November 1996, Volume 38 Issue 11

 

          Research Articles
Preliminary Study on Transformation of Wheat Apical Point
Author: Du Li qun, Li Yin-xin, Ma Mi, Zhang Zhi-hong, Zhu Zhi-qing and Gong Zhen-zhen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(11)
      
    Apical points of young seedlings of wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivar "Jing 411 and somatic calli of cultivar "FK8 were transformed with plasmids pBI121 and (or) pBIAH-A+ by using microprojectile bombardment. Histochemical assay of GUS activity showed positive reaction on some of the transformation processed apical points and calli. This demonstrated that foreign genes were introduced into the apical meristematic cells as well as the callus cells. The plantlets of cv. "Jing 411 survived after apical point transformation with pBIAH-A+ were transplanted into the field and the progenies were screened with kanamycin. 4 % of the screened seeds germinated into green seedlings with kanamycin resistance. Dot hybridization of total DNA from kanamycin resistant plants showed the existence of foreign DNA in some of the detected plants.
Abstract (Browse 1731)  |  Full Text PDF       
An Apomictic Autotriploid Line TAR Identified in Oryza sativa
Author: Liu Yong-sheng, Sun Jing-san and Francis Hsu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(11)
      
    Since apomixis has a close correlation with polyploidy and sterility, a number of autotriploids with no sexual reproductivity were induced and apomictic germplasm were screened in Oryza sativa L. As a result, an autotriploid line, named TAR, was cytoembryologically identified which possessed apomictic property, with an average seed-set rate of 10% per panicle. Karyotype analysis proved that all the progeny seeds of TAR carried 36 chromosomes in the generations tested. Priliminary cytological observations revealed that all the ovaries of TAR had embryo sac differentiation, 33% of which developed into normal megagametophyte, 9% with previous embryogenesis prior to anthesis, and about 58% differentiated abnormally, i.e. disordered polarization, absent female generative unit and more than 2 polar nuclei. In TAR, the frequencies of chromosome configuration of 12 , 11 + 1 +1 . L0 +2 +2 , 9+3 +3 , 8+4 +4 and 7+5 +5 were ll%, 17%, 15%, 26%, 20% and 11% respectively at metaphase . While in the check line T-15 of autotriploid only 7 % of the ovaries observed had embryo sac development, and the progenies of this triploid line were aneuploids with chromosome number of 2527. In T-15, the frequencies of chromosome configuration of 12 , 11 +1 +1 , 10 +2 +2 , 9+3 +3 and 8 +4 +4 were 24%, 16%, 36%, 17% and 7% respectively at metaphse . The above observations indicated that some megaspore mother cell in TAR might undergo apomeiosis and where it gave rise to unreduced embryo sac, the unreduced eggs or synergids developed into embryos without fertilization and polar nuclei produced endosperm by pseudogamy.
Abstract (Browse 1843)  |  Full Text PDF       
Identification Mutants of Plant Pigment with Spectral Technology
Author: Li Tong-zhu and Lin Shi-qing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(11)
      
    Differences in the pigment and thylakoid membranes levels among the mutant barley 1832C, Chlorina-f2 was compared with a normal one by means of their absorption spectra and the 4th derivative spectra. Results showed that there was no absorption peaks for Chl b at 651 nm in red and 470 nm in blue regions in the absorption and the 4th derivative spectra in the mutant thylakoid membranes. At the same time there was no absorption peaks of Chl b at 645 nm and 455 nm in the absorption and the 4th derivative spectra in its acetone (80%) extract. Therefore, mutant barley 1832C was proved to be a new type of chlorophyll b-less mutant that could survive independently in nature.
Abstract (Browse 1663)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structure Identification of Saikosaponin p
Author: Luo He-sheng, Zhao Yu-ying, Qiao Liang, Ma Li-bin and Zhang Ru-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(11)
      
    Five triterpenoid compounds (񡫢): saikogenin D, saikosaponin g, prosaikogenin H, saikosaponin b2 and saikosaponin p were separated from Bupleurum smithii Wolff var. parvifolium for the first time, the last one being a new saponin. On the basis of the physical, chemical properties and spectral analysis, its structure was identified as 3, 16, 23, 28-tetrahydroxyoleana-ll, 13 (18)-diene-3-O--D-glucopyranosyl (16)-[-D-glucopy-ranosyl- (12) ]--D-glucopyranoside.
Abstract (Browse 1859)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on Surface Pollen in Middle Inner Mongolia, China
Author: Wang Feng-yu, Song Chang-qing and Sun Xiang-jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(11)
      
