June 1996, Volume 38 Issue 6

 

          Research Articles
Two New Buxus Alkaloids from Buxus Microphylla Sieb. et Zucc.
Author: Du Jiang, Qiu Ming-hua, Nie Rui-lin, L Yang, Wu Nan and Zheng Qi-tai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(6)
      
    Five compounds were isolated from Buxus microphylla Sieb. et Zucc. Based on the physico-chemical constants and spectral analysis (IR, MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR), they were identified as cycloprotobuxinamine ( ), buxmicrophylline A ( ), buxtauine M ( ), isoscopoletin () and epi-lupeol ( ). ( ) and ( ) were new compounds. The structure of buxmicrophylline ( ) was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis.
Abstract (Browse 1985)  |  Full Text PDF       
Research on Bioecological Characteristics of Suaeda physophora and Its Community at the Hutubi Cattle Farm Area of Xinjiang, China
Author: Kong Ling-shao and Ma Mao-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(6)
      
    Suaeda physophora was distributed on the saline soil with a salt contents 3.0% 6.0% in the surface layer (0420 cm underground). The plant height was 4560 cm and the average length of the one-year twig was 12 cm. The succulent leave was strip shaped. The well developed lateral roots was distributed in the deeper soil (EOb 60 cra) with decreased salt contents and increased water content. The multiregression model for individual plant's aboveground biomass was: Y = 312. 00 + 3.44X1 + 4. 85X2 - 2.16X3 (Xl, length; X2, width: X3, height). The contents of Na, S and K in leave of S. physophora were very high. That of Na was 91255 g g-1. The element contents varied in the different parts of plant. K, Na, Mg, S and P contents were the highest respectively in the leaf and ear of flower, but they were the lowest in the old twig. Total salt content of water extracts from tender twig and leaf was 23.17%, being more than in ear of flower and old twig. The element and salt contents varied in different seasons of plant growth. The S. physophora community was a formation on the succulent halophytic dwarf sub-shrub desert. Nine associations were recorded at this area. The coverage of community was 6 % ~25 %.
Abstract (Browse 1888)  |  Full Text PDF       
Variation of Leaf Stomatal Conductance in Winter Wheat Canopy
Author: Mo Xing-guo, Xiang Yue-qin and Liu Su-xia
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(6)
      
    Leaf stomatal conductance measured and analysed in the canopies of two winter wheat varieties in the field revealed that the probability of adaxial to abaxial conductance ratio followed an approximately normal distribution with a peake value of about 1.5. The ratio changed with the developmental stages being maximium at the heading stage. Leaf stomata in wheat of the upper part of the canopy were more active and showed more pronounced diurnal change of conductance than those of the lower part. Stomatal conductance decreased from top to bottom in canopy as a negative exponential function. By comparing adaxial and abaxial conductances in the apical, middle and basal parts of a leaf, the distribution of the stomatal conductances of a wheat leaf was as follows: a steady decrease from the basal part of adaxial, through the middle and apical parts of the adaxial surface turning to the apical part of abaxial, and then the middle and lastly, the basal part of abaxial. Based on values of the correlation coefficients among the various stomatal conductance and average stomatal conductance, the authors suggested that optimal apical measurement of stomatal conductance would be at the middle and apical parts and that of abaxial would be at middle and basal parts.
Abstract (Browse 2088)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Determination of Cucurbitane-Glycosides from Fresh Fruits of Siraitia Grosvenorii
Author: Si Jian-yong, Chen Di-hua, Chang Qi and Shen Lian-gang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(6)
      
    A new cucurbitane-glycoside named neomogroside, was isolated from the fresh fruits of Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle) C. Jeffery ex Lu et Z. Y. Zhang in addition to four other known compounds. By means of spectroscopic analysis, the structure of neomogroside was identified as mogrol-3-O-[-D-glucopyranosyl (6-1)--glycopyranosyl (2-1) --D-gly- copyranoside]-24-O-{ [-D-glycopyranosyl (2-1) ]-[-glycopyranosyl (6-1) ]--glycopy- ranoside } (5). The known compounds were identified as mogroside E (1). mogroside (2), mogroside (3) and mogroside (4).
Abstract (Browse 2199)  |  Full Text PDF       
Exogenous Ca2+ Inhibits Senescence-Retarding Effect of Cytokinins in Detached Rice Leaves
Author: Peng Xin-xiang and Yamauchi M
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(6)
      
