February 1996, Volume 38 Issue 2

 

          Research Articles
Chemical Constituents from Roots of Jatropha curcas
Author: Kong Ling-yi, Min Zhi-da, Shi Jian-xia and Feng Rui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(2)
      
    Thirteen compounds were isolated from the roots of datropha curcas L. Combining the determination of physico-chemical constants and spectral analyses (IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, EIMS, FABMS), the structures of the compounds were identified as 5-stigmastane-3, 6-dione (1), nobiletin (2), -sitosterol (3), taraxerol (4), 2S-tetracosanoic acid glyceride-1(5),5-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxycoumarin (6), jatropholone A (7), jatropholone B (8), 6-methoxy-7-hydroxycoumarin (9), caniojane (10), 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (11), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (12) and daucosterol (13). Among them, compound 5 is a new compound which has never been reported in China and abroad, compound 1, 2, 9, 10, 11, 12 were first time isolated from the plant, 7 and 8 are a pair of stereoisomers which can be inverted in dilute basic solution. 10 is a diterpenoid containing peroxide bridge.
Abstract (Browse 3668)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chemical Constituents of Mosla chinensis Maxim.
Author: Zheng Shang-zhen, Sun Li-ping and Shen Xu-wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(2)
      
    Ten compounds were isolated from Mosla chinensis Maxim. Their structures were identified with spectral and chemical methods as follows: 6-methyl-tritriacontane (l), sitosterol (2), linolenic acid (3), 5-hydroxy-6, 7-dimethoxyflavone (4), 5-hydroxy-6- methyl-7-O--D-xylopyranosyl ( 3 1 ) --D-xylopyranoside ( 5 ), 5, 7-dihydroxy-4 -methoxyflavone (6), apingenin (7), kaernpferol-3-O--D-glucoside (8), morin-7-O--D-glucoside (9), rhamnocitrin-3-O--D-apiosyl (15)--D-apiosyl-4'-O--D-glucoside (l0).Among them, 5 and 10 are two new flavonoids.
Abstract (Browse 2111)  |  Full Text PDF       
Early Cretaceous Palynoflora from Anchow Basin, Korea
Author: Jiang De-xin and Yang Hui-qiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(2)
      
    Fifty-nine species of fossil spores and pollen referred to 34 genera found from the Lower Cretaceous Longpan Formation in Anehow Basin of North Korea have been studied. Two species were described as new. The palynoflora of the Longpan Formation was characterized by its predominance of gymnosperms and subdominance of pteridophyta. A few primitive angiospermous pollen grains occured in the middle to upper part of the formation. Coniferae was dominant in the whole palynoflora, while Lygodiaceae and Schizaeaceae were dominant in the pteridophyta. The important species of spores and pollen comprised Cicatricosisporites dorogensis, C. subrotundus, L ygodioisporites gemmatus, Concavissimisporites asper, C. variverrucatus, C. penolaensis, Trilobosporites minor, Klukisporites variegatus, K. pseudoreticulatus, K. scaberis, Sch, izaeoisporites cretacius, S. certus, S. zizyphinus, S. gansuensis, Foraminisporis wonthaggiensis, Converrucosisporites saskatchewanensis, Densoisporites microrugulatus, Parvisaccites radiatus, Platysaccus oculus, P. gansuensis, Podocarpidites canadensis, AbietineaepoUenites minimus, Pinuspollenites insignis, Cedripites cretaceus, C. canadensis, Classopollis classoides, C. annulatus, C. minor, C. anchowensis, Cycadopites minimus, Ephedripites tarimensis, and Clavatipollenites hughesii. The palynoflora is comparable with that of the Changcai Formation of the Yanbian District of the Jilin Province of China. It is suggested that the Longpan Formation of North Korea should belong to Barremian to Aptian in age. Judging from the palynoflora, the Early Cretaceous palaeoclimate in the Anchow Basin should belong to the semi-arid type of the subtropic zone.
Abstract (Browse 1894)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Available Caloric Content of Detritus During the Decomposition of Mangrove Kandelia candel Leaf Litter
Author: Fan Hang-qing and Lin Peng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(2)
      
