January 1997, Volume 39 Issue 1

 

          Research Articles
Strategies and Advances in Antifungi Genetic Engineering of Plant
Author: Shu Qun-fang and Sun Yong-ru
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(1)
      
    Fungal diseases have been one of the principal causes of crop losses. Breeding of fungusresistant cultivars of crops has been a difficult problem of the breeders' great concern. The rapid development of genetic engineering of plant plays an active promoting role in identifying, isolating and transferring the fungal resistance genes. After the fungal resistance genes have been transferred to other cultivars and possibly to other species to provide resistance to specific races of fungus pathogens, to date, strategies for control of fungal diseases with genetic engineering of plant have been proposed. These strategies include isolation and transfer of genes encoding antifungal proteins. Plants use various defense mechanics for protecting themselves against pathogenic infection, so that isolate and transfer themselves fungal resistance genes; transfer of the gene coding for phytoalexins synthase; transfer of the gene encoding the inhibitors of fungus enzymes and so on. Recent worldwide achievements in the use of tmnsgenie plants to protect plants from fungal disease are reviewed and strategies for control of fungal diseases with genetic engineering of plant according to physiological function of pathogens, pathogenesis and interaction of plant-pathogenic bacteria were expounded.
Abstract (Browse 1671)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Chemical Constituents from Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel.: Structure Elucidation of Two New Triterpenoid Esters
Author: Hu Li-hong and Chen Zhong-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(1)
      
    Two new triterpenoid esters (1 and 2) and eleven known compounds were isolated from the ethyl ether extract of Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel. By means of chemical correlation and spectral analyses (IR, FAB-MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR), compounds 1 and 2 were established as 16汕, 22汐-dihydroxypseudotaraxasterol-3汕-O-palmitate and lup-16汕, 28-dihydroxy-3汕-O-palmitate.
Abstract (Browse 1770)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fossil Diatoms in No.47 Borehole of Jianghan Plain and Their Significance to Paleoenvironmental mental Analysis
Author: Shi Zhi-xin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(1)
      
    The No. 47 borehole is located at Jiangling County in the Jianghan Plain, Hubei Province, China. There are abundant sedimentary diatoms (about 26 genera and 148 taxa) in the upper section (46.6 每 2.2 m) of the borehole. Most of them belong to the existent freshwater diatoms, being mainly epiphytic, littoral and shallow-water-inhabitant species. Among them some gerera are rich in taxa such as Navicula (28 taxa), Cymbella (23 taxa),Achnanthes (15 taxa), Gomphonema (14 taxa) and Eunotia (13 taxa). The dominant species are Gomphonema tropic& var. nonpunctatum, Cyclotella comta, Cocconeis placentula var. lineata and Stephanodiscus dubius, etc. From the lower to the upper section of the sediment, species number (Sp./strat. ) and amount ( Ind./g dry sed. ) of the diatoms underwent a change from scantiness to plenty, then gradually decline to final disappearance. The change of the diatoms obviously reflects a paleoenvironmental change of water bodies in this area, i. e. :at the early stage, this area was possibly a river (might have been an obsolete course of the Yangtze River), then it gradually became a side bank in the river, which later turned into a depression retaining water perphaps in the form of a lake or a swamp in a flood plain. Then it gradually became deepened and widened with final disappearance of the retained water. According to the diatom assemblages in different sedimentary phases, it may be inferred that the pH range in these water bodies were basically stable, ranging from neutral (pH = 7) to slightly alkaline (pH > 7). Combining pollen amdysis (mainly the pollens of Pinus and Betula ) and mineral analysis with diatoms,it might be deduced that the paleoclimate of this area during the period of luxuriant growth of diatoms was somewhat colder than the present time. In the sediment, the amount and species number of the diatoms all significantly correlated with the mean grain size of the sediment.
Abstract (Browse 1789)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Isolation, Purification and Antioxidation Properties of Polysaccharides from Spirulina maxima
Author: Zhou Zhi-gang, Liu Zhi-li and Liu Xue-xian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(1)
      
