March 1996, Volume 38 Issue 3

 

          Research Articles
Analysis of Transgenic Tomatoes with Expression of Antisense Polygalacturonase Gene
Author: Wei Yu-ning, Li Yao-dong, Ma Qing-hu and Song Yan-ru
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(3)
      
    Authors have been transfered antisense polygalacturonase (PG, E, C, 3, 2, 1, 15) gene into two tomato cultivars (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Lichun and Qingfeng) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and obtained homozygotes with expression of antisense PG gene. Analysis of Northern blot and PG activity showed that antisense PG gene had stably expressed in T0T2 generations of transgenic tomatoes, and this expression could be inherited and enhanced in the progeny. For example, PG activity of To, T1 and T2 generation fruits in line T2-19 of"Lichun was dropped to 27%, 20% and 4% respectively. But the remarkable decrement of PG activity did not have obvious inhibitory effect on normal fruit softening. The transgenic plants of T0T2 generations grew and developed normally. Average yield per plant and average weight per fruit in these transgenic plants were a little more than those in nontransgenic control. The content determination of vitamin C, soluble sugar and soluble solid substances indicated that transgenic fruits kept the original texture and taste. The contents of vitamin C and soluble solid substances of Lichun T2-19 and soluble sugar of Qingfeng T2-46 were higher than those of the control. Stored in 2832 for 30 days, all of nontransgenic fruits and about 50% of the transgenic ones were infected by pathologcal bacteria, a few of remainders could be perserved for 50 days. These evidences suggested that the resistance of the transgenic fruits to pathological bacteria during preservation has been strengthened. The approach which the authors used to study regulation of tomato fruit ripening will be desirable to improve the storability of certain famous and precious fruits.
Abstract (Browse 1843)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plant Regeneration from Protoplasts of Medicago lupulina
Author: Zhang Xiang-qi, Wang Xian-ping, An Li-jia and Chu Jing-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(3)
      
    Protoplasts isolated from suspension cell lumps of Medicago lupulina L. started to divide after 2 clays in K8p culture medium containing 0. 12.0 mg/L of 2, 4-D, with a maximum division frequency of 38. 35%. After S weeks of culture, the protoplast-derived cell lumps were transferred to liquid/solid double-layer media for microcallus regeneration, with a maximum frequency of 0.58%. The whole plants were regenerated from protoplastderived calli via somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis. In somatic embryogenesis, the embryoids were induced on MS and W14 media with rather wide range (1. 0420.0 mg/L) of 2, 4-D concentration. The highest induction frequency of embryoids was 71.0%. In organogenesis, the differentiation media containing lower concentration of 6-BA (0. 50. 7 mg/L) were suitable for adventitious bud formation. The highest frequency of adventitious bud formation from calli was 27. 8%. The mature protoplast-regenerated plants were obtained 3 months after transplanting the plantlets into soil.
Abstract (Browse 1755)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structural Study of Dichlorotriptetraolide Isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii
Author: Ma Peng-cheng, Yan Wei, L Yang and Zheng Qi-tai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(3)
      
    A new chlorinated diterpene epoxide, dichlorotriptetraolide (L5) was isolated from the leaves of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. Dichlorotriptetraolide was crystallized from CH3OH as colorless needle-like crystal, with amp of 252.0253.5 . Its molecular formula is C2oH26O7Cl2. The structure was identified on the basis of spectral analyses (UV, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR. 13C-NOE. 2D-cosy. LD/FTMS. EIMS, selective long-range DEPT spectrum and X-ray fluorescence spectrum) and computerization of molecular mechanics and molecular graph.
Abstract (Browse 1717)  |  Full Text PDF       
Accumulation and Dynamics of Cu, Pb, Zn and Mn Elements in Kandelia candel (L.) Druce Mangrove Community of Jiulong River Estuary of Fujian
Author: Zheng Wen-jiao, Zheng Feng-zhong, Lian Yu-wu and Lin Peng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(3)
      
