August 1996, Volume 38 Issue 8


          Research Articles
The Chemical Constituents of Elsholtzia densa Benth.
Author: Sun Li-ping, Yin Zuo-dong, Fu Zheng-sheng, Zheng Shang-zhen and Shen Xu-wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(8)
    Ten compounds were isolated from Elsholtzia densa Benth. and their structures were identified by spectral and chemical methods as following: n-nonacosane (1), succinic acid (2), 5- ( 3 ¡±, 3 ¡±-dimethylallyl ) -8-methoxyfurocoumarin (3), 5- ( 3 ¡±-methylbutyl) -8- methoxyfurocoumarin (4), 5- (3¡±-hydroxy-3¡±-methylbutyl) -8-methoxyfurocoumarin (5), 3, 4-dihydroxycinnamic acid ( 6 ), 5-hydroxy-3¡¯-methoxyflavanone-7-O-rutinoside ( 7 ), quercetin-3-O-¦Â-D-glucoside ( 8 ), kaempferol-3-O-¦Â-D-glucoside ( 9 ), 5-hydroxy-4¡¯- methoxyflavone-7-O-rutinoside (10). Among them, compounds 4 and 5 are new naturally occurring furocoumarins.
Abstract (Browse 2115)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Dryophyllum Complex from China and Its Geological and Systematic Implications
Author: Zhou Zhe-kun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(8)
    Chinese specimens of Dryophyllurn which regarded as 9 species have been revised based on Jones's researches on Dryophyllum. Five of them have been moved to Berryophyllum (Dryophyllum dewalquei, D. parvurn, D. relongtanense, D. yunnanensis and D. sp. ); D. fushunense to Castaneophyllum fushunense; D. nervosaurn to Quercus nervosum, and some speciemen identified as D. relongtanense to Q. lantenoisii. Speciemen of Dryophyllum subfalcaturn from the Cretaceous of Northestern China does not belong to Dryophyllurn. Geological significance were discussed. Berryophyllum and CastaneophyUurn seem to be middle-groups between ancient Fagaceae and modern Fagaceae. It also indicates that the modern genera of Fagaceae did not occur until the Eocene.
Abstract (Browse 1981)  |  Full Text PDF       
Variation in Transpiration Rate of Plant Cuttings
Author: Guo Ke, Dong Xue-jun, Zhao Yu-xing and Liu Zhi-mao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(8)
    Porometric analysis of transpiration variance of plant cuttings of 8 species in Maowusu Sandland, Inner Mongolia was carried out. Transpiration rate of a plant part changed immediately after cutting. Quantitation and prediction of such a change were different as the nature of the change was relevant to the leaf-water status of the plant which, in turn, was species, habitat and cutting time specific. Therefore, average transpiration rate of a plant cutting measured in a certain time interval was not a representive transpiration rate of the plant without any correction. Based on the present result, the author's suggest that porometry is applicable when a correction is made by a coefficient expressing the difference in transpiration rate between before and after cutting, which can be used to estimate the transpiration rate of the plant.
Abstract (Browse 2013)  |  Full Text PDF       
Characteristic Responsiveness of Modular Populations of Kobresia humilis to Grazing in Alpine Meadow
Author: Zhu Zhi-hong and Sun Shang-qi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(8)
    The seasonal dynamics and grazing responsiveness of modular populations of Kobresia humilis were studied at the fourth year (1991) of grazing under different stock intensities and after resting for 1 year (1993) in alpine meadow. The results showed that the number of tillers and leaves per ramet of modular populations of Kobresia humilis increased and the time for which the number of cumulative surviving leaves reaching its maximum was delayed with the increase of stock intensity. The seasonal dynamics of tiller, flowering tiller and total cumulative leave of the populations displayed similar variations with the change of grazing intensities. Two peaks of growth rate of tiller population were observed at the middle and last ten days of May and at the last ten days of August respectively. The peak of death rate of tiller population was at the end of season of growth. The cycle of initiation and death of leaf was nearly synchronous with that of tiller. The greatest risk of leaf death was also in concert with the highest rate birth. The pattern of survival curves was of the ¡°Deevey type ¢ñ¡± for tiller populations and of the ¡°stepwise¡± type for leaf populations respectively. And different stock intensities had no effect on the patterns of survival curves, however, their im-pacts on the differences in the number of tiller and leaf populations of Kobresia humilis remained 1 year after stop grazing.
