January 1958, Volume 7 Issue 1

 

          Research Articles
妍扼扶抉志扶抑快 孜抉把技抑 扼找把抉快扶我攸 把忘扼找快扶我抄 我扶快抗抉找抉把抑快 志抉扭把抉扼抑 孜我抖抉忍快扶我我 志抉忱抉把抉扼抖快抄
Author: 圾.妖.孛抉抖攸扶扼抗扯迅
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1958 7(1)
Abstract (Browse 1939)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Commentary on Chi Han's Nan Fang Ts'as Mu Chuang, ※An Account of the Flora of Southern Regions§
Author: Wu T那-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1958 7(1)
      
    "Nan Fang Ts'ao Mu Chuang", published A.D. 304 during the Chin dynasty, is the earliest regional flora written in any language so far as can be ascertained. The author Chi Han (A.D. 263每306), then prefect of Hsiang Yang prefecture, died at the age of forty-three by the hands of murderers. This untimely death ended the life of an upright official and talented writer. Altogether 380 species, chiefly from Kwangtung and Vietnam, were described under four classes of herbs, forest trees, fruit trees, and bamboos in this pioneer botanical treatise. Though limited in number, the plants chosen fully reflected the characteristic features of subtropical flora and were written up in an exquisite literary style. The commentary sketches the life and work of Chi Han and attempts to identify the plants discussed in accordance with modern botanical nomenclature.
Abstract (Browse 2042)  |  Full Text PDF       
On Phorphyra marginata sp. nov. and its Systematic Position
Author: C. K. Tseng and T. J. Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1958 7(1)
      
    So far, only one species of Porphyra, namely P. tenera Kjellm., has been reported from the vast Po-hal and Huang-hai regions In the course of our work on the life history of Porphyra tenera, we have found that in the small region of Tsingtao alone, there are represented at least 5 or even 6 species of Porphyra and among them some are as yet undescribed. In the present report, one of these new species will be described. Description of the new species: Porphyra marginata Tseng et T. J. Chang, sp. nov. Thalli generally 12每24 cm, sometimes reaching 40 cm in height, light or yellowish brownish-purple, with shortly stiped blade arising from a discoid holdfast; the blades orbiculate or suborbiculate, perforated, with cordate or umbilicate base and undulate to much folded marginal portions, membranaceous, monostromatic, to 38 米 thick; vegetative cells squarish or subrectangular with roundish corner in surface view, and subrectangular, 10每15 米, sometimes 20 米 broad, about twice as high as broad in sectional view, with a single yellowish to light purplish, axial, stellate chromatophore; marginal portion of the blade consisting of 5每10, sometimes more, rows of degenerated cells; plants homothallic; spermatangia forming a more or less continuous region just inside of the degenerated marginal portion and also patches of irregular shape in the inner portion of the blade, composed of 64 spermatia arranged according to the following mode of division: ﹥ A2B4C8; sporocarps dispersed in the part of the blade inside of the degenerated margin, composed of 16 carpospores arranged according to the following mode of division: ﹦ A2B2C4, and intermixed with vegetative cells or degenerated unfertilized carpogonia. The type specimen, MB 54-493, was collected from near lower littoral rocks at wharf No. 6, Chungkang, Tsingtao on 15, l, 1954 and deposited in the Herbarium of the Institute of Marine Biology, Academia Sinica. The species is widely distributed in the Tsingtao region and besides Chungkang in the Kiauchow Bay, has also been collected many times from the following places outside the Kiauchow Bay: Ta-he-lan and Siao-he-lan, Tuantao Bay; Lushun Park, Hueichuan Bay; Taiping Bay and Shih-lao-jen. Besides, this species was also collected once from Chengshantao (Cape Shantung), Yungcheng District. The growing season of the present species is very long, from late December to May of the next year, but its most luxuriant growth season is from February to April. The thalli are brownish, yellowish purple when living, turning to light purple upon drying. Specimens tend to crack upon excessive drying. Vegetative characteristics: Porphyra marginata is principally characterized by the blade margin with several rows of degenerated cells. When the thalli are very small, there is no difference between the marginal cells and those inside. When the thalli reach about 1.5每2.0 cm broad, the marginal cells gradually degenerate; first the cells stop growing in size, then the chromatophores keep on loosing their original yellowish purple color, then the cells turn pale yellowish and finally become colorless. The small colorless marginal cells conspicuously contrast with the inner cells which are of rich yellowish purple color and of normal size. At first, there may be only two to four rows of such degenerated cells at the margin; with the growth in size of the thalli, the number of rows of degenerated cells gradually increases to 10 or even more. Owing to the pressure from growth and division of ordinary vegetative cells next to the degenerated cells, the latter will eventually be dropped off. Concurrently, however, new degenerated cells keep on being formed from normal cells within, until those next to the degenerated marginal cells become involved in sexual reproduction. It is of interest to note that in this species, very frequent growths of the colonial Licmorphora on the blade edge offer a great help in the quick determination of the species. Degeneration phenomenon is not limited to the marginal cells of the blade; it also exists in the cells fringing the perforations of the blade caused by mechanical injury or animal biting. These cells, like those of the marginal portion of the blade, gradually become smaller and paler, conspicuously different from the ordinary purplish cells elsewhere. Therefore, it may be said that degeneration of cells is characteristic of all fringing cells, at the blade margin as well as along the edge of the perforation. So far, this unique growth phenomenon is known only in the present species and serves to differentiate it from all other known species of Porphyra. When the thalli are sexually mature, the cells next to the degenerated marginal cells undergo metamorphosis and change into sexual cells. With the dropping off of the marginal cells, marginal characteristic will no longer be detectable in the fertile portions of the blades. However, in the suprabasal region where the cells are comparatively young and not yet sexually mature, the marginal characteristic can be easily detected. Owing to the active growth of the cells just inside the degenerated marginal portion, the latter often becomes split into lobes . The exceptionally strong meristematic activity of the suprabasal region is also characteristic of Porphyra marginata; when young, the base of the blade is generally cordate or umbilicate, with the further growth of the thalli, owing to the comparatively stronger meristematic activity of the suprabasal part of the thalli, it may form a very complicated system with this part of the blade folding back and forth in a subspiral manner. When thalli with strongly developed suprabasal parts of the blades are made into herbarium specimens, it appears as if two or three or even more thalli of different ages pressed together in the same piece of herbarium paper with the younger ones on top of the older ones. Degree of the complication of the repeatedly folding system, however, differs with the ecological conditions. In places such as Taiping Bay, where the thalli are exposed to strong surf, the folding system of their suprabasal parts is relatively simple, while in places such as Chungkang where the thalli grow on sheltered rocks, it is very complicated.
Abstract (Browse 2300)  |  Full Text PDF       
Intercellular Migration of Nucleus in Somatic Tissues
Author: S. H. Wu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1958 7(1)
      