    The absolute and relative contents of hydrolysis available calories (HAC), tanninfree HAC (TFHAC) and chemical available calories (CAC) of the detritus during the seasonal decomposition of mangrove (Kandelia candel (L.) Druce) leaf litter in Fujian, China was determined. Defined arbitrarily as the portion of total caloric content in detritus hydrolized with 1 mol/L HC1 for 6 h at 20 , HAC is presumed to be a rough index of potential energy readily utilized by marine detritivores. TFHAC is the remaining calories of HAC devoid of tannin-attributed calories and CAC is defined as the total caloric content derived from raw protein, raw fat and soluble sugar. The results showed that in leaf litter, the seasonal mean caloric contents were 4.06 kJ/g DW or 20.85% of the total caloric content for HAC and 3.23 kJ/g DW or 16.68% of the total caloric content for TFHAC, which decreased to 1.75 kJ/g DW or 9.25% for HAC, and 1. 64 kJ/g DW or 8.20% for TFHAC in the detritus at half-life of decomposition. The difference in contents between HAC and TFHAC diminished as decomposition was progressed. The contents of CAC generally increased during decomposition, always higher than those of HAC and TFHAC, suggesting that some protein and fat in detritus are nonavailable to detritivores since they are hydrolyzed by week acid. The value of detritus HAC per unit ash-free dry weight (AFDW), as determined at the time when the detritus lost 23% of its initial weight, ranged from 16. 16 to 17.41 kJ/g AFDW and increased rapidly to a maximum of 24.00 kJ/g AFDW at 49% dry weight loss of detritus during decomposition. The detritus derived from mangrove fallen leaves had a low available caloric content and an moderate caloric value of HAC as compared with detritus of other marine plants. Finally, the relationship between HAC, TFHAC and CAC was discussed and some points of attention relevant to the application of those indices were given in relation
Abstract (Browse 1995)  |  Full Text PDF       
Expression of Actin Gene During Development of Snake Gourd (Luffa cylindrica) and Cucumber (Cucumis sativum)
Author: Huang Shao-xing, Liu Jun-jun, Yan Long-fei and Peng Xue-xian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(2)
      
    Results of Northern blot and Dot blot analysis indicated that actin genes exhibit organ-specific expression in snake gourd (Luffa cylindrica L. ) and cucumber (Cucumis sativum L. ). Actin genes showed obvious developmental specificity during'the development of snake gourd seedlings, mRNA levels in stems of 30-day old seedlings were 4 6 times higher than that of roots and cotyledons of 8-day old seedlings and roots and hypocotyls of 15-day old seedlings, and were even 1012 times higher than that of stems and leaves of flowering plants. Actin genes also showed organ-specific expression in young fruits (15 days after flowering) of cucumber.
Abstract (Browse 1891)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes of Endogenous Hormone Contents During Floral Bud and Vegetative Bud Differentiation in Thin Cell Layer Culture of Cichorium intybus L. Explant
Author: Li Ying-zhang and Han Bi-wen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(2)
      
    The sectioned thin cell layers (TCL) of flower stalk of Cichorium intybus L. were cultured in MS medium supplemented with NAA and BA or IAA and BA where floral and vegetative buds were developed from the explant. Endogenous IAA, DHZDHZR, iPA increased significantly during the floral bud formation, while ZZR remained changed. The levels of cytokinins, DHZ DHZR, iPA, and Z-f-ZR all increased significantly during the vegetative bud formation, however IAA level was reduced during the first 7 days of culture and increased to two-thirds of initial values on the day when the bud primordia were formed. The results suggested that the initiation of floral buds was associated with a high IAA/CTK ratio, whereas the induction of vegetative bud differentiation was related to a low IAA/CTK ratio.
Abstract (Browse 1834)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration on Photosynthesis of Seedlings of Two Woody Species in a Subtropical Forest
Author: Wei Cai-miao, Lin Zhi-fang and Kong Guo-hui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(2)
      