Abstract (Browse 1736)  |  Full Text PDF       
Phosphate Buffers Effect on Protective Enzyme System and Relationship of Enzyme System with SO2 Pollution in Wheat Seedlings
Author: Liu Rong-kun, Li Zhen-zhen, Zhu Ji-hong and Zhang Xiao-he
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(8)
    The effect of phosphate buffer on protective enzyme system was different as the way of treatment and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ) species. Normally superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activity increased markedly. The former decreased with the increase of SO2 fumigation dosage but it was higher than control and producted new isoenzyme pedigree. The latter increased according to SO2 fumigation and showed relative gain effect with phosphate buffer the isoenzyme pedigree increased markedly. The change of protective enzyme system of scavenging free radicals was possible one cause that phosphate buffer eased SO2 insult of wheat seedlings.
Abstract (Browse 1822)  |  Full Text PDF       
Influences of CO2/Salt Shock on Respiratory Enzyme Activities in Wheat Seedling with Different Salt Tolerance
Author: Liu Jia-yao, Yi Yan-jun, Bai Ke-zhi and Liang Zheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(8)
    Influences of CO2/salt shock on the growth status, chlorophyll contents and activities of enzymes including tricarboxylic acid cycle (isocitric dehydrogenase (IDH), malic dehydrogenase (MDH), succinic dehydrogenase (SDH)) and photorespiratory pathway (glycolate oxidase (GO), hydroxypyruvate reductase (HRR), catalase) in seedling of wheat with different salt tolerance have been studied. Results showed that the growth of two wheat varieties were inhibited by NaC1 and stimulated by CO2, the responses being greater in the salt-stressed than in the non-salt-stressed plants. The chlorophyll contents at two wheat varieties were decreased by NaC1 while chorophyll levels were elevated by CO2. The activities of SDH, IDH, MDH in TCAC, and GO, HPR in photorespiratory pathway were stimulated by NaCI in salt-sensitive wheat, whereas these enzymes activities were inhibited by CO2, their response being different in salt-tolerant wheat. Data suggested that increased CO2 levels might alleviate the adverse effects of salinity.
Abstract (Browse 1781)  |  Full Text PDF       
Regeneration of Spheroplasts in a N2-Fixed Filamentous Blue-Green Alga Anabaena cylindrica
Author: Guo Hou-liang, Jin Chuan-yin and Song Wen-zhenª¤
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(8)
    Over 90% of cells of Anabaena cylindrica growing in the medium containing 0. 1 mol/L KC1 for 7¡«9 d transformed into spheroplasts or semispheroplasts which were either sensitive or not sensitive to hypotonic condition. After treating the materials with 0. 1% lysozyme at 28 ¡æ for 3¡«4 h the transformed spheroplasts were almost 100% sensitive to the hypotonic condition. The spheroplasts then regenerated and divided through culture in the inorganic medium containing 0.15 mol/L CaCl2 with a rate over 25 %. The regeneration of different spheroplasts was not synchronous, the fastest division being after 3 d. Cell division was mainly equational but also irregular division or budding.
Abstract (Browse 1855)  |  Full Text PDF       
Triploid Citrus Plants Obtained from Crossing the Diploids with Allotetraploid Somatic Hybrids
Author: Deng Xiu-xin, Yin Hua-lin, Li Feng, Guo Wen-wu and Ye Wen-mingª¤
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(8)
    Hybridizing the diploid monoembryonic pummelo (Citrus grandis) and polyembryonic tangerine (C. reticulata cv. Huanongbendizao) with allotetraploid somatic hybrids from protoplast fusion were conducted. Seeds of pollinated fruits were found to be abortive 90 days after pollination. The aborted seeds were then cultured on media of MT supplement with 1 mg/L GA3 or with 500 mg/L of malt extract. 25.6% of the seeds germinated or developed into embryoids: The entire plants were transplanted into soil after grafting shoots on the root-stocks of trifoliate orange in vitro, if the germinated embryos have poor roots or no root at all. A total of 73 plants from 6 different combinations were obtained, among which 20 were verified as triploids with 2n= 3x=27 chromosomes, 32 diploids 2n= 2x= 18, 8 a- neuploids and the rest 13 unconfirmed.