    In the present paper, a brief review is given to the recently published literatures dealing with the phenomenon of intercellular migration of nucleus in reproductive and vegetative organs of the lower plants as well as the higher plants and to the modern interpretations for such a phenomenon. The materials and methods employed in general for studying the phenomenon concerned were described rather in details. For the present study, the materials used were the vegetative organs of bulb plants (Allium) and the somatic tissues of the ovules of some cereal plants (Triticum, Avena and Hordeum). The present report was chiefly based upon the studies of paraffin sections. Preparations of total mounts were also made for supplement. According to the paraffin sections, it is evident that the nuclear migration not only takes place in the epidermal tissues, in the underlying parenchymal tissues, but also occurs in the elements of the vascular tissues of the rapidly growing leaf sheath, young bud sheath, scale and clove sheath of the garlic plant. It is especially interesting to note that the nuclear material has pressed on the outer surface of the vessel and protruded via the unthickened portions of the wall into the vessel. In the same material, enormous or extraordinarily long nuclei, which sometimes take a zigzag form, have usually been observed in the elements, including vessels, of the vascular bundles. These phenomena may have an important bearing on the views of the mechanism of translocation of organic materials in plants. As the leaf sheath or young bud sheath begins to wither and its inclusions is being withdrawn, the intercellular migration of nucleus again makes its appearance in the epidermis, underlying parenchyma and the vascular tissuer. The nucleus, however, migrates in a different manner. It generally tends to tranverse the side wall of the cell and moves toward the vascular bundle. After fertilization, the antipodal cells of Triticum, Avena and Hordeum plants multiply and increase a great deal in size. In the course of development of the embryo sac, the nucellar tissue gradually disorganize. Their nuclei deform, loose their normal structure and migrate to the neighborhood of the embryo sac, where they eventurely disappear. Nuclear migration has sometimes been observed in the undisorganized cells of the nucellar tissue. At the time when the endosperm develops into a cellular structure, the antipodal cells, which usually occupy a lateral position and attach to the ventral surface of the endosperm, begin to disorganize. Their inclusions form irregular and darkly stained lumps, which disintegrate and disappear completely within 2 or 3 days. The nuclei of endosperm cells next to the disorganized antipodal tissue become stained more deeply and given strongly positive reaction to Feulgen stain. Their cytoplasm also shows more or less the same reaction. Evidently this phenomenon indicates that the disintegrated nuclear matter of the antipodal tissue enters the endosperm cells. In the course of disorganization of antipodal tissue, intercellular migration of nucleus occurs at first in endosperm cells next to the disorganized antipodal tissue and laterly it appears in the portion of endosperm surrounding the proembryo where an accumulation of nuclear material has been made. The same phenomenon also occasionally takes place in proembryo cells. The various events observed in the course of development of the embryo sac of Triticum, Avena and Hordeum plants offer another excellent example as garlic plant in support of the view that the nuclear migration is associated with the process of translocation and redistribution of organic materials from the senescent tissue to the newly grown. Based upon the studies of preparations made by a variety of microtechnical and physiological methods in our earlier works in comparisi on with the present studies of paraffin sections, the migrating nucleus is characterized by its high chromaticity, homogeneites and strong reaction to Feulgen stain. It almost invariably takes up an excentric position in the cell. Its extruded portions typically assume the form of dense, homogeneous bodies in adjoining cell, at the same time retaining a connection with the parent nucleus. The phenomenon observed in vegetative organs of bulb plants is evidently very similar to that observed in the somatic tissues of ovules of cereal plants mentioned above. A somewhat different phenomenon has also been observed in a few cases (parenchyma of leaf sheath of garlic), chromatin bodies are budded off from the nucleus into the cytoplasm of the same cell instead of into that of another cell. These bodies vary considerably in size and number. Great difficulty was experienced in following the subsequent destiny of these bodies. Though they sometimes also migrate through the cell wall, the events thereafter are not quite clear.
Abstract (Browse 2173)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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