April 1957, Volume 6 Issue 4

 

          Research Articles
妞我戒批快扶我攻 抗抉把扶快志抑抒 扼我扼找快技 抗抉志抑抖抆扶抑抒 扼找快扭快抄 技快找抉忱技 抗抉抖我折快扼找志快扶扶抉忍抉 批折快找忘
Author: 完忪批 妥扯扶 -折改扶 我完忪忘扶 宋改扶抆
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1957 6(4)
Abstract (Browse 1937)  |  Full Text PDF       
Observations on the Morphology and Anatomy in the Rhizome of Hop (Humulus lupulus L.)
Author: Fang Tung-kwang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1957 6(4)
      
    Observations on the morphology and anatomy in the rhizome of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) were made and the constituents of the secretion in the secretory cell analyzed by microchemical methods. The results are summarized as follow: 1. The primary structure of hop rhizome is found to be similar to that of the stem of plants belonging to the genera Canabis and Humulus. 2. The quantity of libriform wood fibers in the xylem of the rhizome is very large. The cell wall of these fibers is found to consist of cellulose with lignification only in the middle lamella. The color reaction of the lignified vessel elements to the Maule test is brownish black, while the normal color reaction in dicotyledon xylem should be red. 3. In 1每4 years old rhizome, the secondary phloem appears to increase in thickness continuously under favourable soil conditions. Generally the amount of secondary xylem is less than that of secondary phloem both in space occupied and in number of cells formed. In plants more than 4每5 years old, or grown under unfavourable soil conditions, the secondary phloem ceases to thicken. Two types of lacunae are found in the secondary phloem, one radial, and the other tangential. The radial lacunae are large, conspicuous and parallel to phloem rays. The formation of radial lacunae seemed to be due to either the partial rupture and disintegration of the ray cells or the stretching and tearing of ray cells which took place because of these ray cells differing from other phloem elements on the growth rate and the direction of cell elongation. The tangential lacunae are minute, occuring only at the outer part of secondary phloem. The parenchymatous cells in outer part of secondary phloem are situated perpendicularly in close connection with the ray cells. The elongation of the ray cells seemed to make the parenchymatous cells apart from each other and causes the continuous enlargement of intercellular space, and is thus considered the cause of the formation of the tangential lacunae. It is evident that the cause of the two types of lacunae were not the same. 4. Generally, the initial periderm of the rhizome is formed first in the outer cells of cortex, then in pericycle, and lastly in secondary phloem tissue. In the healing of wounded rhizome, the wound cork is observed to arise in any portion of primary structure, secondary structure, or even in the pith. For example, when secondary xylem was wounded, the wood parenchymatous cells and ray cells beneath the injured surface returned to a more or less undifferentiated, meristematic condition accompanied by cell division and formed the phellogen. The rhytidome which arises in secondary phloem is parallel to the outer surface of rhizome, leaving a smooth surface on the rhizome after dropping out. Frequently, there is a cork ring appearing in secondary phloem. The parenchyma cells which encircle the wound or phloem fibers are differentiated to a closed and small circular phellogen. Toward the center of cork ring this layer of phellogen produces cork cells which either seal the wound or envelope the phloem fibers. In transverse section, the cork ring appears circular, reniform, elliptical, or in some other shapes, the radial diameter of which being 80每240 米. Occasionally, when the cork rings arise in close proximity, the phellogens of different cork rings are connected with each other. The outer phloem tissues soon die, become ruptured and slough off to give an unsmooth rhizome surface. 5. The secretory tissue is found to consist of secretory cells and secretory canals. The secretory canals which arise from the procambial strand are lysigenous, unbranched, and occur only at the pericycle and the primary phloem. Secretory cells are distributed widely in the cortex, the pith, and in all secondary structures. Secretory cells appear also in the tylose of vessels. The secretory canals and secretory cells contain secretion of similar nature. There is no conspicuous morphological difference between the living secretory cell and other living parenchymatous cells. However, after fixation, the secreted substance appears and a yellowish or brownish mass containing many minute black particles becomes visible in the secretory cell. The microchemical analyses of secretory cells give positive results to ferric chloride test, ferrous chloride test, dichromate test and Gardiner's (坐忘把忱我扶快把) test for tannin; positive results to corallin-soda test, copper sulphate and potassium hydroxide test for mucilage; positive results to cupric acetate test for resin; positive results to Millon's test, xanthoproteic test and biuret test for protein; inconspicuous positive results to chloric acid vapour test for essential oils; and inconspicuous positive results to Raspail's test for latex. The results of analyses show that secretory cells contain tannin, resin, mucilage and protein. Tannin is found to be more aboundant than other substances, such as resin and mucilage, in old mature secretory cell, and vice versa in young secretory cell, Possibly the essential oil may be present also.
Abstract (Browse 3511)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effect of Micro-elements on the Vernalization of Wheat
Author: Tsui Cheng and Wang Pao-kuei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1957 6(4)
      