    The accumulation and biocycle of Cu, Pb, Zn and Mn elements were studied in Kandelia candel (L.) Druce mangrove community of Jiulong River Estuary of Fujian. The pool amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn and Mn elements in the forest soil (030 cm in depth) were 6.86, 4.23, 25.64 and 134. 67 g m-2, respectively. The respective element contents ranged from in different parts of the plant, 1.856.97, 0.373.74, 16.025.2 and 1401405 g g-1 of Cu, Pb, Zn and Mn. The pool amounts of elements in standing crop of the community were 87.98, 40. 34, 335.34 and 8006.99 mg m-2 for Cu, Pb, Zn and Mn respectively. The pool amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn and Mn elements in residues were: 593.06, 49.27, 2450.79 and 43486.70 g m-2 respectively. The biocycle of the elements in the community were described as follows: Annual uptake of Cu was 10. 17, Pb 4.32, Zn 49. 14 and Mn 2268. 16 mg m-2; Annual return of Cu was 2.21, Pb 0.70, Zn 18.63 and Mn 1574.98 mg m-2; Annual retention of Cu was 7.96, Pb 3.62, Zn 30. 51 and Mn 693.18 mg m-2. The turnover periods of Cu, Pb, Zn and Mn were 40, 58, 18 and 5 year, respectively. The absorption, utilatizion and cycle coefficients were in the order of MnZnCuPb.
Abstract (Browse 1808)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cuticle Characteristics of Sublepidodendron cf. xinjiangense Sun
Author: Du Mei-li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(3)
      
    The epidermal cuticle characteristics of Sublepidodendron cf. xinjiangense Sun in Wutong formation of late Devonian from Yixing city of Jiangsu province were studied using the technique of fluorescence analysis. The stem cuticle extended over the leaf cushions and its interval zones, when the cuticle thickness was more than at the leaf cushions. The shape of the epidermal cells in the interval zones differed from that in the leaf cushions; in which the epidermal cells of the central parts of the interval zones appeared in the elongated polygons, with coincided cell stretch direction as the stem growth, and with slightly curve cell walls. The shape of cells in the interval zones near the leaf cushions was similar to that in the former but only one half in size. with straight cell walls. Here the cells extended gradually with a deflection toward the margin of the leaf cushions. The cushion cellsware equilaterl polygons with visible cell interspaces. No stoma was discovered in the epidermis of this species.
Abstract (Browse 1780)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Energy Transfer from Phycobilisome to Thylakoid Membrane of Cyanobacteria
Author: Zhao Dong-xu, Rong Shou-yu and Fang Zhao-xi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(3)
      
    Ultrasonic treatment has been introduced to obtain photosynthetic vesicles with hound phycobilisome (PBS). the PBS-thylakoid fraction, from Myxosarcina concinna Printz. The maximal oxygen evolving rate of PBS-thylakoid membrane was around 60 mol O2/ (mg Chl.h) and the optimum temperature was about 34 . Absorption peaks of the eomplex were located at 680, 628, 490, 438 and 420 nm. When the phyeobiliprotein of the complex was excited by light at 580 nm, the fluorescence emission spectrum at room temperature exhibited a peak at 660 nm and a shoulder at 680 nm, while at liquid nitrogen temperature the peaks were resolved to 664, 695 and 718 nm, The PBS bound with thylakoid membrane depolymerized and the energy transfer from PBS to thylakoid membrane decreased when the complex was put into a solution of low ion intensity. As the PBS was mixed with the PBS desociated thylakoid membrane, by contact with the thylakoid membrane the PBS could again transfer the energy trapped in itself to thylakoid membrane.
Abstract (Browse 1626)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes of Endogenous ABA Content in Relevance to the Vigor of Peanut Seeds
Author: Lin Lu and Fu Jia-rui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(3)
      
