July 1996, Volume 38 Issue 7


          Research Articles
Induction of Male Sterility in Oilseed Rape by TA29-Barnase Gene
Author: Zhong Rong, Liu Yu-le, Zhu Feng, Li Sheng-guo, Kang Liang-yi and Luo Peng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(7)
    Chimaeric TA29-Barnase gene was introduced into oilseed rape (Brassica napus) of good quality and high yield by Agrobacteriurn tumefaciens transformation. The transgenic plants were obtained and transformed genome was determined by Southern blot analysis. About 90~/40 TA29-Barnase transgenic plants were male sterile. However, about 80% transgenic plants turned to be male fertile at temperature higher than 25 . It suggested that male sterility of these transgenic plants was probably temperature sensitive.
Abstract (Browse 2300)  |  Full Text PDF       
Implication of Paleovegetational Changes in Diaojiao Lake, Inner Mongolia
Author: Song Chang-qing, Wang Beng-yu and Sun Xiang-jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(7)
    Pollen analysis resulted from 111 core samples from Diaojiao (DJ) Lake Inner Mongolia have shown the highest value of total pollen accumulati6n rate was more than 20000 grains cm-2 a-1 and lowest was 8090 grains cm-2 a- 1. In general, the arboreal pollen was more than 50%, up to 80%, including the following families and genera: Pinus, Betula, ,Picea, Carpinus, Ouercus, Ulrnus etc. The non-arboreal pollen consist of 27 types, which mainly include Artemisia, Ephedra, Chenopodiaceae, Compositae, Gramineae, Leguminosae, Labiatae, Nitraria. Polygonaceae, Ranunculus, Thalictrurn, Umbelliferae, Caryophyllaceae and Cyperaceae etc. Fern spores, aquatic pollen and algae were also observed off and on in the DJ core. A pollen diagram, of five pollen assemblage zones was established through stratigraphically constrained cluster analysis,using the method of incremental sum of squares. It shows two peaks appearing at about 6.3 and 5.1 ka BP in the curve of total pollen accumulation rate. The first peak reflects a humid period and the second an arid period. The study indicated that Holocene climatic and vegetational changes in Inner Mongolia can be recongnized at different time scales (e. g. thousands, hundreds of years, or even much shorter time scale). In addition, the humidity in that area during those time was higher than today, with dominent climate humid-cool or humid-warm during most of the Holocene time on account of the lower vaporization and high altitude (1800 ma. s. 1. ).
Abstract (Browse 1921)  |  Full Text PDF       
Character of a Nology and Changes of Monsoon Climate Over the Last 10000 Years in Gucheng Lake, Jiangsu Province
Author: Yang Xiang-dong, Wang Su-min and Tong Guo-bang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(7)
    Systematic palynological research was conducted on more than 343 samples from a column or rock core obtained by drilling to a depth of 20 m in Gucheng lake. According to three assemblage zones and nine subzones of the sporo-pollen, and the dating of 14, we have explored the regularity of palaeoclimatic changes and palaeomonsoon activities since 15.0 ka BP. During 15.0 11.0 ka BP, the temperature had increased a little, but the climate was still cool and relatively dry, reflecting a weak wet monsoon and low precipitation at that time. In the period of 311.0 ka BP, it became cold and wet, with an increased effect of the dry monsoon, and the area was probably situated in a position of the frontal zone. Causing considerable effective humidity. Later than 11.0 ka BP, the temperature increased rapidly within 500 years with a subsquent, turn of the climate towards significantly warmer and wet and a further intensification of the monsoon effect. This rapid temperature increase corre-sponded to the increasing radiation of solar energy during 11.010.0 ka BP. From 10.5 to 6.4 ka BP, the wet monsoon was the priority climate of the region, albeit there were at least two or three spells of cooling, as well as decreasing of monsoon precipitation.