Abstract (Browse 1837)  |  Full Text PDF       
Exine-Detached Pollen of Nicotiana tabacum as an Electroporation Target for Gene Transfer
Author: Shi Hua-zhong, Wang Jin, Yang Hong-yuan, Zhou Chang and Chen Zheng-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(8)
    In developing alternative systems for plant transformation the authors investigated the use of male gametophyte as the foreign gene receptor. However, delivery of foreign DNA into pollen is difficult because of the existence of a thick exine, therefore a new experimental system was developed using exine-detached pollen (EDP) of Nicotiana tabacum as an electroporation target which was also compared with germinating pollen (GP) and pollen grains (P). A transient GUS expression assay was conducted to analyze the effects of different electroporation conditions and promoter activity. The pollen-specific promoter Zml3 from Zea mays mediated high level of GUS gene expression but CaMV 35S only had very low activity in both EDP and GP. The optimal field strength for gene transfer was obtained at 750 V/cm for EDP and 1250 V/cm for GP when the time constant of pulse was 13 ms. The GUS activity in EDP had a 5-fold increase as compared with GP and P respectively. The level of GUS gene expression was slightly increased when adding 10 % PEG into the electroporation buffer. This result indicates that pollen deprived of exine responds much better to foreign gene transfer than the previously used intact pollen grains and may be a better vector to introduce, via pollen tube, genes into the egg cell and offsprings.
Abstract (Browse 1903)  |  Full Text PDF       
Relationship Between the Sequence and Function of Rubisco rbcL in Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Hybrid Wheat
Author: Liu Wei, Wu Guang-yao, Wu Xiang-yu, Lin Zhi-shan, Yang Zhi-yong and Chen Xiao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(8)
    Nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid wheat NC4 is resistent to a number of stresses and produces high yield. It was obtained by crossing Aegilops squarrosa (¡â) with Triticum aestivum ( ¡á ), and several back crossings. The rbcLs (the gene of large subunit of Rubisco ( rihulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase )) cloned from NC4 and T. aestivum have been sequenced, and the result showed that the rbcL of NC4 was originated from Ae. squarrosa. The ratio of carhoxylase activity to oxygenase activity, Vco2/Vo2, of hybrid NC4 Was lower than that of Ae. squarrosa, but higher than that of T. aestivum. This difference may be accounted for the higher yield of NC4 than that of T. aestivum. Sequence analysis showed that three nucleotides in the rbcL of NC4 which were different from those of T. aestivum, corresponded to the No. 14, 86 and 95 amino acid residues of rbcL.
Abstract (Browse 1851)  |  Full Text PDF       
Existance of a Bovine Sperm Antibody Recognizable Antigen-Epitope on the Plasma Surface of Lily Sperm Cells
Author: Chen Zhong-ying, Zhu Guang-lian and Tsao T H (Cao Zong-xun)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(8)
    By using Western blot and rabbit-anti-bovine sperm IgG as the first antibody, a 64 kD protein from sperm cells of Lilium davidii Duch. and the same molecular weight protein from generative cells of L. davidii as well as a 22 kD and a 65 kD protein from sperm cells of Zea mays could be detected. Nevertheless, proteins from filament and anther wall of L. daviclii or etiolated shoot of corn manifested negative reaction. By indirect immunofluorescence assay using the same antibody, the surface of sperm cells from L. daviclii showed positive reaction. Based on the results, the authors believed that a plant sperm cell might have the same epitope (s) as that of an animal sperm cell; the epitope (s) might locate on the surface of a sperm cell and be specific to sperm cells.
Abstract (Browse 1799)  |  Full Text PDF       
Purification and Properties of Nitrogenase MoFe Protein from a nif Z Deletion Strain of Azotobacter vinelandii
Author: Zhong Ze-pu, Hu Chang-zheng, Wang Ji-wei, Huang Ju-fu, Luo Ai-ling and Li Jia-ge ª¤
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(8)
    The MoFe protein of the nif Z deletion strain (¡÷nif Z MoFe protein) of Azotobac ter vinelandii designated DJ 194 was purified and some properties were studied. The cell free extract of DJ 194 was more sensitive to O2 and heat than the wild-type extract. The specific activity of the purified DJ 194 protein was 283 nmol C2H2 reduced/(min ¡¤ mg protein), which was much lower than that of purified wild-type A. vinelandii MoFe protein. The ¡÷nif Z MoFe protein exhibited a visible similar absorption spectra as the wild type MoFe protein, yet showed significant difference in CD and MCD spectra at the region about 450 mm com paring with the spectral property of the wild-type MoFe protein. This seems to indicate that the P-cluster of the ¡÷nif Z MoFe protein was modified, which might be the cause of the low activity of the DJ 194 MoFe protein.