    The emde polysaccharide was extracted from Spirulina maxima with hot water, and precipitated by ethanol after depmteinization. Two portions of refined polysaccharides (SPS I and SPS H ) were prepared after further purification on DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column chromatography, and their homogeneity was examined with Sephadex G-150 column chromatography. The ultraviolet spectm showed their characteristic absorption at 195.00 mn. In order to estimate the antioxidation activity of SPS i and SPS j, three systems of generating superoxide radical (O2-), lipid radical (R') and hydroxyl radical (OH') respectively in vitro were designed. The results showed that both SPS i and SPS j from S. maxima had significant capacity of scavenging OH' ( P < 0.05), but no effect on O2 ( P > 0.1 ); and that SPS i could scavenge R' under lower concentration of polysaccharides (P < 0.05), while the capacity of scavenging R' of both SPS i and SPS j decreased in higher concentration ( P > 0.2). These results demonstrated that the significant antioxidation activity of polysaccharides from S. maxima was focused on scavenging OH', the most highly reactive one of the oxygen radicals.
Abstract (Browse 2039)  |  Full Text PDF       
ffects of Some Inhibitors on Potassium-and IAA-Induced Adventitious Root Formation of Excised Cucumber Cotyledon
Author: Zhao Zhong-ren, Li Guang-ren, Huang Gui-qin and Yang Shu-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(1)
      
    The effects of some inhibitors on potassium- and IAA-induced rooting were studied adopting the root-formation bioassay in the excised cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L. ) cotyledon. 5-fluomuracil at 7 Ï 10-4 每 7 Ï10-1 mmol/L and cycloheximide at 3.5 Ï 10-4 每 1.05 Ï10-2 mmol/L significantly inhibited potassium- and IAA-induced adventitious root formation of the excised cucumber cotyledons, respectively. Na3VO4 at 0.1 每 1.0 mmol/L obviously inhibited potassium and IAA-induced adventitious rooting of the excised cucumber cotyledons, and similar inhibitory effect was found with 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) at 2 Ï 10-4 每 2 Ï 10-l mmol/L.There is a close relationship between potassium and IAA-induced adventitious rooting and the promotive effect of potassium on rooting is possibly brought about via affecting the endogenous level of IAA.
Abstract (Browse 1651)  |  Full Text PDF       
Direct Somatic Embryogenesis and Plant Regeneration in Ornithogalum caudatum
Author: Yin Dong, Huang Bai-qu and Li Yan-fang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(1)
      
    Direct somatic embryos were formed on the explants of Ornithogalum caudatum Jacq. that were excised from the bud scales of the small bulls when placed on an appropriate culture medium. Histological and scanning electron microscopic examinations showed that somatic embryogenesis was initiated from single cells of the outermost layer of the epidermis. The embryogenic cell underwent a periclinal division giving rise to a 2-celled proembryo which developed into the mature embryo through different morphological stages similar to that of a zygotic embryo. The somatic embryos germinated into plantlets which were then transplanted into soil. It was noted that the somatic embryos were formed exclusively on the adaxial surface of the bud scale rings while no embryos were observed on the abaxial surface of the rings. A distinctive difference in cell structure and morphology between these two parts of the explants was observed.
Abstract (Browse 1937)  |  Full Text PDF       
Wound Reactions in the Rhizome of Phyllostachys edulis
Author: Ding Yu-long, Gudrun Weiner and Walter Liese
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(1)
      
    The wound reactions in the rhizome of Phyllostachys edulis (Carr.) H. de kehaie, the main cultivated bamboo species in China, were studied. Three days after wounding metabolites of physiological reactions were observed near the wound. In the metaxylem vessels slimy substances appeared. After one week the walls of sieve tubes and short parenchyma cells near the wound edge became lignified. Additional lamellae were deposited on the inner wall of the longer parenchyma cells. Two weeks after wounding a more clear distinction was visualized between the wound modificated tissue and the undamaged one. After four weeks some vessels were filled up with the slimy material.Tyloses were not observed, however. Sieve tubes became functionless due to encrustation with phenolic substances and lignification. These wound responses of the rhizome were basically the same as those of the bamboo culm only with some specific differences.
Abstract (Browse 1720)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Blue Light on Callus Growth and Respiration in Hypocotyl of Mung Bean
Author: Wang Xiao-ming and Pan Rui-chi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(1)
      
    The effects of blue light (BL) on callus growth and respiration in hypocotyl callus of mung bean ( Vigna radiata (Linn.) Wilczek) were investigated. The results showed that BL could promote callus formation and growth as compared with white light (WL) and the darkness (D). On the eighteenth day after culture, the fresh weight of calli cultured in BL was 120% and 191.5% of those in WL and in D respectively. The respiratory rate in calli measured on the fifth day after culture was greatest in BL, and lowest in D. However, the order of respiration rate was reversed when measured on the fourteenth day after cultured. The results from the experiments with inhibitors (iodoacetic acid + malonate, or Na3 PO4) and by measuring the activity of phosphogloconic dehydrogenase(G-6-PDH) suggested that hexose monophospate pathway (HMP) increased in BL and in WL 5 days later, because the residual respiration inhibited by iodocacetic acid + malonate was 34% ~ 36% of total one, which was inhibited by Na3PO4; While it was 9% - 11% in D. G-6-PDH activity in BL was much greater than in D, especially the fifth day after culture. The cyanide-resistant pathway occurred in mung bean hypocotyl. The capacity of this respiration in D was greater than that in BL or in WL. The fourteenth day after culture, it reached about 31% in D, but less than 20% in BL or in WL.
Abstract (Browse 1808)  |  Full Text PDF       
Characteristics of ABA Binding Proteins on the Plasmalemma of Guard Cells in Vicia faba
Author: Wang Heng-bin, Wang Xue-chen, Chen Jia, Cao Min and Li Yun-yin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(1)
      
