April 1996, Volume 38 Issue 4

 

          Research Articles
The Prospect and Current Studies on the Limonoids in Citrus
Author: Cai Hu-hua and Hashinaga Fumio
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(4)
      
    Limonoids are a group of triterpenoids found in Rutaceae and Meliaceae. Limonoids of citrus are excellent physiologically active compounds. In this paper, we report the biochemical study and biological recovery of limonoids in citrus fruits.
Abstract (Browse 1932)  |  Full Text PDF       
Two New Taxane Diterpenoids from Taxus yunnanensis
Author: Chen Zhang-yu, Gao Cheng-wei and Chen Yu-shu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(4)
      
    Five compounds were isolated from the bark of Taxus yunnanensis Cheng et L. K. Fu. Based on spectral IR, MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and physico-chemical constant analysis, they were identified as 7-epi-taxol B ( ), 1, 13-diacetoxy-10-deacetyl baccatin ( ), taxol C-7-xylose (), taxol (), 3-epi-ursolic acid (). Compounds and were newly identified.
Abstract (Browse 1825)  |  Full Text PDF       
Report of Sawdonia in China--Sawdonia curstipa sp. nov.
Author: Wang De-ming and Hao Shou-gang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(4)
      
    A new species, Sawdonia curstipa was found in the Hujiersite Formation of the Middle Devonian (Eifelian) from Hefeng County of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China. Morphologically, this species was different from S. ornata and S. acanthotheca in stalk length, pattern of sporangial insertion, etc. Both axis and emergence possessed oblong epidermal cells.
Abstract (Browse 1823)  |  Full Text PDF       
Early Carboniferous Flora in Southeastern Henan
Author: Chen Fen and Sun Ke-qin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(4)
      
    The fossil plants described and illustrated were collected from the Yangshan Formation in Shangcheng and Gushi districts of southeastern part of Henan Province, namely, Lepidodendron cf. aolungpylukense Sze, L. shanyangense Wu et He, L. . cf. subrhombicum Gu et Zhi, L. sp. a, L. sp. b, Bothrodendron sp. a, B. sp. b, Lepidostrobus ? sp., Stigmaria ficoides (Sternberg) Brongniart, Archaeocalamites scrobiculatus (Schlotheim) Seward, Cardiopteridium spetsbergense Nathorst, Triph yllopteris ? sp., Rhodeopteridium hsianghsiangense (Sze) Zhang, Zhao et Wu, Paripteris cf. pseudogigantea (Potonie) Gothan, P. ? sp., Cordaites schenkii Halle, Cardiocarpus cordai (Geinitz) Gu et Zhi and Carpolithus sp., including 18 species in 11 genera. They belonged to Lycopsida, Sphenopsida, Filices, Pteridospermopsida, Cordaitopsida and Semina Gymnospermarum respectively , in which Lepidophytic plants of Lycopsida were the dominanance. The Yangshan Formation flora contains some typical Early Carboniferous elements, such as Archaeocalamites scrobiculatus, Cardiopteridium spetsbergense and Rhodeopteridium hsianghsiangense, which were fairly common from Visean to early Namurian; however, it also includes certain lepidophytic plants of the Cathaysian type, such as Lepidodendron cf. aolungpylukense, L. shanyangense and L. cf. subrhombicum, etc. On the basis of the floral composition, the geological age of the Yangshan Formation flora belonged to the late Early Carboniferous epoch, corresponding approximately to late Visean to early Namurian A. The present flora could be compared with contemporaneous floras from eastern Gansu, Shanyang of Shaanxi, South China and western Malaysia, which was closest to the Shanyang flora. In addition, the authors also discussed the distribution of late Early Carboniferous floras in other parts of the world.
Abstract (Browse 2162)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preliminary Studies on Controlling Graft Union Through Plant Hormones
Author: Lu Shan-fa, Tang Ding-tai, Song Jing-yuan, Liu Mei-qin and Yang Shi-jie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(4)
      
    The influences of IBA and 6-BA on the formation of grafting were studied by using explanted internode autografting of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) cultured in vitro, which was a simpler procedure for grafting with lower chance of contamination than the ordinary explanted internode grafting. Colour changes, root initiation and callus formation of the explanted internode graf related to the concentration of plant hormones added to the medium. Plant hormones controlled the formation of graft unions through influencing the time and the number of vascular bridges formation between the stock and the scion. In authors experiments, the optimal condition of plant hormone control was achieved when IBA 1.2 mg/L was added in the scion medium and 6-BA 0.3 mg/L was added to scion and stock medium.
Abstract (Browse 2009)  |  Full Text PDF       
Relationship Between Fe2+-Induced Ethylene Production from Husk and Growth of Fe2+-Stimulated Rice Seedling
Author: Peng Xin-xiang and Yamauchi M
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(4)
      
