May 1996, Volume 38 Issue 5

 

          Research Articles
Expression of Potato Virus Y Coat Protein Gene in Transgenic Potato
Author: Cao Xiao-feng, Yang Mei-zhu, Zhu Yu-xian and Chen Zhang-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(5)
      
    Potato virus Y (PVY) N coat protein (CP) coding sequence was cloned into a plant expression vector pMON316 under the CaMV 35S promoter. Leaf discs of potato (Solanum tuberosum) were used to Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. A large number of regenerated putative transgenic plants were obtained based on kanamycin resistance. Using total DNA purified from transgenic plants as templates and two oligonucleotides synthesized from 5' and 3' of the PVY coat protein gene as primers, the authors carried out polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to check the presence of this gene and obtained a 0. 8 kb specific DNA fragment after 35 cycles of amplification. Southern blot indicated that the PCR product was indeed PVY CP gene which had been integrated into the potato genome. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of our transgenic plants showed that CP gene was expressed in at least some transgenic potato plants.
Abstract (Browse 1799)  |  Full Text PDF       
GTP-Binding Regulatory Proteins in Higher Plant Cells
Author: Wu Wei-hua and Zhao Yun-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(5)
      
    The exsitence of GTP-binding regulatory proteins (for short term, often refered as G-proteins) in higher plant cells is certain. G-proteins are classified into two groups based on their molecular structures, which are the heterotrimeric G-proteins (big G-proteins) that contain three different subunits and the small G-proteins that have only one subunit (monomeric G-proteins). All G-proteins are characterized by their properties to bind with and hydrolyze GTP, by which G-proteins function as transmembrane and intracellular signalling molecules. As a distinguished participant in signal transduction, G-proteins directly and/or indirectly regulate a number of physiological processes, such as regulation of phytochrome-related physiological processes and gene expression, involvement in blue-light response, K+-channel regulation, stomatal movement, hormone regulation, protein phosphrylation dephosphorylation, etc. Although G-proteins in plant cells have not been purified, the genes for a subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins have been cloned. More evidences for the importance of G-proteins in plant signalling processes are rapidly accumulating.
Abstract (Browse 1774)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of the Leaves of WTBX]Pseudotaxus chienii (Cheng) Cheng
Author: Zhang Jun-zeng, Fang Qi-cheng and Liang Xiao-tian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(5)
      
    Fourteen compounds were isolated from the leaves of Pseudotaxus chienii (Cheng) Cheng which is uniquely indigenous to China, and their structures were identified mainly by spectrum analyses. Among them, 13 known compounds were determined as: 2-guaiacylpropane-1, 3-diol (1), vanillic acid (2), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (3). 3. 5-dimethoxy-phenol (4), taxicatin (5), 5-oxymaltol (6), quercetin-3-rhamnoside (7), ()-catechin (8), ecdysterone (9), -sitosterol (10), D-glucose (11), ()-10-nonacosanol (12) and octacosanoic acid (13). All these compounds but-sitosterol were isolated from this plant for the first time. Compounds 1 and 6 have never been reported in plant kingdom. Another compound was tentatively established as a new compound, named pseudotaxlactone (14).
Abstract (Browse 1873)  |  Full Text PDF       
Discovery of Ferns with Reticulate Veins in Early-Middle Carboniferous from North Qilian Zoulang Area, Gansu Province and Their Significance
Author: Hu Yu-fan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(5)
      
    The sedimental characteristics of Early--Middle Carboniferous from North Qilian Zoulang area, Gansu province and some fossil ferns with reticulate veins found in the sediments were described in details. They were: Linopteris musterii, L. obliqua, L. pseudoneuropteroides sp. nov., L. lanceolatus sp. nov., L. ovalis sp. nov., L. variurn sp. nov., Lonchopteris lanceolatus sp. nov., L. crassinervis sp. nov. and Palaeoweichselia yuanii. The flora which was found in Early-Middle Carboniferous from North Qilian Zoulang area, Gansu province belongs to the Euramerica flora. But some important elements of the flora appeared in China earlier than in Euramerica and Pre-USSR. By the way, the author thinks, Cathaysian flora came from north-west part of China, North Qilian Zoulang area were path of Cathaysian flora.
Abstract (Browse 1693)  |  Full Text PDF       
Simulation of Growth and Hydrotropism of Maize Roots
Author: Jin Ming-xian and Wang Tian-duo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(5)
      