    Using Viciafaba L. as the experimental material, the authors had demonstrated a kind of binding protein at the outside of plasmalemma which was highly affined to ABA. The optimum pH for the binding was 6.5; the binding activity at 25 ⊥ was relatively higher than that at 0 ⊥ and reaching its maximum after 30 minutes incubation. The dissociation constant of the ABA binding to the protein was 2.0 Ï 10-8 mol/L. There were about 3.2 Ï 106 binding sites per guard cell protoplast(GCP). There was functionally essential disulfide bond in the protein and the function of the protein was related to the existence of Ca2 + in the medium.
Abstract (Browse 1627)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genetic Differentiation and Physiological Adaptation of Wild Soybean (Glycine soja) Populations Under Saline Conditions: Isozymatic and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Study
Author: Wang Hong-xin, Hu Zhi-ang, Zhong Min, Lu Wen-jing, Wei Wei, Yun Rui and Qian Ying-qian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(1)
      
    A higher level of salt tolerance in saline populations of wild soybean ( Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc. ) has been found in the Yellow River Delta. The levels of salt tolerance for individuals with in populations vary widely. In the saline populations, there are a few plants with much higher tolerant level than that of the most tolerant cultivars, such as Morgan, and others as saline sensitive plants. Isozyme analysis showed a high level of genetic diversity, however, no relationship was found between isozymatic patterns and salt tolerance. Saline and normal populations shared similar genetic structure with a genetic distance of 0. 045. By using a modified procedure of random amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD), a higher level of DNA diversity was detected in saline populations. The authors propose that the high level of genetic diversity and developmental flexibility is responsible for adaptation of wild soybean to changing saline conditions.
Abstract (Browse 1720)  |  Full Text PDF       
Regeneration of Transgenic Plants of Brassica oleracea via PEG-Mediated Gene Transformation
Author: Xue Hong-wei, Wei Zhi-ming and Xu Zhi-hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(1)
      
    Foreign genes were introduced into the hypocotyl protoplasts of Brassica oleracea L. by means of PEG treatment. With hygromycin and kanamycin resistance as selection markers, resistant calli were successfully recovered. For hygromycin resistant calli, the absolute and relative transformation frequencies were 4.1 x 10-4 and 1% ~ 3% respectively. Then, the resistant calli were transferred onto differentiation medium for shoot induction. After the regenerated shoots were rooted on rooting medium, they were transplanted in pots. Most of the transplants grew well. Southern blotting analysis showed that foreign genes have been integrated into plant genomes. Some factors influencing the transformation frequencies were discussed.Foreign genes were introduced into the hypocotyl protoplasts of Brassica oleracea L. by means of PEG treatment. With hygromycin and kanamycin resistance as selection markers, resistant calli were successfully recovered. For hygromycin resistant calli, the absolute and relative transformation frequencies were 4.1 x 10-4 and 1% ~ 3% respectively. Then, the resistant calli were transferred onto differentiation medium for shoot induction. After the regenerated shoots were rooted on rooting medium, they were transplanted in pots. Most of the transplants grew well. Southern blotting analysis showed that foreign genes have been integrated into plant genomes. Some factors influencing the transformation frequencies were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1795)  |  Full Text PDF       
Oilseed Rape Transformation and the Establishment of a Bromoxynil玨Resistant Transgenic Oilseed Rape
Author: Zhong RongㄛZhu FengㄛLiu Yu-leㄛLi Sheng-guoㄛKang Liang-yi and Luo Peng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(1)
      