    Cytokinins and Ca2+ singly retarded senescence of detached rice leaves. When Ca2+ was applied together with cytokinins, the effectiveness of cytokinins was significantly reduced. Ca2+ and cytokinins did not stimulate ethylene production synergistically, ruling out the possibility that ethylene was involved in the inhibition of cytokinin-induced senescence- retarding effect by Ca2+. The experiment with specific compounds known to increase (Ca ionophore A23187), or decrease (EGTA, LaCl3, Verapamil, chlorpromazine) cytosolic Ca2+ level indicated that the elevated cytosolic Ca2+ retards senescence.
Abstract (Browse 1862)  |  Full Text PDF       
Characterization of the Membrane- Bound Gibberellin Binding Proteins from Young Shoots of Rice
Author: Song Ping, Cao Xian-zu, Wu Yong-hong, Zhu Xiao-hong and Liang Jian-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(6)
      
    Gibberellin-binding proteins were found on the membrane of young rice shoot. The dissociation constant (Kd) for GAs was approximately 6.5 10-8 mol/L, and the total concentration of the sites was 0. 3 pmol mg-1 protein. The binding activity of gibberellin-binding proteins was significantly affected by temperature and phi which was 140% higher at 0 than that at 25 , and the optimal pH value was 5. Gibberellin-binding activity increased with the incubation time, reaching the maximum at 1 h. and then decreased gradually. Both IAA and ABA were able to compete with GA3 for gibberellin-binding proteins.
Abstract (Browse 1743)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies of Technical Conditions of Somatic Embryogenesis in Cell Suspension Culture of Apium Graveolens
Author: Bi Jing-xiu, Ouyang Fan, Liu De-hua, Guo Zhong-chen, Gui Yao-lin and Yang Ying-gen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(6)
      
    Using hypocotyls (510 mm) of Apium graveolens L. as explant, calli were induced in induction medium (MS + 1.0 mg/L 2, 4-D). The embryogenic calli were transformed to differentiation medium (MS+0. 5 mg/L kinetin+ 500 mg/L CH+500 mg/L Prolin) after several subsequent subcultures and selection by replacement of solid and liquid medium. Technical conditions such as the shake rate of the flask, the initial cell density, as well as subsequent the initial pH values during culture were under consideration. With the optimum flask shake rate of about 100150 r/min, initial cell density of 2.0% (fresh weight) and the initial pH value of 5.5, the authors have obtained 130 normal cotyledon embryos in each mL of cultures.
Abstract (Browse 1740)  |  Full Text PDF       
Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of a Gene Encoding Rice Proteinase Inhibitor
Author: Xie Ming, Chen Xin, Qu Li-jia, Liu Hong, Gu Hong-ya and Chen Zhang-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(6)
      
    With the primers designed basing on the terminal amino acid sequences of rice proteinase inhibitors and the preferred codons of rice genes, a new gene coding for a rice proteinase inhibitor has been amplified and cloned from Oryza sativa var. japonica (cv. Zhonghua 8) using PCR technique. The gene contains 408 basepairs and encodes 133 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence with duplicated Bowman-Birk type structure and active sites specific to trypsin has relatively high homology with that of proteinase inhibitors from wheats, beans etc. As for rice, the new gene shares 74.8% homology with a rice bran trypsin inhibitor reported previously. The evolutionary characteristics of the proteinase inhibitor family has also been discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1756)  |  Full Text PDF       
Production of Trichosanthin from the Hairy Roots of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim.
Author: Qiu De-you, Zhu Cheng and Zhu Zhi-qing (Chu Chih-ching)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(6)
      
    Hairy roots of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim. were successfully induced by infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain R1601 and an in vitro culture system of thehairy roots was established. The presence of trichosanthin in the hairy roots of T. kirilowii was confirmed by western blotting. The yield of trichosanthin was determined to be 8. 16 mg/g fr. wt with SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis and thin layer chromatography.
Abstract (Browse 1843)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genetic Analysis of Isozyme Loci in Adenophora potaninii Korsh.
Author: Ge Song and Hong De-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(6)
      