    A three-dimensional model simulating the formation of root system architecture of maize was designed using object oriented programming (OOP) techniques. The model has been used to simulate the growth of roots in contrasting water profiles with or without gravitropism, and the mechanism of hydrotropism of root system and its relationship with gravitropism has been studied. In this model, the frontier of root system was treated as a population of root tips, each member of which responded individually to its local environment, and only a few of them could branch. The results of simulation showed that hydrotropism of maize roots could arise through the control of the elongation rate of single root by its local soil water potential. The difference in growth rate caused by the gradient of water potential along the soil profile alone could cause the root system as a whole to grow predominantly downwards, resulting in a shift of root distribution towards deeper layers. Gravitropism enhanced the downward predominance of the growth of root system, but the mechanism was different from that of hydrotropism.
Abstract (Browse 1858)  |  Full Text PDF       
Somatic Embryogenesis in Cell Suspension Culture of Saposhnikovia divaricata
Author: Ci Zhong-ling and Chen Hui-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(5)
      
    Calli of Saposhnikovia divaricata (Turcz.) Schischk. were induced from the roots of test tube seedlings cultured on MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D. Cell suspension was established by shaking the caul in liquid medium of the same components supplemented with 10% coconut milk. After the formation of embryogenic clusters, 2,4-D was omitted promoting the transformation of the embryogenic clusters to somatic embryos. Micro and submicroscopic: structural changes during the single cell to globular embryonic stage were observed. It was noticed that cortical endoplasmic reticulum appeared in the cells at the stage of embryogenic clump formation but was absent in other stages. Perhaps this was related to the metabolic specification leading to embryo formation. Spherosomes were observed of embryogenesis but remarkably increased in number at proglobular embryo stage. Meanwhile, the central electric dense matrix became progressively smaller and paler, while the outer part became enlarged and more transparent. This implied that the spherosomes took part in the storage of proteins or lipidproteins in the early stages of embryogenesis and transformation to lipid dror)s when the proteins were exhausted in the development of embryo, vacuolar protein bodies could be risualized in many cells in the proglobular embryo stage. This together with the existance and changes of spherosomes was similar to that observed in Peucedanum terebmthaceum. Further studies are meritted to approach, whether these are general phenomena in Umbelliferae. This work also revealed that the aggregation of single cells in suspension culture stimulated the initiation of embryogenesis.
Abstract (Browse 1880)  |  Full Text PDF       
Pollination-Induced Ethylene Synthesis and 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Oxidase Gene Expression in the Gynoecium of Phalaenopsis Orchid Flower
Author: Zhang Xian-sheng, Zhong Hui-wen, L Cheng, Huang Xin and Cao Zong-xun (Tsao T H)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(5)
      
    Pollination-induced ethylene production plays an important role in regulating flower development. As gynoecium is one of the more important parts in Phalaenopsis orchid flower, the authors have investigated ethylene production and 1-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase gene expression in gynoecium following pollination. Experimental studies revealed that ethylene production and ACC oxidase mRNA accumulation decreased steadily in stigma and style, in contrast, exhibited a crescendo increase in the ovary at 12.24 and 48 h after pollination, indicating a close relationship between ethylene production and ACC oxidase gene expression in the gynoecium. In addition ethylene production was found most in stigma and least in ovary among the three parts after pollination.
Abstract (Browse 1762)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fractionation and Biological Activity of Aspergillus oryzae Elicitor Promoting Biosynthesis of Shikonin Derivatives
Author: Ning Wen and Cao Ri-qiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(5)
      
    The Aspergillus oryzae elicitor was extracted from mycelia. The concentrated crude preparation of which was treated through DEAE-Cellulose, Sepharose-4B. Bio-Gel p- 4 and 732 columns. Elicitor activity was associated with fraction F b2-H, which had no affinity for DEAE-Cellulose and 732 resin. Its molecular weight was 12002200 D and its carbohydrate content was 6.7% of that of the crude. The elicitor activity was 120 times higher than that of crude preparation. There were also fractions F of nucleic acids and F b2-Na of nucleotides, amino acids in crude elicitor preparation. They did not affect shikonin derivative formation at low concentration, but inhibited shikonin derivative formation at high concentration. Fraction FIa of polysaccharid nature in the crude preparation which strongly inhibited shikonin derivative formation was another kind of elicitor of a new metabolite yellow pigment.
Abstract (Browse 1858)  |  Full Text PDF       
Application of Electrical Wave Transmission in Basic Research of Grafting
Author: Lu Shan-fa and Yang Shi-jie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(5)
      