    Using hypocotyls and cotyledons as transformed materials, an efficient transformation system of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was established. Bxn gene (bromoxynil-resistant gene)was introduced into these plants, and bromoxynil-resistant transgenic oilseed rape was obtained. Themolecular monitoring experiments showed that these transgenic plants contained bxn gene. The herbicide experiments showed that these transgenic plants had resistance to 10-3 moL/Lbromoxynil.
Abstract (Browse 1755)  |  Full Text PDF       
Transgenic Tomatoes Expressing Cucumber Mosaic Virus Coat Protein Are Resistant to the Virus
Author: Cheng Ying-hao, Wu Guang, Wang Ji-wei, Pan Nai-sui and Chen Zhang-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(1)
      
    cDNA of cucumber mosaic vires coat protein (CMV CP) was successfully introduced into tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated. Many transgenic plants were obtaind and these plants expressing CMV CP were highly resistants to CMV infection. cDNA of CMV CP in the genome of progeny R1 separated with 3: 1. Progeny R1 of transgenic tomatoes expressing CMV CP were protected from CMV infection. Symptom development and virus accumulation were reduced or absent in the transgenic plants expressing CMV CP. The disease ratio and disease index of transgenic plants were much lower than the controls and symptom development was delayed for more than one month compared to those of the controls.
Abstract (Browse 1620)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Observations on Nuclear Matrix in the Pollen Mother Cells of Lily
Author: Xu Tao, Zhang Xiao-hong, Nie Xiu-wan and Zheng Guo-chang (Cheng K. C)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(1)
      
    The nuclear matrix (NM) of pollen mother cells (PMC) of Lilium davidii var. willmottiae (Wilson) Roffill was studied using selective extraction, embeddment-free electron microscopy and whole mount cell preparation. A complex internal substructure, which is similar to the nuclear matrix in vertebrate cells, was observed in the nucleus of PMCs at prophase I . These nuclear matrices, comprising delicate protein filaments, spreaded over the nuclear region. The diameters of NM filaments were in the range of 5 - 15 nm. Nueleoli and chromosomes were found to be connected with the NM filament network. The NM was proposed to offer a framework for the topological change of chromatin/chromosome, and might be involved in the construction of the scaffold of metophase chromosome.
Abstract (Browse 1998)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Reproductive Characteristics of Cimicifuga nanchuanensis (Ranunculaceae), an Endemic Endangered Species to China
Author: Qi Wen-qing, Feng Yun, Chenzhu Xi-zhao, Li Zheng-li (Lee C L) and You Rui-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(1)
      
    Aspects of the reproductive biology of Cimicifuga nanchuanensis Hsiao have been studied to shed light on the endangerment of this species, endemic to Jingfo Mountain in Sichuan Province of China. The only one population of C. nanchuanensis includes 6 000 ~ 8 000 individuals, in which adult blooming plants accoum for 19%. Inflorescence is panicle,flowering period lasts from mid August to early October and fruits ripe in mid or late November. C. nanchuanensis is dichogamous and the stigmas mature 7 days after withering of flower. In natural conditions the rate of seed-setting is 5.8% ~ 7.0% in average. However, hand pollination can raise the rate greatly to 28.0%. Endosperm type is nuclear and embryos are just at the globular stage when seeds shed from their maternal plants. Pollen limitation is one of the reasons for this species endangerment.
Abstract (Browse 1654)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Development of Male Gametophyte in Polygonatum simizui-With Emphasis on the Distribution and Change of Plastids in Generative and Vegetative Cells
Author: Hu Shi-yi and Luo Yu-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(1)
      
    It was found that the different development of generative and vegetative cells in Polygonatum simizui Kitag attributed to the polar distribution of plastids, in the microspore cytoplasm prior to mitosis, consequently the generative cell contained no plastids while the vegetative cell received all the plastids. During the development of the generative cell up to mature pollen stage and the formation of two sperm cells in the pollen tube, there were no plastids in their cytoplasm. Although mitochondria were present both in the generative and sperm cells, no DNA nucleoids were detected in their cytoplasm. Therefore the inheritance of plastids in Polygonatum simizui was catalogued as a uniparental maternal type. During male gametophyte development, evident change occurred in the plastids of the vegetative cytoplasm. In early stage, amyloplasts of the vegetative cytoplasm increased in number with active starch, which disappeared in late stage and were replaced by increasing lipid bodies. Thus when pollen grains approach to maturation they contain numerous oil drops. The different mechanism of plastid ellimination in Liliaceae and the transformation from starch grains to lipid bodies are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1766)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Structural Elucidation of Craibiodendronin A
Author: Wang Tao, Yang-Jia, Li Hong and L邦 Fa-qiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(1)
      
    A compound was isolated from leaves of Craibiodendron yunnanense W. W. Smith. It was elucidated as quercetin-3-汕-D-xylosyl(1↙3)-汐-L-rhamnoside by means of spectral analysis and chemical reaction. It was a novel compound which is named as craibiodendronin A.
Abstract (Browse 1612)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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