    The paper deals with features of pollen assemblages and their relationship to vegetation by comparing the results from surface pollen analysis with that from sample determination. It showed that Chenopodiaceae dominate with some Artemisia and a few Ephedra in steppe area. Although A/C (Artemisia/Chenopodiaceae) value was lower and more complicated than arid steppe area, it could reflect the humidity and the level of grass degeneration. The much more Pinus and Betula pollen percentage might be the main environmental noise source produced as statistical error. There were no obvious difference on pollen assemblage among the steppe types as Stipa gobica, S. krylovii, Peganum-Achnatherum except Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae pollen. However, there were some difference among meadow steppe, viz. sparse Ulmus pumila and Salisc tree, Aneurolepidium chinense and also the types like Salisc flavida, Stipa gobica, S. krylovii, Peganum-Achnatherum. Features of pollen assemblage in steppe degeneration and applications of PCA (principal component analysis) and method on surface pollen analysis were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1813)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes of Total Nonstructural Carbohydrates of Kobresia humilis in Alpine Meadow
Author: Zhu Zhi-hong and Sun Shang-qi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(11)
      
    The seasonal variation of total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC) concentration in crowns and roots of Kobresia humilis were determined during 1993 1994. The effects of defoliation on TNC concentration and the relationship between the aboveground growth and TNC concentration in crown were analysed. TNC were mostly stored in crowns exhibiting great seasonal fluctuations with narrow V-shaped cycle. TNC concentration of crown varied inversely with the net increased of leaf number in the entire growing season, but it dependedlargely on the dead to survival leaf ratio in the early growth season, with a constant of 20.59% at a ratio of 0.16, either decreased or increased when the ratio was greater or less than 0.16 respectively. In the later, there was a significant positive correlation between the TNC concentration of crowns and the cumulative leaves. However, in mid-season, no significant correlation was found between the aboveground growth and the TNC concentration of crowns. The reserve pools (concentration X crown biomass) had no significant differences among various grazing treatments. Intense clipping at two phenological stages caused reduction of reserves during regeneration, but at the end of the growth season, there was no significant difference between clipped and unclipped plants, as well as between clipping intensities.TNC concentration of crowns and roots significantly decreased following early heavy clipping, but it recovered rapidly in crowns. Clipping at mid-stage affected greatly on TNC con-centration of roots. Clipping influenced more on TNC concentration of roots but grazing had more influence on that of crowns.
Abstract (Browse 1695)  |  Full Text PDF       
Primary Study on Interrelation Between Plant Communities and Environmental Factors in the North Shore of Qinghai Lake
Author: Liu Qing and Zhou Li-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(11)
      
    Eighteen plant communities were surveyed by quaduats in the north shore of Qinghai Lake. The communities were analyzed using PCA (principal component analysis) ordination and regression procedure to determine the distribution patterns of the plant communities and relationship between the communities and environmental factors. The results showed that the distribution of the plant communities were closely related to the moisture and salt content of soil. The correlation between species diversity or ecological dominance of the communities and gradient of environmental factors was not significant, but the two indexes of community showed multivarient line relationship with the first principal component, or the gradient of soil water, and the regression model as below: Y =- 4.85 4C1.47X1 4- 10.71X2 (P<0. 01).
Abstract (Browse 1815)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genetic Mapping of Rice Using RFLP Markers and a Double Haploid Population of a Cross Between indica and japonica Varieties
Author: Li Ping, Zhu Li-huang, Zhou Kai-da, Chen Ying, Lu Chao-fu and He ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(11)
      
