oryza rufipogon was much more closely related to cultivated rice species than to the other two wild species. Oryza granulata was less closely related to either cultivated rice species or the other two wild species, and might be a unique and isolated taxon in the genus Oryza. The phylogenetic relationships of the three wild rice species and two cultivated rice subspecies inferred from ITS1 sequences is highly concordant with those based on the molecular evidence from isozyme, chloroplast DNA (cpDNA), mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA) of the genus Oryza.
Abstract (Browse 1763)  |  Full Text PDF       
Molecular Cloning and Sequence of Potato Granule-Bound Starch Synthase Gene
Author: Dai Wei-lie, Deng Wei, Cui Wei-ying, Zhao Shou-yuan and Wang Xun-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(10)
    It is known that tuber-specific expressions of many genes exist in the process of tuber development from stolon in potato (Solanum tuberosum). Study on the regulation of those gene expression will share light on the mechanism of organ-specific gene expression. Potato GBSS (granule-bound starch synthase) gene, which is solely responsive for the pres- ence of amylose in potato tuber, expression is tuber-specific. The paper describes the construction of a genomic library of a Chinese potato cultivar "Dongnong 303" in which 20 clones were isolated using partial GBSS gene sequence ampified by PCR. 5428 bp DNA sequence of one clone (GBSS17-1) was determined, including 1823 bp 5' flanking region. 2964 bp structure gene, and 641 bp 3' flanking region. It is highly homologious with reported GBSS gene sequence. In addition, the 730 bp most upstream sequence of 5' flanking region which was not reported previously contained stem and loop structures. The present result may provide some important information for further study in the molecular mechanism of organ specific gene expression.
Abstract (Browse 1785)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes of Microtubular Skeleton in the Generative Cell in Pollen Tube During Mitosis of Lilium davidii
Author: Cai Xue and Hu Shi-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(10)
    Previous observations indicated that division of the generative cell (GC) in some plant genura such as Lilium and Tradescantia is characterized by several unusual features, including persistence of surrounding microtubule (MT) bundles during mitosis, lacking a matephase plate, the cytokinesis is completed with furrow. The authors have further studied the changes of MT organizations and the chromosome (CHs) behavior in the GC during mitosis using electron microscopy and method of tubulin localizations. No MTs in the GC before GC division and during prophase was seen under electron microscopy. However, there was tubulin in the GC with antitubulin staining. During promatephase to matephase, the CHs appeared and arranged in a complexed tangled pattern lengthwise along the cell. Correspond- ingly, transverse pairs of kinetochores were located along the length and depth of the cell. They stacked successively like the rungs of a ladder. In this phase, a large mount of MTs appeared in the GC, which distributed in the cortex of the cell and among the CHs and along the whole length of the CHs. In the beginning, one or two kinetochore pairs changed from transversely to longitudinally situated in each cell. MTs ended on the kinetochore to form kinetochore MTs (KMTs). With the electron microscopy, authors did not find the image of lateral connection between the MTs and the kinetochores as previous reported with immunofluorescent method. As karyokinesis proceeded, more transverse kinetochore pairs gradually became longitudinal, and KMTs gradually increased in number. However, a distinct spindle was not evidenced. During anaphase, CHs seperation started at various positions along the length of the cell. The distribution of MTs in the GC was similar to that of promatephase to matephase. In late anaphase, the CHs segregated as two groups. Most MTs disappeared but only some remained in the polar regions and the interzone. Authors also measured and compared the lengths of the CHs and indirectly identified the existing anaphase B. During late tolephase, the MTs increased in number gradually in the region between the two newly formed sperm nuclei. The region might be the MT interdigitating zone visualized with antitubulin localization. The MTs disappeared after the cell plate (CP) appeared.
Abstract (Browse 1816)  |  Full Text PDF       
Analysis on Amino-Terminal Sequence and Purification of a 61 kD Protein from Photoperiod-Sensitive Genic Male-Sterile Rice
Author: Wang Tai, Tong Zhe, Kuang Ting-yun and Tang Pei-song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(10)
    The specific protein P2£¬one of the three specific proteins(P1£¬P2 and P3)in chloroplasts from photoperiod-sensitive genlc malesterile rice previously reported was purlfied through preparative two dimensional gel electrophoresis and preparatwe isoelectric 10-CUSlng(1EF) and from which an uniform P2£¬checked with SDS-PAGE and IEF£¬was obtained£®The molecular weight and isoelectric point was 61 kD and 5£¬8£¬respectively£®Therefore P2 was referred as P61£®A search in databases revealed that the aminoterminal sequence Of P61 was identical to that of perb unit of chloroplast ATP ase from barley and rice
Abstract (Browse 1831)  |  Full Text PDF       
Formation and Development of Different Types of Embryo Sacs in Polyembryonic Rice Strain AP¢ô
Author: Liu Xiang-dong, Lu Yong-gen, Xu Xue-bin and Xu Shi-xiong (S. Y. Zee)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(10)
    The process of different types of embryo sac formation was studied in AP IV by using the technic of seni-thin sectioning. Different types of embryo sacs were formed by different ways of development. The embryo sac of 5-2-1 type, 6-2-0 type, and 5-3-0 type were formed through three respectively new Polygonum-variant ways of development. The factors causing the three different ways of development were positional change of functional megaspore nucleus, change of orientation of the dividing-spindle of the embryo sac nucleus, nonsynchronous division of embryo sac nucleus and orientation of nucleus after division. Double set of embryo sac resulted possibly from mutual change in position of the primordial low polar nucleus and the primordial egg cell, i. e. the polar nucleus did not move toward the center of the embryo sac, but remained in the micropyle part, whereas the egg cell moved to the center and replaced the low polar nucleus.
Abstract (Browse 3688)  |  Full Text PDF       
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