Abstract (Browse 1789)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Characterization of NH+4-Excreting Mutants of Enterobacter gergoviae
Author: Li Yong-xing, Dong Yue-mei and Li Jiu-di
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(7)
    NH4+-excreting mutants were isolated from Enterobacter gergoviae 57C7 wild type as methylamine resistant strains which were obtained by mutagenesis with a transposable element Tn5. The MG 61 mutants excreted 2 mmol/L of ammonium during a diazotrophic growth. The growth of MG 61 mutants were slower than the growth of wild types because of its excreting ammonium. MG 61 mutants expressed up to 86% of the fully depressed nitrogenase activity when grown in a medium containing 20 mmol/L ammonium. By contrast the ammonium grown cultures of wild type had no nitrogenase activity. In the presence of 5 mmol/L or 30 mmol/L of ammonium in the medium, the growth of MG 61 mutants was as same as CK and much slower than that of the wild types which means that the mutants could not utilize amonium very well in the medium. But MG 61 mutants could utilize glutamate as a sole nitrogen source. In the presence of nitrate (10 mmol/L) in the medium, MG 61 mutants grew slowly but excreted 7.8 mmol/L of ammonium.
Abstract (Browse 1778)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes of Chlorophyll Metabolism During the Albinic Stage of a Wheat Mutant
Author: Wang Bao-li, Guo Ai-guang and Wang Pei-hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(7)
    Changes of chlorophyll metabolism during the albinic stage including both degreening and regreening processes were studied. The results indicated that an decrease of Cato content was nor the cause of mutant degreening, and that the mutant belonged to the total Chl-dificient type. The changes of Chlase activity level indicated that Chi breakdown was not the main factor which led to degreen of the mutant. A greater changes of content of intermediates of Chl biosynthesis during the albinic period -aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and porphohilinogen (PBG) were accumulated, but uroporphyrin (Uro ), protoporphyrin IX (Proto IX ), Mg-protoporphyrin IX (Mg-Proto IX ) and protochlorophyll (ide) (Pchl (lide)) were decreased. Specialy during the degreening process Uro was gradually decreased, but an initiation of regreening, the Uro was markedly accmulated. It was proved that there was a blockage in Chi biosynthesis in the mutant, which could be somewhere in the formation of uroporphyrinogen (Urogen ).
Abstract (Browse 2029)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Galactomannan Accumulation in the Endosperm of Sophora japonica During Seed Development
Author: Wang Ying, Fan Ting-yu, Bai Yu-hua and Yang Rui-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(7)
    he deposition of galactomannan in the seed endosperm cells from Sophora japonica L. starts 5560 d after anthesis and ends at the time of seed maturation. The formation and accumulation of galactomannan in the cellwall of endosperm examined using histochemical method. It was found that galactomannan was at first formed in the vesicle of rough endoplasmic reticulum of the endosperm dells near the embryo and then expelled outside the plasmalemma. Afterwards, galactomannan deposition in the endosperm cell expanded towards the seed coat. Consequently, all cells of the endosperm, except those of the aleurone layer, became almost completely filled with galactomannan. In addition to the description, the site of galactomannan formation and the fluctuation of galactomannan during seed maturation were also briefly discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1810)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural and DNA Epifluorescence Observations of the Sperm Cells of Rhododendron-- with Emphasis on Biparental Plastid Inheritance
Author: Guo Feng-li and Hu Shi-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(7)
    The mature pollen grains of Rhododendron mucronulatum Turcz. conform to the 2-celled type. Sperm cells differentiated within the pollen tube about 24 hours after germination in vitro and paired together, one of which being linked with the vegetative nucleus, forming a male germ unit (MGU). Abundance of plastids, mitochondria, microtubules and single-membrane-bounded vesicles could be visualized in each sperm cell, however, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus were scarce. The electron-dense plastids with normal structure gave ring-like or dumbbell appearance in sections. Mitochondria were smaller and less electron-dense' in contrast to the plastids. DNA epifluorescence technique revealed that the generative and sperm cells contained numerous organelle nuclei (nucleoids). There was no difference in nucleoid number between the two sperm cells in a pollen tube. The results confirmed the possible existance of cytoplasmic inheritance potential of the male gametes of Rhododendron.