    Ferrous iron might induce ethylene production from rice (Oryza sativa L. ) husk. The induction was a non-enzymic chemical process, in which probably a non-gaseous precursor could be converted to ethylene by the action of Fe2+. Fe2+-stimulated seedling growth was probably mediated by the induced ethylene based on the following evidences: ( ) The induction and the stimulation were synchronous in time within one day only. Once seedling growth was initiated renewal of Fe2+ solution, even on the following day, exerted no more effect neither on ethylene production nor on seedling growth; ( ) Ferrous iron was neither capable to stimulate the ethylene production of rice caryopsis, nor able to stimulate the seedling growth of germinated caryopsis.
Abstract (Browse 1794)  |  Full Text PDF       
Relationship of Plasmalemma Redox Activity to K+ Uptake by Dunaliella salina Cells
Author: Chen Si-xue, Li Lin, Yan Ji-qiong and Jiao Xin-zhi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(4)
      
    The plasmalemma-bond redox system localized within the plasmalemma of unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina was studied. This system oxidized exogenous NADH, increased O2 consumption to 165 % and increased the pH of the external medium, while K+ influx was inhibited. With no NADH added, ferricyanide stimulated K+ uptake about 3 folds. In the presence of exogenous NADH, ferricyanide was rapidly reduced and the external medium was acidified, generating a greater electrochemical proton gradient across the plasmalemma, thus resulting an 6-fold increase of K+ influx. Typical inhibitors of plasmalemma H+-ATPase and redox system inhibited K+ uptake to different extent. That the inhibition of K+ uptake by vanadate could be resumed partly by addition of NADH and ferricyanide indicated that plasmalemma redox system operated in association with the H+-ATPase to exert an influence on K+ transportation. A model was presented in which the implication of two possible redox chains and H+-ATPase in generating an electrochemical potential gradient for protons (uH+) was discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1757)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Lipoxygenase on the Activities of Photosynthetic Electron Transport in Cucumber Leaves
Author: Su Xing, Lin Zhi-fang and Sun Gu-chou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(4)
      
    Photosynthesis and electron transport activity decreased with leaf aging, and however, lipoxygenase (Lox) activity increased correspondingly. Soybean Lox-1 inhibited significantly PS electron transport activity of chloroplasts isolated from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. ) cotyledon. But the inhibition could be eliminated by the addition of propyl gallate (PG) or 3, 3, 4, 5, 7-pentahydroxyflavon (PF). The inhibition of PS activity by soybean Lox-1 was enhanced in the presence of 3, 4, dichlorophenyl-1, 1-dimethylurea (DCMU) or 2, 5-dibromothymoquinone (DBMIB), bfft could be restored to its original level when PG was added. Addition of 2, 2-diphenylcarbonic dihydrazide (DPC) to the mixture of isolated chloroplasts and Lox-1, PS activity resumed obviously. Chlorophyll a fluorescence study showed that Fm was decreased by Lox-1 and resumed slightly by DPC. Based on the above results, it was suggested that Lox might act at least on three sensitive sites located on Q, PQ and the oxidative side of PS . The bleaching of chlorophyll and carotenoid stimulated by Lox-l, and the inhibition of PS electron transport activity by active oxygen might be. one of the important reasons to explaine the effect of Lox on the function of photosynthetic membrane.
Abstract (Browse 1870)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Eucommia ulmoides Leaves
Author: Guo Lian-wang, Shen Yun-gang, Wu Hai, Li Yue-feng, Xiang Yan-ci and Xu Dong-xiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(4)
      
    A field study on the photosynthetic characteristics in Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. was conducted using a LI-6200 Portable Photosynthesis Analysis System as a measuring device and the modified half-leaf method. It was revealed that the light-saturating photosynthetic rate measured in leaves was in a range of 610 mol CO2 m-2 s-1, and the lowest apparent quantum requirement was about 17. The CO2 compensation concentration of photosynthesis was a little more than 100mol mol-1 indicating that E. ulmoides was a C3 type plant. Besides stomatal limitation, photoinhibition of photosynthesis was a possible cause of the midday depression in photosynthetic rate. Only about 14 percent of the photosynthetic product was transported from the leaves during photosynthesis.
Abstract (Browse 1801)  |  Full Text PDF       
Photosynthetic Characteristics of Cyanotis arachnoidea and Their Ecological Significance
Author: Sheng Cai yu and Liu Lun hui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(4)
      
    The photosynthetic characteristics of Cyanotis arachnoidea Clarke was studied through shading experimentation in pot culture. The effect of different shade level on the photosynthetic rate, the characteristics of photosynthetic organs and the bio-production of C. arachnoidea were compared. The main results are as follows: 1. C. arachnoidea was a C3 type solaphilic and shade tolerant herb. Its light saturation point was about 650 mol m-2 s-1 and the light compensation point was about 17 mol m-2 s-1. Its CO2 compensation point was about 130 10-6. 2. The maximum net photosynthetic rate of C. arachnoidea was about 12.45 mol m-2 s-1. The diurnal variation regularity of its photosynthetic rates exhibited a double peak curve in which the main peak appeared during 11: 0012: 00, and the second around 15: 00. 3. 20%50% shading favored the growth of C. arachnoidea. In comparison with those with control treatment, the content of chlorophyll b with 20%50% of shading treatment increased by 47 %83%, and the photosynthetic production increased by 12 %18 % as a result of increase in the net photosynthetic rate (relative photosynthetic rate).
Abstract (Browse 2067)  |  Full Text PDF       
Selection of Methionine-Resistant Variant in Onobrychis viciaefolia Scop.
Author: Zhao Zhong and Jia Jing-fen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(4)
      