    Electrical wave (EW) transmission from scion to stock across the grafting interface was related to the histological changes during the development of graft union. Variation wave (VW) could not be transmitted to stock from scion before isolation layer broken and callus interdigitation. As plasmodesmata formed secondarily at the interface between stock and scion where the isolation layer had disappeared, VW could be transmitted from scion to stock, but its velocity was not rapid until the vascular bridges form between two partners of graft union. Hence, the authors could deduce the degree of graft union formation by measuring whether VW could be transmitted from scion to stock or not and its velocity. EW trans mission method was a new tool for quickly detecting the formation of graft union.
Abstract (Browse 1687)  |  Full Text PDF       
Electrophoretic Survey of Proteins and Esterase Isozyme in WheatMaize Progenies
Author: Liu Hui, Chen Chun-xian, Sun Jing-san, Wang Zi-ning, Guo Bei-hai, Fang Ren and Wang Jing-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(5)
      
    The analysis of soluble proteins and esterase isozyme in F2 progeny grains from wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ) maize (Zea mays L. ) crosses indicated that the electrophoretic pattern of proteins and esterase isozymes was extremely different from that of their parents. Protein variation was mainly concentrated in the high-molecular-weight-Glu (HMW-Glu) zone. There were 5 kinds of protein eleetrophoretic patterns in the analyzed grains. VIZ: maternal, additional, complementary, hybrid and omission type which accounted for 22.6%, 14.3%, 15.5%, 30. 9% and 16.7% of the total tested grains respectively. In the analysis of esterase pattern, some variations in progenies were also found. The variations of electrophoretic pattern of proteins and esterase isozyme indicated that a genetic material change in wheat chromosomes could be induced in the distant hybridization.
Abstract (Browse 1793)  |  Full Text PDF       
Haploid Wheat Induction by Crosses Between Different Ploidy Wheat and Different Populations of Maize
Author: Wang Zi-ning, Guo Bei-hai, Li Hong-jie, Sun Jing-san, Liu Hui and Wang Jing-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(5)
      
    Haploid embryo and plant producing frequencies were studied by crossesing diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheat with landraces,hybrids and inbred lines of maize. It showed significant differences among the wheat and maize populations. The tetraploid and hexaploid wheat were better than the diploid. High frequencies were obtained by using tetraploid wheat of Triticum turgidum cv. TG14 and maize landraces cv. Xiaoyumi and Xiao Huangmaya. The highest haploid plant producing frequency (6.95 %) was obtained in the TG14 Xiaoyumi.
Abstract (Browse 1685)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Photoperiod on Supramolecular Architecture of Thylakoid Membranes from a Rice Mutant (Oryza sativa Nongken 58S)
Author: Zuo Bao-yu, Tong Zhe and Jiang Gui-zhen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(5)
      
    Plants of a rice mutant (Hubei photoperiod-sensitive genic male-sterile rice, Oryza sativa L. Nongken 58S) and its wild type cv. Nongken 58 were cultured in natural summer conditions in Beijing. After induction of proper photoperiods small panicle at the stem tip emerged and developed to the stage of secondary rachis-branch and spikelet primordium formation. Subsequently, part of the rice plants received long day (LD), i.e. 10 h of day-light treatment followed by 5 h of white fluorescent illumination with 12 Wm-2) . The others were exposed to daylight for 10 h alternating with a 14 h of dark period as short day (SD) treatment. After 10 days of the photoperiodic treatments, the chloroplast ultrastructure of the first leave below the flag leaf was examined by freeze-fracture rotary and unidirectionally shadowed electron microscopy. At anthesis stage, Nongken 58S plants with LD treatment showed complete pollen sterility, while the same plants with SD treatment exhibited normal fertility. And fertility of Nongken 58 was not affected by photoperiod treatments. The results from electron microscopic observation showed no significant effects of either SD or LD treatment on the freeze-fractured uhrastructure of thylakoid membranes in Nongken 58. No significant difference in particle density and size distribution was found on stacked and unstacked thylakoid membrane regions of the Nongken 58S-SD and those of Nongken 58 rice. However, the particle density of the endoplasmic fracture face in the staked region (EFs) and protoplasmic fracture face in the staked region (PFs) faces detected from the leaf thylakoid membranes of Nongken 58S-SD rice was significantly higher than that of the corresponding faces from Nongken 58S-LD. In some cases much more particles on EFs faces of thylakoid membranes isolated from Nongken 58S-SD rice appeared as paracrystalline particle array, indicating increases in the number of PS reaction centres, LHC I and Cyt b6/f per unit area of thylakoid membrane. The particle density of the endoplasmic fracture face in the unstaked region (EFu) and protoplasmic fracture face in the unstaked region (PFu) faces from unstacked thylakoid membranes of Nongken 58S-LD was less than that of the corresponding faces from Nongken 58S-SD. And the particle density of PFu faces from margin and end of the membranes of the grana thylakoids of LD-treated Nongken 58S leaves was also less than that of unstacked thylakoid membranes from SDtreated rice. In severe cases, most of the particles on endoplasmic fracture face in the unstaked region (EFu) and protoplasmic fracture face in the unstaked region (PFu) faces were even missing, indicating a decrease in the numbers of photosystem , LHC , Cyt b6/f and ATPase per unit area of' thylakoid membrane. The above results could further provide an augmentation for explaning the photoperiod-sensitive genic male-sterility.
Abstract (Browse 1871)  |  Full Text PDF       
Dynamic Changes of Endogenous Phytohormones During the Development of Embryos Derived from Wheat Crossed with Zea mays and Tripsacum dactyloides
Author: Dong Xiao-cheng and Li Da-wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(5)
      