Abstract (Browse 2033)  |  Full Text PDF       
Expression of IAA-Lysine Synthetase Gene Caused Variations of Flower Develop ment in Transgenic Tobacco
Author: Yang Hong-quan, Wei Zhi-ming and Xu Zhi-hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(7)
    The indoleacetic acid-lysine synthetase (iaaL) gene of Pseudornonas syringae subsp. savastanoi was fused to a rice Rchl0 promoter and introduced into tobacco plants. The expression pattern of this chimeric Rchl0-iaaL gene in the transgenic plants was studied, and the endogenous levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA) were assayed with the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The results showed that the Rchl0 promoter could direct the high level expression of the iaaL gene in young inflorescences, fully bloomed flowers, and immature fruits, resulted in a decrease of the IAA levels by 32%C82%. The transgenic plants displayed decreased apical dominance, enlongated stamens, abnormal inflorescences and fruits. The transgenie plant pYL614-T14, in which the endogenous IAA levels in inflorescences were reduced by 82 %, displayed extremely abnormal inflorescence with only two flowers and a much higher potential of vegetative growth than that of the controls after flowering. These Rchl 0-iaaL gene transgenic tobacco plants would pro- vide valuable materials for further studies of physiological functions of IAA in reproductive development.
Abstract (Browse 1991)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Studies on Pollination Biology of Mosla hangchouensis and M.chinensis (Labiatae)
Author: Zhou Shi-liang, Pan Kai-yu and Hong De-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(7)
    Mosla hangchouensis Matsuda and M. chinensis Maxim. are sibling species. The former is endemic to the coastal areas of Zhejiang Province, and the latter occupies southern China. Their morphological differences were associated with their different breeding systems indicated by pollen-ovule ratio (P/O). M. hangchouensis was predominantly outcrossing with P/O ranging from 756 to 6163 due to the variation among populations. Floral characters also showed that M. hangchouensis is an outcrosser: corolla tube 510 mm long, 3~5 mm wide, bright red: style 615 mm long; stigma 1.52.0 mm horizontally away from anthers. On the contrary, M. chinensis was predominantly a selfer with a low P/O ratio (P/O= 110). Its floral parameters contrasted sharply with M. hangchouensis: corolla tube 3.0 mm long, 1.0 1.5 mm wide, pale colored; style 2.5 mm long. stigma close to or touching anthers. The pollinators of M. hangchouensis most frequently seen are: Bombus trifascitus Smith., Scolia spp., Apis cerana Fabricius, Hylaeus sp. and Lasioglossum spp. These pollinators began to visit flowers at about 8:00 am, when flower buds were ready to open. When insects entered corolla tube for honey and (or) pollen, the stigmata touched the insects body hairs to which pollen grains adhered, and pollen grains were transferred to the stigmata. Meanwhile the hairs collected pollen from anthers under the upper lips of corolla as the insects thrusted their bodies forward. Bumble bees and honey bees were considered more efficient pollinators because they were hair-rich and their body size fitted corolla tube fairly well. Due to the'short flight distance of pollinators between two visits (average flight distances of honey bees and solitary bees were 0.52 m and 0.32 m respectively), pollen dispersal was probably restricted. Pollen vectors were important for the reproductive success of M. hangchouensis because 84.3 % of its seed-set depended on the pollinators' visitation. Although insects did pay visits to M. chinensis occasionally, such visitation was insignificant in seed-set due to cleistogamy. Discussions are made on the evolutionary significance of breeding system divergence between M. hangchouensis and M. chinensis, and the contribution of studies on pollination biology to conservation biology. Further studies are suggested for more thorough understanding of pollination biology of M. hangchouensis.