    The variant cell line of Onobrychis viciaefolia Scop. (ONmetr) resistant to 80 mmol/L methionine was isolated from calli which was treated with NAN3. This ONmet cell line was induced to regenerate plantlets. After growing for 6 months on a medium without selection pressure, the ONmetr cell line was still highly resistant to methionine being 5.6-fold higher than that of the wild type. The variant cell line also expressed high level of cross-resistance to ethionine which was 6. b-fold higher than that of the wild type. The contents of total methionine (Met) ,lysine (Lys) ,threonine (Thr) in ONmetr calli were 4.00,1.09,1.50-fold respectively higher than those of the wild type. The contents of total Met Lys Thr Ile (isoleucine) in ONmetr regenerants were-2.0, 3.5,3. 5,2. 5-fold respectively higher than those of the wild type. Two new bands appeared in SDS-PAGE profile as well as in the superoxidase isoenzymes electrophoresis pattern of the soluble proteins of ONmetr calli, thus indicated that the variant had carried the products of the changed genes.
Abstract (Browse 1761)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation of Fertilized Embryo Sacs and Zygotes and Triggering of Zygote Division in Vitro in Nicotiana tabacum
Author: Fu Chun-mei, Sun Meng-xiang, Zhou Chang and Yang Hong-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(4)
      
    Three methods were established to isolate fertilized embryo sacs in Nicotiana tabacum, i. e. enzymatic maceration combined either with shaking, microdissection or grinding respectively. Living fertilized embryo sacs of various developmental stages after fertilization could be isolated successfully by these methods. Each method had its own adoptation to the materials of different developmental stages. Among them the method of enzymatic maceration combined with grinding was the best:Ovules were first treated in enzymatic mixture (1% cellulase R-10, 0.5% macerozyme R-10, 12% mannitol, pH 5.7) for about 30 min. Then droplets of the ovule suspension were gentlely grinded by a flat-headed glass rod. After grinding several droplets of mannitol solution (8% 10%) were added for releasing and washing embryo sacs. Compared with the other two methods this method was more convenent and had higher isolation efficiency. Isolation of fertilized embryo sacs offered a good means for microscopic observation on the postfertilization development including synergid degeneration, endosperm formation and zygotic changes without interference by the surrounding sporophytic tissue. Living zygotes and endosperm cells could be further isolated by a second enzymatic maceration procedure followed by brief micromanipulation. Several characters had been found to distinguish the protoplas'ts of free zygotes from those of other cell sources. Isolated zygotes were cultured in microchambers (Millicell-CM) feeded with macrocultured mesophyll protoplasts. The first division of zygotes was induced, resulting in proembryos consisting of two cells.
Abstract (Browse 1911)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes of Plastids Mitochondria and Their DNA in the Egg Cell Before and After Fertilization in Pharbitis
Author: Hu Zan-min and Hu Shi-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(4)
      
    The ultrastructure and cytoplasmic DNA in the egg cell and zygote of Pharbitis purpurea, (L.) Voyght and P. limbata Lindl. which were studied with electron microscopy and DNA epifiuorescence microscopy. The egg cell before fertilization was highly vacuolated with only a few cytoplasmic plastids and mitochondria. Plastids were spherical and/or rod- shaped containing 1 2 large starch grains. Most of the mitochondria were cup and/or circular. The cytoplasm in the zygote was much more abundant than that in the egg cell. The number of plastids and their electronic density were greatly increased, in most of which containing osmiophilic bodies. The mitochondria were rich and spherical-shaped in the zygote. Two types of cytoplasmic DNA nucleoids were detected in the egg cell, the more abundant one being big and circle-shaped and the other dot-shaped. Only dot-shaped nucleoids were present in the zygote. The content of nucleoids in the zygote was much less than that in the egg cell. Authors propose that some cytoplasmic DNA may degenerate after fertilization. The ultrastructural characteristics of the egg cell and the reduction of cytoplasmic DNA in the zygote may related to the mechanisms of plastid unipaternal inheritance in Pharbitis.
Abstract (Browse 1836)  |  Full Text PDF       
Paternal Inheritance of Plastid DNA in Genus Pharbitis
Author: Hu Zan-min, Hu Shi-yi and Zhang Jin zhong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(4)
      
    The inheritance of plastid DNA in Pharbitis was studied by the method of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). Experimental results showed that plastid DNA from Pharbitis was paternally inherited in reciprocal crosses, P. nil P. limbata and P. limbata P. nil hybrids. But, in the cross of P. limbata P. nil, the possibility of biparental inheritance of plastid DNA could not be roled out in our preliminary experiment. Thus Pharbitis became the third genus among angiosperms characterized with male plastid transmission. The mechanisms of paternal plastids DNA inheritance in Pharbitis is unclear. The authors proposed that dilution, exclusion and/or degeneration of maternal plastid, including their DNA, after fertilization should be considered.
Abstract (Browse 1953)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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