Abstract (Browse 2055)  |  Full Text PDF       
Identification of Corn Varieties Using Lactate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of Seed Albumins and Globulins
Author: Song Tong-ming, Zheng Da-hao and Liu Yan ª¤
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(8)
    Systematic electrophoretic analysis of albumins and globulins of the inbred and hybrid corn (Zea mays) seeds was carried out on an improved lactate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, a method with high resolving power, good reproducibility and stability. The electrophoregram was classified into four groups designated as ¦Á¡¢¦Â¡¢¦Ãand¦Ø respectively. Each inbred or hybrid had its own unique band pattern distinguishable from the others, regarding as its "fingerprint¡±. The band pattern of the whole kernel was basically similar to that of its embryo, except that of the endosperm showing less bands with weaker staining intensity; and most of the patterns overlapped with those of the embryo. The band number of the Fl hybrid was exactly equivalent to the number of the common bands and the specific bands of the two parents, indicating that the difference of band patterns was a genetic trait controlled by the nuclear genes. The F1 electrophoregram could be predicted by those of the two parents. The band pattern of the Fl hybrids was identical with that produced from mechanically mixed extract of the two parent inbreds. This procedure could be used in corn cultivar identification and as a test for genetic purity.
Abstract (Browse 2058)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Structure and Genetic Polymorphism of Embryo Sac in Polyembryonic Rice Strain AP ¢ô
Author: Liu Xiang-dong, Lu Yong-gen, Xu Xue-bin and Xu Shi-xiong (S.Y.Zee)ª¤
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(8)
    By using the technology of GMA half-section the comparative studies on the structure of embryo sac between polyembryonic rice strain AP IV and haploembryonic rice cuhivar ¡°IR36¡± showed: In AP IV, except 7.8% of ovaries in which the embryo sac degenerated, there were only 27.1% of ovaries in which the structure of embryo sac was similar to that of "IR36' which was of the Polygonum type; 65.1 % of ovaries were different from ¡°IR36¡±, in which some changes happened in the embryo sac: Of most two kinds of variant embryo sac, referred as poly-egg apparatus embryo sac (53.3%) and double set of embryo sac (6.3%) were found. In the poly-egg apparatus embryo sac, three egg-apparatuses were the majority which could be further divided into three types, namely, 5-2-1 type, 6-2-0 type and 5-3-0 type, based on the whole structure of embryo sac. The double set of embryo sac characterized with a large embryo sac inlaid with a small embryo sac, and with the eggs far from the micropyle part. Moreover, the other variants were also found. According to the analysis, genetic polymorphism of the structure of embryo sac was found in single-panicle in AP ¢ô.
Abstract (Browse 1853)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plasmalemma Invaginations in Cultured Callus of Stevia rebaudiana: Ultrastructure and Ultracytochemical Localization of Acid Phosphatase
Author: Ouyang Xue-zhi and Xie Shao-ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1996 38(8)
    The plasmalemma of cells within meristematic regions was observed to possess invaginations in cultured callus of Stevia rebaudiana under differentiation. The ultrastructure and acid phosphatase (AcPase) ultracytochemistry Of these invaginations were studied. The plasmalemma invaginations occurred in the cells at various stages of vacuolation. In cells with dense protoplasm, plasmalemma appeared undulated but occasionally spherical and variable in size with conspicuous invaginations that projected into the peripheral cytoplasm. In the partially vacuolated cells, plasmalemma invagination became voluminously enlarged with increased contents and structurally complexed. In vacuolated cells, the enlarged invaginations protruded into the central vacuole but were delimitted from the tonoplast by an intermembrane zone continuous with the peripheral cytoplasm. Complex accumulations of membranes consisting of vesicular and coiled membranous Structures might develop within the plasmalemma invaginations. AcPase localization demonstrated high enzymic activity in the plasmalemma and its associated invagination. It seemed likely that these invaginations were functionally analogous to the vacuoles and therefore constituted part of the lytic compartment in these cells.
Abstract (Browse 1966)  |  Full Text PDF       
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