    During the development of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. ) seed, the endogenous ABA content increased steadily'in hypocotyl, increased to a peak at 40 d after pegging with a drastic decline afterwards in testa; and in cotyledon, increased to a peak at 60 d after pegging but with a slight fall afterwards. There seemed to be a close relationship between the increose of vigor index and net loss of endogenous ABA content in the peanut seed germinating in vitro. Osmoticum (mannitol) promoted the endogenous ABA in the cotyledon and hypocotyl. and Fluridone inhibited that in the cotyledon. There were two different paths of the endogenous ABA synthesis in peanut seed, C40 in the cotyledon and C15 in the hypocotyl. When peanut seeds were put in the conditions of precocious maturation or germination tine endogenous ABA content fell down. Result from this experiment concluded that the hypocotyls played an important role in the transition from development to germination of. peanut seed.
Abstract (Browse 1710)  |  Full Text PDF       
Promotion of Carrot Suspension Cell Transformation and Plant Regeneration byAgrobacterium Harboring Binary Vector Pretreated with Phenolic Compounds
Author: Liu Ming-zhi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(3)
      
    Non-tumorigenic Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring binary vector pretreated with acetosyringone and complex phenolic compounds significantly increased the rate of carrot (Daucus carota) suspension cell transformation and plant regeneration. Kanamycin resistant colones were selected on media containing 50 mg/L kanamycin. The author's experimental data indicated that transformation frequencies in the group activated by acetosyringone and complex phenolic compounds pretreatment were 0.24% and 0. 17% respectively while that in the phenolic compound non-pretreated was only 0.02%. Transgenic carrot plants were obtained from the resistant colones via somatic embryogenesis on hormone-free media containing 50 mg/L kanamycin. Histochemical analysis showed that high levels of GUS activity appeared in the parenchymatous cells of vascular bundles of roots, stems, leaves and petioles as well as stomatic guard cells, cortical cells, mesophyllous cells and trichome of leaves, also epidermal cells also parenchymatous cells under the epiderm of petiols.
Abstract (Browse 1886)  |  Full Text PDF       
Photoinhibition of Photosynthesis Without Net Loss of D1 Protein in Wheat Leaves Under Field Conditions
Author: Guo Lian-wang, Xu Da-quan and Shen Yun-gang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(3)
      
    To determine whether the net loss of D1 protein is the main cause of photoinhibition of photosynthesis in wheat leaves under field conditions in the absence of any environmental stress other than strong sunlight, the D1 protein content, photosynthetic evolution of oxygen and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters were measured in field grown wheat leaves. After exposure to midday strong light for about 3 h, apparent photosynthetic quantum efficiency (), Fv/Fm and Fo in wheat leaves declined, and these parameters recovered almost completely 1 h after transfer to the weak light of 3040 ttmol photons m-2 s-1. No evident change in the D1 protein content was observed in the leaves after exposure to midday strong light for 3 h. After 3 hours exposure to strong light, the slow-relaxed fluorescence quenching in the leaves treated with streptomycin (SM) increased much more than that in the control leaves, but there was no effect SM on the recovery of Fv/Fm and F0; dithiothretol (DTT) treatment enhanced photoinhibition of photosynthesis and reduced the D1 protein content in the leaves after exposure to midday strong light. These results indicated that under field conditions with no environmental stress other than strong sunlight, photoinhibition of photosynthesis in wheat leaves was not due to the net loss of D1 protein, and it could be attributed mainly by the increased nonradiative energy dissipation.
Abstract (Browse 1957)  |  Full Text PDF       
Epitope Expression of MHV S Glycoprotein Using TMV as Vector
Author: Zhang Guang-ming, Pan Nai-sui, Chen Zhang-liang and Beachy R N
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(3)
      