Abstract (Browse 2128)  |  Full Text PDF       
The FloralSpecific Proteins of Cucumber
Author: Lin Ming and Cao Zong-xun (Tsao Tsung-hsun)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(7)
    Soluble proteins extracted from various organs of cucumber (Cucurnis sativus L. ) were analyzed using the technique of SDS one dimensional gel electrophoresis. The majority of the proteins were expressed in more than one organ, while those specific to only one organ were comparatively rare. Only two of all the proteins analized appeared to be truely organspecific. A 40.0 kD protein and a 30.8 kD protein were observed only in extracts of reproductive organs stamen and ovary. Some proteins were specific only to certain reproductive organ. They are 35.0 kD and 34.0 kD in sepal, 18. 8 kD, 28.5 kD, 31.0 kD, 37.0 kD and 39.0 kD in stamen, 45.0 kD in style with stigma and 32.5 kD in ovary. IEF-SDS two-dimensional'electrophoresis showed that many of the one-dimensional gel bands represented several proteins dots in the 2-D and that some of them were unique to an organ-type of the flower. Protein analysis of the various organs showed that stamens contained the greatest amount and petals the least amount of protein.
Abstract (Browse 1792)  |  Full Text PDF       
Gene Expression of Chalcone Synthase-A (CHSA) in Flower Colour Alterations and Male Sterility in Transgenic Petunia
Author: Shao Li, Li Yi, Yang Mei-zhu, Song Yun, Chen Zhang-liang and Xiao Shi-hui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(7)
    Chalcone synthase-A (CHSA) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of all classes of flovonoids, and variation of its expression might affect the colour of flowers. CHSA gene was cloned from flower petals just coming into bloom and inserted in procaryotic expression vector and eucaryotic vector which contains CaMV 35S promoter in a sense-orientation. CHSA gene was highly expressed in procaryotic expression system. Petunia (Petunia hybrida) leaf discs were transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciences LBA4404. Not only flower colours of the resulted transgenic plant were altered, but the transgenic plants became malesterile. Northern blotting assays showed that the transcription of both transgene and endogenous genes were suppressed in the flower petals of transgenic plant.
Abstract (Browse 2063)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study of a Hydridoma Cell Line Producing Monoclonal Antibodies Against Spinach Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase and Its Application
Author: Liang Zheng, Tan Ping-ping, Luo Ai-ling, Song Hai-yan, Zhang Ting and Bai Qin-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(7)
    By fusion of mouse myeloma cells (SP2/O-Ag14) and spleen cells derived from BALB/c mice immunized with spinach betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) protein, a hybridoma cell line secreting monoclonal antibodies was obtained. The antibody titer of the ascites was about 1 : 103. Not only could the monoclonal antibodes cross react with the BADH of spinach and sugar beet, it could also cross react with the leaf and root crude extracts of barley, rice, sorghum, and wheat. These results indicated the occurrence of BADH in both the photosynthetic tissue and the non-photosynthetic tissue of these graminea spicies.
Abstract (Browse 1801)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Role of Bivalent Cations on the Isolation of Allantoinase from the Soybean Seed Extracts
Author: Liu Cheng-xian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(7)
    Allantoinases (ALNase) in the water extracts distilled from seeds and leaves of soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Keyu 10) were. remarkably heat stable. However the enzyme and non-enzyme protein in the seed extract, but not leaf extract, lost their activity and were denaturated at 75 for 5 min in the presence of Ca2+, Mg2+. or Mn2+ions respecitively. At room temperature over 40%50% of the non-enzyme proteins in the seed extract could be removed by the bivalent cations without affecting the enzyme activity. This effect was weakend by the increase of concentration. Both extracts had different responses to all sorts of insoluble Ca2. salts. For the seed extract about 50 % of the non-enzyme proteins were removed by 5 % CaSO4 (W/V), without effecting the enzyme activity, while the leaf extract was sensible to Ca3 (PO4) 2. After treatment with 5 % Ca3 (PO4) 2 about 50 % of the enzyme activities and about 70% of proteins were lost. Mn2+ ions could enhance the enzyme activity in crude seed extract, but had no effect on partially purified enzyme from seeds and enzyme in crude extract from leaves. Further, EDTA had no effect on enzyme activity in both extracts.
Abstract (Browse 1763)  |  Full Text PDF       
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