    Photosynthetic response of seedlings of two evergreen trees dorminant in a subtropical forest to long-term elevated CO2 were studied. Pot seedlings of Castanopsis fissa (Champ.) Rehd. et Wils. and Schima superba Gardn. et Champ. were grown in semi-open chambers with ambient (350 L L-1) CO2 concentration under natural light from June to September, 1993. Net photosynthetic rate of the plants exposed to elevated CO2 increased by 79%95% than that of the plants in ambient CO2 atmosphere. But no significant difference was observed when measurement was done at either CO2 concentration, 350 L L-1 or 500 L L-1 The Ph-CO2 concen/ration response curves of plants growing in elevated CO2 were higher than that of plants growing in ambient (350L L-1 CO2). In addition, the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents dropped slightly and stomatal conductance decreased obviously under elevated atmospheric CO2, while the ratios of chlorophyll a to b and carotenoid to chlorophyll were unaltered. The results indicated that downward acclimation of phetosynthesis did not appear in both plant species when they were grown under prolonged exposure to high (500 L L-1) atmospheric CO2.
Abstract (Browse 1802)  |  Full Text PDF       
Protoplast Culture and Plant Regeneration of Ramie
Author: Chen Xi-wen, Chen De-fu, Zhou Pu-hua and Li Zong-dao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(2)
      
    Calli were induced and suspension cell lines were established from cotyledones of ramie (Boehmeria nivea). Protoplasts (2 10 6/g fr. wt) were isolated from suspension cell cultures in enzyme mixture solution containing 4. 5 % cellulase Onozuka R-10 and 0. 8 % Macerozyme R-10, 0.8 % hemicellulase. When cultivated on KM8p medium containing 2, 4-D 0.5 mg/L, KT 0.5 mg/L with alginate embedding method, they grew vigorously and produced microcalli within fifty days. After subcultured, the protoplast-derived ~alli produced shoots and roots on different differentiation media, then complete plants were formed. Protoplasts from cotyledones divided only several times.
Abstract (Browse 2007)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Early in Vitro Development of Young Pollen Protoplasts in Nicotiana tabacum
Author: Xia Hui-jun, Zhou Chang and Yang Hong-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(2)
      
    For isolating young pollen protoplasts in Nicotiana tabacum. The authors had established two efficient enzymatic methods via anther preculture or pollen starvation pretreatment. Procedure of the first method included the following steps: 1. Cold pretreatment of flower buds with pollen at late unicellular to early bicellular stage; 2. Anther floating culture for pollen shedding into the culture medium followed by dehiscence of exine; 3. Enzymatic maceration of exine-dehisced pollen resulting in degradation of intine and release of pollen protoplasts in large quantity. Procedure of the second method involved the following steps: 1. Culture of pollen at middle bicellular in Kyo and Harada' B medium for starvation: 2. Enzymatic maceration of starvated pollen resulting in release of pollen protoplasts and subprotoplasts. Factors affecting the results of both methods as well as early in vitro developmental events of young pollen protoplasts were studied. The protoplasts could be induced either to trigger the first sporophytic division or to continue the gametophytic pathway leading germinatation of pollen tubes !ndicating their potentiality of inducing both sporophytic and gametophytic development of pathway. In rare instance a quite interesting phenomenon was observed that a pollen protoplast first divided into two daughter cells and one of which then germinated a pollen tube. It may insinuate that such pollen protoplasts initially induced a sporophytic pathway could reverse induce a gametophytic pathway.
Abstract (Browse 1900)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preliminary Studies on Cytoplasmic Inheritance and Variation of Azolla
Author: Jin Gui-ying, Wei Wen-xiong, Zhang Ning and Liu Zhong-zhu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(2)
      
