October 1997, Volume 39 Issue 10

 

          Research Articles
A New Diterpenoid from Alpinia zerumbet
Author: Wen Yuan-ying, Chen Yan-fang and Xie Xue-mei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(10)
      
    A new diterpenoid compound, zerumbetol, was isolated from the petrol extract of rhizome of Alpinia zerumbet Burtt et Smith. Its structure was determined by spectroscopic method (IR, MS, NMR) to be 6¦Â -hydroxy-15,16-epoxy-8 (17), 11 (trans), 13 (16), 14-1abd-tetraene.
Abstract (Browse 1799)  |  Full Text PDF       
Analysis of N-Terminal Sequence of a 41 kD Protein from a Photoperiod-Sensitive Genic Male-Sterile Mutant of Rice
Author: Wang Tai, Tong Zhe, Kuang Ting-yun and Tang Pei-song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(10)
      
    A protein (PI) from a photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile (PSGMS) mutant of rice ( Oryza sativa L. ), Nongken 58S, was purified with preparative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Uniform P1, checked by SDS-PAGE and isoelectric focusing (IEF), was obtained. Its molecular weight and isoelectric point was 41 kD and 6.2, respectively. Here, P1 was referred to P41. Analysis of N-terminal sequence and a search in SWISSPROT database revealed that P41 was homologue to ¦Â subunit of ATP synthase from rice and yeast transcription factor CAD1, respectively. Besides, P41 had a short glycine-rich sequence that was similar to the multifunctional motif in the highly conserved catalytic core of protein kinases.
Abstract (Browse 1789)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fossil Woods from Late Cretaceous of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China, and Their Palaeoenviromental Implications
Author: Wang Ru-feng, Wang Yu-fei and Chen Yong-zhe
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(10)
      
    Three species of fossil coniferous woods, Cupressinoxylon jiayinense Wang R. F., Wang Y. F. et Chen Y. Z., Taxodioxylon cryptomeria Schonfeld and Protopiceoxylon amurense Du N. Z. from late Cretaceous of Heilongjiang Province,Northeast China, were described. Their wood structural characters showed their affinities to the extant Cupressus, Cryptomeria and Keteleeria respectively. The data from fossil woods, fossil foliage and pollen assemblage of late Cretaceous in the same region showed that the flora consists of conifers and broad-leaved trees and most elements were subtropic or warm-temperate, only a few of them were temperate vegetation. At the same time, the occurrence of fungi filaments in the wood of Cupressinoxylon fiayinense might suggest a type of humid and warm environment. All of these evidences indicated that a humid warm temperate or subtropic paleoclimate had existed in Heilongjiang Province during Late Cretaceous.
Abstract (Browse 1976)  |  Full Text PDF       
Vegetation Types, Community Species Diversity and Conservation of Southern Fildes Peninsula (King George Island, South Shetland Islands) Antarctic
Author: Hu Shun-shi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(10)
      
    The vegetation in Southern Peninsula (including Ardley Island) was classified according to the composition of species (especially dominant species), physiognomy and structure, and ecology factor, into tundra, meadow, marsh and aquatic vegetation; among which the formation and association were described. The formation and distribution of these communities were dependent on the water supply and the stability of the substrata. The paper discusses also the distributional pattern of vegetation from coast to hill top, characteristics of communities, comparative study on the species number, evenness and diversity among each formation and among different habitat, and some suggestions on vegetation conservation was also attempted.
Abstract (Browse 1760)  |  Full Text PDF       
Calmodulin and the Regulation of Succinate Dehydrogenase Activity in the Mitochondria of Zea mays
Author: Li Jie, Wu Shu-ping, Sun Da-ye and Wang You-ai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(10)
      
    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) was purified by DEAE C-32 chromatography from the mitochondrial fraction of corn ( Zea mays L. ). Free calmodulin (CAM) could not be detected in the purified SDH with the method based on the ability of SDH to stimulate NAD kinase, but it still contained some CAM when measured with the ELISA method. Purified SDH could stimulate NAD kinase only after heating to release free CAM. Plain polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of the pufffled SDH revealed only one peptide band, but three peptide bands were shown on SDS-PAGE, their molecular weight being 67.0 kD, 30.0 kD, 16.7 kD respectively. The 67.0 kD and 30.0 kD peptides corresponded to the large and small molecular subunit of SDH respectively. The Rf value of the 16.7 kD peptide band was identical to the standard CAM in the SDS-PAGE. From all the above evidence, the authors suggested that CAM might exert its function of SDH regulation in a binding state with the SDH molecule.
Abstract (Browse 1871)  |  Full Text PDF       
An Insect-Resistant Transgenic Cabbage Plant with Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor(CpTI) Gene
Author: Fang Hong-jun, Li Da-li, Wang Guan-lin, Li Ying-hui, Zhu Zhen and Li Xiang-hui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(10)
      
    Cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI) gene was transformed into Brassica oleracea var. capitara variety "Yingchun" and "Jingfeng" mediated by the Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404(pRCL27). Transgenic plants were obtained from transformed calli or explants. It was shown from the ELISA assay that NPT ¢̣gene was expressed in the transgenic cabbage cells. The integration of the CpTI gene into cabbage genome DNA was confirmed by Southem blotting. Insect-tolerance of the transgenic plants to Pieris rapae L. was observed by bioassays on the transgenic plants in the laboratory.
Abstract (Browse 2303)  |  Full Text PDF       
Selection of Methionine-Resistant Variant of Medicago sativa
Author: Zhao Zhong and Jia Jing-fen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(10)
      
    A variant cell line of Medicago sativa L. resistant to methionine (100 mmol/L) was selected.from calli treated with 1.5 mmol/L sodium azide. Plants were regenerated from this selected cell line. After growing for 6 months on the medium devoid of selection pressure, the variant cell line still showed high level of resistance, which was 7.2-fold higher than that of the wild type. This indicated the stability of the resistance expression. The variant cell line also expressed a 3.3-fold higher cross-resistance to ethionine, than that of the wild type. The contents of methionine, lysine, threonine and isoleucine in the variant calli were respectively 2.0, 1.43, 1.71 and 1.57 times higher than those in the wild type. However, in the variant regenerated plantlets they respectively were 2.0, 1.33, 1.22 and 1.22 times higher than those in the wild type regenerants. Four new protein bands, viz. 65 kD, 23 kD, 20 kD and 18 kD, appeared in the SDS-PAGE pattern Of soluble proteins in the variant calli. In the peroxidase isoenzyme electrophoresis pattern, two new bands were also observed in the variant calli.
Abstract (Browse 1729)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Doubled CO2 on Contents of Photosynthetic and on Kinetic Parameters of Fluorescence Induction in Different Genotypes of Soybean
Author: Zhang Qi-de, Lu Cong-ming, Liu Li-na, Bai Ke-zhi and Kuang Ting-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(10)
      
    Effects of doubled C02 on photosynthetic characteristics of soybean ( Glycine max L. ) Bragg (wild type) and its different monogene mutation strains--Nts 382 (supemodulation mutant) and Nod 49 (non-nodulation mutant) were studied. The experimental results showed that the contents of chlorophyll and carotenoid of Bragg, Nts 382 and Nod 49 were increased under doubled CO2, respectively, although to different extent. The determination results of fluorescence induction kinetic parameters showed that PS ¢̣ activity, the efficiency of primary conversion of light energy of PS ¢̣ and the efficiency of potential photosynthetic quantum conversion of a leaf from Bragg and its mutants were raised in doubled CO2. Fluorescence photochemical quenching coefficient and the overall photochemical quantum yield of PS ¢̣ were raised and non-photochemical quenching coefficient was reduced with CO2 enrichment; such changes were bigger in Nts 382 than those in Bragg and Ned 49. It might be that atmospheric N2 was more effectively utilized by Nts 382 than by Bragg and Ned 49.
Abstract (Browse 1764)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes of Polysaccharide Grain Content and Amylase Isozyme in Relation to Periodicity of Cambial Activity in Pinus bungeana Shoot
Author: Zhang Zhong-ming, Cui Ke-ming and Li Ju-huai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(10)
      
    The cambium of Pinus bungeana Zucc. resumed its activities in early April with cell proliferation and increase in immature xylem and phloem cells. Some mature xylem cells occurred dunng the last ten days of April. The xylem and phloem were rapidly formed after May. The late- wood was firstly formed in the beginning of June. It ceased to produce new xylem in early August, mid phloem cells in mid-September. The seasonal changes of polysaccharide grain content in the tissues of P. bungeana evidenced significant correlation with the annual cycle of cambial activity. Polysaccharide grains continued to increase before and after cambial reactivity and then decreased gradaally from June onwards after the late-wood had been firstly formed, until almost disappeared by next January, and again were gradually accumulated after March. Isoenzymic study revealed only one band of amylase after cambium reactivity, three peculiar bands after ceasing to produce xylem, and another two peculiar bands that occurred in early December. These 5 bands all disappeared after reactivity of cambium.
Abstract (Browse 1942)  |  Full Text PDF       
Relationship Between Embryo and Endosperm Development and Accumulation of Storage Reserves in Barley
Author: Xi Xiang-yuan and Ye Bao-xing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(10)
      