    The embryos derived from intergeneric crosses between Triticum aestivum L. (2n = 6x= 42) and Zea mays L. (2n= 20), Tripsacum dactyloides L. (2n= 4x= 72), as results of the elimination of paternal chromosome and having no endosperm as normal, are difficult to develop completely in vivo. Hormonal analyses in such intergeneric hybridized ovaries have been carried out including indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z) and zeatin riboside (ZR), and abscisic acid (ABA) during different developmental stages of embryo. The results indicated that IAA level in hybridized ovaries was much lower than that in self-pollinated ovaries. Moreover, the active changes of Z+ZR and ABA contents were also different between the above two types of ovary. Nevertheless, the ratio changes of IAA/(Z+ZR) and IAA/ABA were similar between the two types of ovary, the same was true in the ratio changs of IAA, Z+ZR, and ABA to the sum of these three types of endogenous hormones. But the three types of ratios in hybridized ovaries were varied far more greater than those in self-pollinated ones. It suggested the importance to maintain dynamic equilibrium of multiple hormones and sequential regulation during the embryo development. That the distantly hybridized embryos failed to mature successfully was probably associated with a deviation from the normal changes of endogenous hormones levels and balance system of multiple hormones in addition to the lack of endosperm nourishment.
Abstract (Browse 1649)  |  Full Text PDF       
In Vitro Heat Stability of Plasma Membrane Vesicles and Tonoplast Membrane Vesicles Isolated From the Hypocotyle of Phaseolus vulgaris
Author: Liu Jian, Yang Xiao-he and Wu Xian-rong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(5)
      
    Microsome, plasma membrane vesicles and tonoplast membrane vesicles were isolated from the hypocotyles of Phaseolus vulgaris L. 85CT-49762, with very high heat tolerance potential. Comparing the H+-pump heat stability in vitro of the vesicles from the heat acclimated cells and the cells in which protein synthesis was inhibited by actidion during heat acclimation with that of normal cells, the authors found that heat acclimation could increase the heat stability of membrane vesicles, and that the heat shock proteins synthesized during heat acclimation were related to the effect. The authors further analysed the role of membrane peripheral proteins on H+-pump thermotolerance of membrane vesicles, and proved that heat shock protein HSP 70 and low molecular weight heat shock protein (LMW HSP) were able to protect H+-pump from heat destruction.
Abstract (Browse 1687)  |  Full Text PDF       
Pollen-Mesophyll Protoplast Fusion and Hybrid Plant Regeneration in Nicotiana
Author: Lu Ping, Zhou Chang and Yang Hong-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(5)
      
    Isolated pollen protoplasts of Nicotiana tabacum L. N364 Km+ were fused with mesophyll protoplasts of N. rustica L. using PEG-high Ca/pH method. The cells resulted from fusion between immature (early-middle bicellular) pollen protoplasts and mesophyll protoplasts could divide to produce microcalli and regenerated plantlets when cultured in a selection KM8p medium containing 50 g/L kanamycin. Four plantlets were regenerated. The isoenzyme patterns of leaf peroxidases of these plantlets had bands characteristic of both parents. Root-tip squash showed that the gameto-somatic hybrids had the expected triploid chromosome number. Aside from these kanamycin-selected plantlets, six of the twenty-one plantlets that had not undergone selection were also evidenced to be gameto-somatic hybrids.
Abstract (Browse 1737)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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