    A genetic linkage map of rice was constructed using a double haploid (DH) population from "Gui 630 (Oryza sativa subsp, indica)/"02428" (O. sativa subsp, japonica, wide compatibility variety) and RFLP markers. It consists of 233 loci and covers rice genomes about 2070 cM (centimorgan), and compares well with the other published rice maps. 25 RFLP markers, 2 telomeres and sh-2 (shattering ability) gene were first located on the molecular map of rice. RFLPs between "Gui 630' and "02428' mainly came from base substitution and a few DNA construction variance, not distributed evenly among chromosomes and on chromosome. This was probably resulted from the difference genetic stability among chromosomes and regions, in exchanging recombination ability in different segments of chromosome.
Abstract (Browse 1973)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effect of the mMT- Transgenic Tobacco on Cd2+ Tolerance and Its Cytological Study
Author: Mo Hua, Feng Ya-jun, Cui Ke-ming, Li Mao-xue, Xue Yu and Ru Bing-gen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(11)
      
    It has been reported that the Fl generation of tobaccos (Nicotiana tabacurn L. 90082) transformed with 35S mMT- 1: NOS chimaric gene was significantly different from the control plants with respect to Cd2 + intolerance. Growth of transgenic tobaccos was uneffected by Cd2+ even with concentration as high as 100 mol/L in the medium, whereas that of control plants was severely hampered in the medium containing only 20 mol/L Cd2+, indicating a stronger tolerance to Cd2+ in the transgenic tobaccos than the control plants. The total Cd2+, binding Cd2+, and free Cd2+ contents in the transgenic tobaccos were obviously more than those in the control plants, and the rate of root growth and index of mitosis were increased as well. In contrast, much less the frequency of chromosomal aberrations was found in the transgenic tobaccos. These suggested that MT as a membrane protein could function as a channel protein or an ion pump which direetively transport Cd2+ into a structure (e. g. vacuole), except MT formed binding Cd2+. The mMT expresion revealed from Southern blot, Western blot, and Cd2+/haemoglobin saturation analysis all indicated that the transformation was succeeded. The MT protein was found in roots and leaves of the transgenic plants grown in the medium containing 100 mol/L Cd2+, whereas it was not detected in control and transgenic plants grown in medium without Cd2+.
Abstract (Browse 1672)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Role of Cytokinin Biosynthetic Gene in Regulating the Expression of a Class of Pathogenesis-Related Protein Genes in Tobacco Plants
Author: Ma Qing-hu, Song Yan-ru and Sun Jing-san
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(11)
      
    The expression characteristics of a class of pathogenesis-related protein (PR) genes, namely basic chitinase, -1, 3-glucanase, osmotin and extensin, were studied in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Wisconsin 38) plants. RNA blot hybridization showed that these four genes were regulated in a developmental and organ-specific manner in tobacco. In the transgenic fascicular shoots which contained the active cytokinin biosynthetic gene (ipt gene) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the expressions of these four genes were co-regulated by overproduction of endogenous cytokinins and vector effect. Cytokinins reduced the expressions while vector effect induced the expressions of these four genes. Heat shock also de creased the steady-state levels of the four RNAs. These data suggest a complex regulation of PR genes.
Abstract (Browse 1752)  |  Full Text PDF       
Inhibition of Auxin Polar Transport Affecting the Model of Leaf Growth and Development
Author: Ni Di-an, Wang Ling-jian, Chen Yong-ning, Xu Zhi-hong and Xia Zhen-ao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(11)
      
    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Gexin No. 1) leaf slices were cultured in MS medium with different concentrations of auxin polar transport inhibitors (2, 3, 5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), trans-cinnamic acid (CA), and 9-hydooxyflurence-9-carboxylic acid (HFCA)) and their effects on bud formation were observed. Although the effective concentrations vary with different inhibitors, all of them induced the formation of trumpet-shaped leaves. The frequencies of trumpet-shaped leaves were increased with the concentrations of inhibitors in media, and it was up to 82.1% when cultured in the medium containing 7.5 mg/L TIBA. The trumpet-shaped leaves were formed in different sites of the adventitious buds. These results indicated that inhibition of auxin polar transport could affect the morphogenesis of leaves, so the polar transport of auxin is essential for the bilateral symmetry of leaf growth.
Abstract (Browse 1903)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Photosynthesis of Spheroplasts in Spirulina platensis
Author: Peng Guo-hong, Shi Ding-ji, Fei Xiu-geng and Zeng Cheng-kui (Tseng Cheng-kui)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(11)
      