    In barley ( Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Aente 13) the zygote with one or two degenerated synergids was seen on day 1 after anthesis but the free nuclear endosperm had not yet appeared. On day 2 and 3 after anthesis the embryo was 5- and 10-celled when the endosperm was at the free nuclear phase. When the embryo was pear- and long pear-shaped by day 4, 5 and 6 after anthesis, the endosperm reached the cellularization stage. The embryo was at the coleoptilar stage and the aleutone initial cells appeared by day 8 after anthesis. When the embryo produced its first leaf on day 10 after anthesis, the aleurone cells formed 1 to 2 layers. On day 13 after anthesis the embryo became 2-leafed as the subaleurone layer occurred. The 3-leafed embryo was visible by day 17 after anthesis, at which time the aleurone cells were mostly 3-layered and mitotic divisions ceased and the prismatic and irregular cells of endosperm were differentiated. On day 21 to 29 after anthesis, the embryo was 4-leafed as the endosperm differentiation continued. The embryo was 5-leafed and matured about the time (33 days after anthesis) when the endosperm also became mature. Starch and protein firstly accumulated in the 2-leafed embryo and deposition proceeded acropetally in the scutellum, but appeared firstly in the apex cells in the coleoptile and leaf primordia. Starch disappeared in the upper part of the mature scutellum. Starch was firstly found in endosperm cells by day 6 after anthesis and on day 10 after anthesis protein deposition began in the aleurone layer and endosperm cells. Aleumne grains formation began on day 21 after anthesis and ended by day 29 after anthesis. From day 17 after anthesis onwards, protein bodies in the endosperm cells were mostly clustered together and markedly decreased afterwards. Lipid accumulation was detected in both seutellum cells and aleurone cells by day 17 after anthesis. Caryopsis length, especially the ratio of caryopsis length to lamma length and scutellum length could be used as the morphological indicators to identify the stages of embryo development and endosperm development as well.
Abstract (Browse 2997)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Photoperiod Treatments on Phytochrome a Levels and Its mRNA Abundance in Photoperiod-Sensitive Genic Male-Sterile Rice Mutant and the Wild Type
Author: Wang Wei, Hong Yu, Tong Zhe, Kuang Ting-yun and Tang Pei-song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(10)
      
    The effect of photoperiod treatments on phytochrome A (Phy A) level and its mRNA abundance in the leaves of a photoperiod-sensitive genic male-sterile mutant (Nongken 58S) and its wild type ("Nongken 58') of Oryza sativa L. was investigated. The top two leaves of each rice shoot were harvested at the end of the last dark phase of 10 cycles during photoperiod-sensitive stage for fertility alteration of the mutant. Phy A was measured by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using rabbit polyclonal and mouse monoclonal antibodies. Compared with longday (LD) treatment,short day (SD) resulted in 38.5% increase of relative Phy A content in the mutant, only 18.5% increase in the wild type. In an extended darkness (25 h), the accumulation of Phy A also appeared to be more rapid in the mutant seedlings than in its wild type. RNA dot blot analyses with RPA3 (a cDNA clone of rice Phy A) as a probe showed:the abundances of Phy A mRNA in top leaves of Nongken 58S and "Nongken 58" were obviously higher in SD than those in ID at the end of dark phase of 5 d and 10 d photoperiod treatments. Moreover, under SD Phy A mRNA contents in Nongken 58S were more than those in "Nongken 58" during the whole photoperi- od-sensitive stage for fertility alteration. In addition, after 10 cycles of end-of-day far-red irradiations (EOD FR), the heading and flowering date of the mutant was delayed for 2 d. However, EOD FR had little or no effect on male fertility of the mutant.
Abstract (Browse 1908)  |  Full Text PDF       
Exogenous Ca2+ Regulation of Pollen Tube Growth and Division of Generative Nucleus in Nicotiana tabacum
Author: Fan Liu-min, Yang Hong-yuan and Zhou Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(10)
      