    To test the hypothesis and prediction that transgenic coat protein (CP) could recoat the uncoated virions, an epitope tag approach was exploited to look for the exchange of coat protein subunits at the 5' end of the challenged virus. By mutagenesis using a PCR based method, DNA sequences, encoding peptide epitopes (11 and 15 amino acids in length) of the murine hepatitis virus (MHV) S protein were separately inserted into one of the two sites near the 3' end of the coded region of the TMV CP gene. Two TMV infections clones with each of the tagged coat protein genes, V9 (tl amino acids) and El5 (15 amino acids) were generated. Viral RNA was produced by in vitro transcription with T7 RNA polymerase and used to infect Xanthi nn and Xanthi NN tobacco plants. BothV9 and El5 caused local necrotic lesion in NN tobacco plants similar to those induced by wild type TMV. Systemic symptoms identical to those caused by TMV-U1 infection and equivalent amounts of coat protein with the MHV epitope (El5) were found in Xanthi nn tobacco plants. Unexpectedly, similar types of local lesions were observed on the inoculated leaves of Xanthi nn tobacco plants infected by V9. The different sites of insertion of each MHV epitope may be responsible for the different characteristics of V9 and El5.
Abstract (Browse 1691)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Resonance Raman Spectra of -Carotene Molecules in the Photosystem Reaction Center D1/D2/Cyt b-559 Complex
Author: Lu Rong-he, Kuang Ting-yun,Yu Zhen-bao, Tang Chong-qin, Tang Pei-song, Li Geng-xin and Tang Shu-yan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(3)
      
    The resonance Raman spectrum of -carotene in photosystem (PS )reaction center complex was characterized by four main bands, peaking at 1532 (l), 1156 (2), 1010 (3) and 970 (4) cm -1, respectively, with several additional small Raman bands in the region between 1100 cm-1 and 1500 cm-1 It was suggested that -carotene molecules of the reaction center complex were in all-trans configuration. The resonance Raman spectrum of an acetone extract from the reaction center complex also showed four main bands. The peak position of l, 3 and 4 band shifted 5 cm-1 to the shorter wave number. The most dramatic changes were the reduction of the intensity of 4. From the above results it was demon- strated that the conformation of -carotene molecules in the PS reaction center was not the same as that of free -carotene molecules in solution, but similar to that of carotenoid molecules in the photosynthetic bacterial reaction center, in other words, they are likely to be in a twisted conformation.
Abstract (Browse 1731)  |  Full Text PDF       
Development of Sexual Organs in Taihangia rupestris--Different Temperature Requirments for Both Sexual Organ Development in a Bisexual Flower
Author: Lu Wen-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(3)
      
    Optimal environmental temperature for differentiation and development of stamen and pistil have been tested cultured in vitro flowers of Taihangia rupestris. The optimal temperatures for stamen development was quite different from that for pistil development. The most suitable temperature scope for stamen development was on the low verge of 1 6 'C. Temperature over 18 led to abortion of all stamens. The temperature scope appropriate for pistil development was near to 626 . That below 3 brought about cessation of most pistil development at early stage. The course of stamen abortion induced by high temperature started from the primordium stage in the stamen development and once this occurred it became irreversible despite of lowering the temperature. It is concluded that the temperature for unisexual male flower, unisexual female flowers and bisexual flowers development should be contralled at 13 , 626 and 612 respectively. The results of the present experiment may open up a new train of thoughts for studies on the control of sexual organ development and male sterility.
Abstract (Browse 1736)  |  Full Text PDF       
Retrospect and Prospect of Plant Science Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China
Author: Gao Wen-shu, Chen Feng and Zhu Da-
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(3)
Abstract (Browse 1691)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Expression of GUS Gene Driven by T-cyt Promoter in Transgenic Tobacco andPotato
Author: Ma Mi,Zhou Da-feng,Guo Yang, Kuang Ting-yun, Tang Pei-song and Lin Zhong-ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(3)
      
    The location of GUS gene expression under control of T-cyt gene (gene 4 of T- DNA coding isopenteryl transferase) 5 region in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. W38) and potato (Solanum tuberosum L, cv. Desiree) plants was examined with biochemical assays. The results showed differential distribution in various organs and different cell types. The highest levels of GUS activity were found in tobacco stem where axillary bud was initiated and potato buds on tubers. Moreover, the expression of T-cyt promoter/GUS was found to be inducible in transgenic tobacco stem with cytokinin rather than auxin treatment. Additionally, the level of expression was high in the wounded leaf of transgenic potato. It was suggested that T-cyt promoter may be selectively induced by some exogenous plant hormones.
Abstract (Browse 1911)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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