    Spirulina platensis is a nonheterocystic filamentous blue-green alga (cyanobacterium). Large quantity of highly qualified spheroplasts were obtained by improved isolation method. The spheroplast has a wrinkled and porous surface. Their diameter ranged from 3.8 btm to 4. 6 m. The activity of photosynthetic oxygen evolution in the spheroplasts was about 40 % of the intact cell. The absorption spectra of the filaments and spheroplasts at room temperature revealed that they had the same pigments, Chla, PC, PEC and carotenoid. In spheroplasts the relative content of PC and carotenoid decreased, and that of PEC increased. It implicated that the light absorption of Spirulina platensis could be influenced by the cell wall. Some differences existed between the original cells and spheroplasts in the low temperature fluorescence emission spectra. F757 of spheroplasts excited by 436 nm was reduced obviously and that excited by 580 nm was disapeared. F728/F685 and F640/F685 enhanced, and F693/F685 was reduced. F728/F640 was lower than that of the original cells. These results indicated that removing the cell wall may inhibit the PS activity and influence the F695 from core antenna pigment system.
Abstract (Browse 1728)  |  Full Text PDF       
An Immunogold Microscopic Study on the Effects of Water Stress on ABA Localization and Contents in Roots of Vicia faba
Author: Zhang Shu-qiu, Jia Wen-suo, Wang Xue-chen and Lou Cheng-hou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(11)
      
    ABA localization in roots of Vicia faba L. was studied using immunogold microscopy. In cells of promeristem gold particles were mainly localized in the nuclei. In cells of ground meristem and cortex of the front part of elongation zone, some gold particles were found in cytoplasm near. the plasmalemma. Substantial amounts of gold particles were observed in cells of vascular cylinder especially in apoplast of vascular tissue. Cells of middle elongation zone and root hair zone were also labelled by many gold particles. In cells of the primary meristem and the front part of elongation zone, water stress could lead to acute increase of the gold particle density, and also in the cells of the elongation and root hair zone. The distribution of ABA in subcellular level and its relationship with transportation were discussed in the text. and the results provided evidence for ABA as a root-to-shoot transporting stress signal.
Abstract (Browse 1770)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytological and Cytochemical Studies of Temperature Induced Male Sterility in Taihangia rupestris
Author: Lu Wen-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(11)
      
    Using in vitro-flower experimental system of Taihangia rupestris Y et Li in which development or abortion of stamens could be controlled by temperature, the cytological and cytochemical changes in both development and abortion processes of the stamens were comparatively studied. Cytological changes of the stamen abortion initiated at the microsporocyte stage before which normal cytological process were seen from stamen primordium to primary microsporocyte stage. However, despite of the normal cytological process, polysaccharide accumulation was never observed in the cells of anther and filament where as in the normally developing stamens polysaccharide accumulation must largely occurred in those cells mentioned above. The author considered that such cytochemical changes prior to the morphological deviances might be of great significance to approach the cause of tempera-ture-induced male sterility.
Abstract (Browse 1720)  |  Full Text PDF       
Development of Abnormal Plantlets and Their Normalization During Cotton Tissue Culture
Author: Zhang Bao-hong, Li Xiu-lan, Li Feng-lian and Li Fu-guang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(11)
      
    There was a high frequency in the occurrence of abnormal plantlets during cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. ) tissue culture. Their patterns, ways of development and effected factors, and the technique of their normalization were studied. Based on their morphologic characters, they could be classified into ten kinds, viz. growing point-abnormal plantlets, cotyledon-, hypocotyl-, united-, fasciculated-, single-leaf-, albino-, vitreous-, browning-, and callus forming plantlets. The growing point- and the cotyledon-abnormal plantlets, which were more commonly seen and were affected by multiple factors, are mainly influenced by the kind of explants, the medium composition, the method and time of culture. The abnormal plantlets could either developed from abnormal embryos or transformed from normal plantlets. Under suitable culture condition reversion of abnormality to normal was possible, however such normalization varied with different genotypes and media. The authors point out the interaction of external regulation and intrinsic developmental mechanism as the main factor causing the accurrence of abnormal plantlet and also discuss the technical procedures of reducing the occurrence frequency of such abnormal plantlets which greatly impact cotton tissue culture.
Abstract (Browse 4802)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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