    By investigating the variance of Azolla leaf colour of F1 generation obtained from negative and positive crossing of Azolla between two species (Azolla filiculoides A. microphylla, A. filiculoides A. mescicana) and two subgenus (A. filiculoides A. imbricata), it was revealed that the albinism of the hybrid F1 generation was variation resulting from maternal cytoplasmic inheritance, when A. filiculoide was used as female parent. Electron microscopic observation demonstrated abnormal development of plastid in the albino sporeling. The cell of light green seedling contained both normal and abnormal plastid. Both were probably related to variation in the plastid genotype. Significant difference occurred in the degree and freguency of albinism from various crossing forms, and such change had its vegularity in accord with the variation of the nuclear genotype. The results speculated that albinism were also closely related to the nuclear genotype.
Abstract (Browse 1832)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Changes of Plasmodesmata in Staminal Hairs of Setcreasea purpurea During Development
Author: Li Ming-yi and Yang Shi-jie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(2)
      
    Structural changes of plasmodesmata occurred in along with growth, development and senescence of staminal hair cells of Setcreasea purpurea. The plasmodesmata in the staminal hair cells of buds and open flowers were normal having a diameter of 50 mm. Those of senescent flowers became enlarged and underwent modification, such as the appressed endoplasmic reticulum disintegrated and the cell wall around the plasmodesmata degraded, so that it formed a channel with such as a diameter of 100 nm, twice or threefold as that of normal plasmodesmata. In the process of plasmodesma enlargement and modification, a series of changes occurred in the organelles.
Abstract (Browse 1907)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultracytochemical Localization of ATPase Activity in the Degenerating Nucellar Cells of Wheat During Degeneration
Author: Tian Guo-wei and Shen Jia-heng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(2)
      
    Ultracytochemical localization of ATPase activity was carried out using a lead phosphate precipitation technique in the nucellar cells of wheat during degeneration. ATPase was only localized on the plasma membranes of nueellar cells at the. early degenerative stage, then decreased and disappeared at the mid-degenerative stage. Meantime it was also observed in the nuclear chromatin and some cytoplasmic organelles. ATPase activity was only observed in the nuclear chromatin in the extremely degenerated nucellar cells. Two patterns of unclear degeneration was found in the degenerated nucellar cells. A lot of small fragments with ATPase from the degenerated nuclei moved toward the embryo sac. It is suggested that the change of ATPase activity on the plasma membranes is related to the physiological change of nucellar cells, and that in the nuclear chromatin is associated with the stages movement of chromatin during the process of nucellar cells degeneration.
Abstract (Browse 1821)  |  Full Text PDF       
Insect Resistance of Transformed Tobacco Plants with Gene of the Spider Insecticidal Peptide
Author: Jiang Hong, Zhu Yu-xian and Chen Zhang-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(2)
      
    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)leaves were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 containing the insecticidal peptide gene. Thirty regenerated kanamycin resistant plants were obtained, among which three showed stronger toxicity to Heliothis armigera by feeding experiments. In comparison with feeding of the control plants, mortality of the insects fed on transgenic plants was significantly higher and the growth of the survived insects was remarkably retarded. Results of PCR Southern blot and Northern blot showed that insecticidal peptide gene has been transferred into the genome of these three plants and expressed efficiently to confer the insect resistance of the transgenic plants.
Abstract (Browse 1917)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on RNA in the Metaphase Chromosome of Zea mays by Electron Microscopy in Situ Hybridization
Author: Song Lin-sheng, Guo Shi-yi, Wang Xiu-ling, Fan Ting-yu and Zhang Zi-li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(2)
      
    In situ hybridization using biotinylated cDNA probes of 18S rRNA, 5S rRNA, tRNAfMet, tRNAcys, tRNAAsn was performed on ultra-thin sections of K4M-embedded maize root tip. After hybridization, the biotinylated hybrids were detected with avidin coupled to 10 nm gold particles and then examined under the electron microscopy. The results showed that 18S rRNA, 5S rRNA and tRNA all existed in the metaphase chromosomes at random. They were distributed not only in the interior of the chromosomes, but also in the periphery of the chromosomes. Three tRNAs and 5S rRNA in the chromosomes were equal in amount to that in the cytoplasm, but the amount of 18S rRNA in the chromosomes was much higher than that in the cytoplasm. These results indicated that a part of the RNAs in the chromosomes came from the nucleolus, while others came from the nucleoplasm.
Abstract (Browse 1887)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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