    Three varieties of winter wheat每※Sui-yuan§, ※Sino-soviet 68§, and ※Kingling Univ. 2905§ 每 were used as the experimental materials. Seeds were soaked in various micro-element solutions for 14 hours in the following concentrations: CuSO4﹞5H2O 0.05 gm/l, MnSO4﹞nH2O 0.15 gm/l, ZnSO4﹞7H2O 0.25 gm/l, FeSO4﹞7H2O 0.25 gm/l, H3BO3 0.25 gm/l, and MoO3﹞H2O 0.05 gm/1. Distilled water was used as control. Then put the seeds in a refrigerator at 0每3⊥ for vernalization, the first two varieties were vernalized for 35, 40, 45, and 50 days and the last one was vernalized for 15, 20, 25 and 30 days respectively. After vernalization the seeds were sown in the field or pot. The growth and development were observed in different growth period. The results showed that copper, zinc, molybdenum and boron stimulated not only the early growth but also accelerated the development of wheat. For example the experiment in 1956, ※Sui-yuan§ variety after 45 days vernalization, the date of heading was 9 days early by the treatment of zinc, 7 days early by the treatments of molybdenum and boron, 2 days early by the treatment of copper. However, manganese and iron stimulated only the early growth but on effect on the development. Same results were obtained in the experiments of 1947, it showed that ※Sui-yuan§ variety vernalized for 40 days produced heads on July I to 4 by the treatments of copper, boron, zinc and molybdenum, but no head was observed in the plants which the seeds were previously treated with manganese and iron.
Abstract (Browse 2146)  |  Full Text PDF       
On the Problem of. Transport of Organic Material in Vascular Tissue
Author: Tsao Tsung-hsun and Liu Chih-y邦
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1957 6(4)
      
    More recently Kursanov has developed a new method to study the transport of organic material in plant tissues. The present paper intends to examine the limits to which Kursanov*s method can be applied to various plant materials and, by using this method, to elucidate in greater detail the mechanism of the transport of organic matter in vascular tissues. The transporting organ, e.g., petiole of sugar beet, or of cotton plant, etc., is dipped into a 0.5% glycine solution at one end, and the increase of nitrogen over control at the other end during the experimental period is taken as a measure of translocation. The experimental periods vary from 1 to 2 hours. Results show that in almost all plant materials tested, except the very tender hypocotyls of some plants, the transport of glycine exhibits strong polarity. This polarity changes with a change in physiological conditions of the tissues and it bears no relation to the morphological polarity of the tissue. The transport of glycine is very sensitive to temperature, with an optimum lying at 30 ⊥ or slightly higher. This temperature optimum agrees well with results obtained by other workers using other methods. This, together with other facts, proves that the method is adoptable for this purpose. Vascular bundles are characterized by a high rate of respiration. NaN3 induces an outflow of nitrogenous compounds from the petiole of Pelargonium, instead of an uptake and transport. Sodium malonate, when infiltrated into the plant tissue, causes the destruction of polarity of transport. Glycine, when added from the sidearm of the Warburg vessel, causes a 34% increase of respiration of isolatedvascul ar bundles of sugar beet, whereas sucrose only causes a 13% increase. The possible existence of an ※extra respiration§ comparable to Robertson's ※salt respiration§ is postulated. The concentration of glycine solution and its pH have had no significant effect on the quantity of glycine transported. To explain these rather unexpected results we suggest that the mechanism of transport of organic matter may be as follows: Organic materials are transported in ionic form. They form temporary molecular complex with some carriers of the protoplasm. The quantity of carriers available at a particular time is limited. When we use very young and fleshy tissues such as hypocotyls of buck-wheat, sunflower and pea, we have found that Kursanov's method is no longer applicable. Our explanation is that, in preparing the plant material for experiment, we have destroyed the very delicate phloem tissue, thus interrupting the vascular transport and leaving the non-vascular parenchymatous transport as the only means of transport. From these results we are inclined to believe that the mechanism governing vascular transport and that governing parenchymatous transport are not necessarily the same. Kursanov's method, as adopted in the present investigation, can be used to solve some problems, but it also has its limitations,.
Abstract (Browse 2029)  |  Full Text PDF       
Tyrosinase in Plant Tissue Cultures
Author: S.W. Loo and S. H. Lie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1957 6(4)
Abstract (Browse 1869)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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