    Cytological and statistical studies on the effects of exogenous Ca2 + on in vitro pollen tube growth and generative nucleus (GN) division of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. ) were conducted in an artificial experimental system. Under normal cultured conditions, the rate of GN division increased logarithmically in general, and reaches the climax at about 10 - 18 h. Among the treatments with various Ca2 + concentrations, 10- 3 mol/L was the optimal concentration for pollen tube growth, whereas other Ca2+ concentrations showed increasing inhibitory effect with the time of culture. Generally, Ca2 + concentrations at 10-2 and 10-3 mol/L favored GN division more than the others. Compared with 10-3 mol/L Ca2 + concentration at 10-2 mol/L benefitiated GN division at earlier stage of the treatment, but afterwards showed inhibitory effect gradually. Besides, the authors designed another series of experiments, in which 10-2, 10-1 mol/L Ca2+ (final concentrations) or 2,10 mmol/L EG-TA was respectively added to the medium containing 10-3 mol/L Ca2+ at 10 h of culture. Pollen tube growth was inhibited by the high Ca2+ treatments, especially being severely effected by 10-l mol/L Ca2 + from which wall, thickening of the tube tip, amitotic division of GN leading to micronucleus formation occurred. 10-2 mol/L Ca2 + treatment, however, promoted GN division at the earlier stage of treatment ( 10 - 12 h). EGTA treatments inhibited both pollen tube growth and GN division.
Abstract (Browse 1824)  |  Full Text PDF       
Pms1 is not the Locus Relevant to Fertility Difference Between the Photoperiod-Sensitive Male Sterile Rice Nongken 58S and Normal Rice
Author: Wang Feng-ping, Mei Ming-hua, Xu Cai-guo and Zhang Qi-fa
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(10)
      
    The photoperiod-sensitive male sterile rice, Nongken 58S, was obtained as a spontaneous mutant of the Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica cultivar "Nongken 58". To determine the chromosomal location of the locus related to the fertility difference between Nongken 58S and its wild-type ancestor, the authors assayed the DNA polymorphisms between these two varieties using a total of over 300 RFLP probes covering the entire molecular marker linkage map. Seven probes detected polymor- phisms between "Nongken 58" and Nongken 58S. Two probes, RG30 and RZ626, both from chromosome 7, happened to be located in the genomic region of pmsl, a locus for photoperiod-sensitive male sterility identified in the authors' previous study. These two probes were used to assay a random sample of 140 individuals from a F2 population of a cross between Nongken 58S and "Nongken 58", in which the fertility segregated in a typical 3: 1 ratio. An analysis of variance of the fertility using the RFLP genotypes as the groups clearly evidenced that these two marker loci are not linked to the locus associated fertility segregation in this population. It is concluded that the locus relevant to fertility difference between Nongken 58S and "Nongken 58" is not in the vicinity of the pmsl region.
Abstract (Browse 1844)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Introducing the Chimaeric Gene TA29ª²Barnase on the Tapetum and Pollen Development in Tobacco
Author: Luo Yu-ying, Liu Yu-le, Li Sheng-guo and Tian Bo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(10)
      
    The development of tapetum and pollen in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. ) harboring a chimaeric gene TA29-Barnase was compared with that of the wild-type plant. The specific expression of the exogenous genes in anther led to premature tapetal degradation, which started at the early stage of meiosis and terminated at the tetrad stage. In the wild-type anthers, tapetal degradation started at the early stage of bicellular microgametophyte and ended at the later stage of pollen development. The cytological changes of tapetal degradation in the transgenic plants were characterized by vacuolization of the tapetal cells, then nuclear condensation, and consequent massive degradation of tapetal cells. Meanwhile, the pollen mother cells gradually degraded and became destroyed along with the progress of meiosis, leaving only a few which could successfully complete their meiosis to form microspores. This observation also indicated that the TA29-Barnase gene in anther was not uniformly expressed. In addition, the structural difference between the male sterility induced by exogenous gene and the natural sterile was also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1822)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes of Microtubular Organization During the Embryo Sac Development in Rice
Author: Xu Shi-xiong (Zee S Y), Huang Bing-quan and Ye Xiu-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(10)
      
    Changes in the patterns of microtubular distributions and organization in various stages of development of the embryo sac in rice ( Oryza sativa L. ) were different. In the megasporocyte, most microtubules were radially distributed but some were longitudinally oriented. Similar distributional patterns were seen in the dyad cells and the functional megaspore. Microtubules in the uni-nucleate embryo sac were mostly randomly distributed, although some radiated type was also present. The pattern of distribution of the microtubules in the two and four-nucleate embryo sac was quite similar and the microtubules were mainly of the pe.rinuclear type. Microtubules in the cells of the eight-nucleate embryo sac were more complex. In the egg cell, the microtubules were mostly randomly distributed whereas in the synergids they were pred6minantly in longitudinal alignment. Those in the central cell were transversely aligned. The antipodal mass had very few microtubules and few longitudinally aligned ones were present in the cytoplasm.
Abstract (Browse 1828)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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