    Enzyme polymorphism in Adenophora potaninii Korsh. was investigated using vertical slab polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Genetic analysis of the population samples and the progeny of intraspecific crosses allowed the verification of the isozyme loci from eight enzyme systems. The system studies included aspartate aminotransferase (AAT), esterase (EST). formate dehydrogenase (FDH), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malic enzyme (ME) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The results indicated that the eight enzyme systems are specified by at least 18 loci, 12 of which behaved as al|ozyme loci. Zymogram patterns showed that EST is monomeric and GDH is hexameric. AAT, FDH, IDH and SOD are apparently dimeric. The tissue and developmental variability are also discussed along with the genetic analysis of isozymes.
Abstract (Browse 1835)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Development of Glandular Hairs in Nymphoides peltatum and the Ultrastructure During Their Secretory P
Author: Ding Xiao yu, Shi Guo xin and Chen Wei pei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(6)
      
    Each glandular hair of Nyrnphoides peltaturn (Gmel.) O. Kuntz consisted of only one row of cylindar cells with secretory function. The hairs originated from the protoderm cells on the adaxial surface of the second leaf primordium from the shoot apex. Cells of the glandular hairs prossessed dense cytoplast during the secretory period, but the vacuoles were very small. There were not only abundant mitochondria, Golgi bodies and endoplasmic reticulum in the glandular hair cells, but also many plasmodesmata. The authors' research indicated that the mucilage was carried to the edge of the cells by the membranous multilamellar bodies and the vesicles from both Golgi bodies and endoplasmic reticulum. The mucilage was secreted extracellularly by either exocytosis or ecrine secretion. The side walls of the glandular hairs swelled because of mucilage mass accumulation in the walls. The mucilage, being tested to be composed of polysaccharides and a trace of protein, played an important role in protecting the development of the vegetative buds of N. peltatum.
Abstract (Browse 1775)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructure of Blepharoplast and Other Organelles of the Spermatid in Ginkgo biloba
Author: Teng Jun-lin and Zhai Zhong-he
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(6)
      
    Both blepbaroplast and osmiophilic globule were characteristic structures to the spermatid of Ginkgo biloba. The blepharoplast of Ginkgo biloba ranged from 3 4 m in diameter and consisted of a number of basal centrioles radiating from an electron dense core that contained electron-lucent areas with microtubule structure. Microtubules extended radially from the blepharoplast into the cytoplasm. A large round osmiopbilie globule with a diameter of about 1020/m, was located between the blepharoplast and the nucleus, while a filbrillogranular body in the cytoplasm was opposite to the osmiophilic globule. There were numerous mitochondria, plastids, endoplasmic reticulia and dictiosomes in the cytoplasm, particularly around the blepharoplast and the osmiophilic globule of sperm cells. The nucleus of spermatid in Ginkgo biloba was large and roundly elliptical in shape. The large spheroidal nucleolus was the most obvious structure in the nucleus, There were two regions in the nucleolus distinguished by TEM: A ring-shaped granular component, which contained maturing ribosomal precursor particles; and a centrally placed fibrillar component. The nuclear pore complexes in the nuclear envelope were plentiful but not evenly distributed.
Abstract (Browse 1902)  |  Full Text PDF       
Acceptance and Analysis of Plant Science Projects Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China in 1995
Author: Zhu Da-bao and Lin Lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(6)
Abstract (Browse 1668)  |  Full Text PDF       
Intranuclear Inclusions in Leaf Mesophyll Cells of Davidia involucrata
Author: Huang Jin-sheng, Jiang Li, Gan Xi-hua and Zhu Wei-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(6)
      
    The ultrastructure of intranuclear inclusions in leaf mesophyll cells of Davidia involucrata was investigated with electron microscopy. Intranuclear inclusions occur generally in the cells of young and mature leaves. They consist of numerous bundles aggregated by several fibres (diameter about 10 nm), sometimes a few of bundles turn to tubules enveloped by fibres. Authors suggested that it is a new subtype (F2) of intranuclear fibrillar inclusion.
Abstract (Browse 1741)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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