November 1997, Volume 39 Issue 11

 

          Research Articles
Photosynthetic Characteristics of an Albino Mutant (zb/zb) in Maize
Author: Zhao Qi, Tang Chong-qin and Kuang Ting-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(11)
      
    Crossed the zb/zb with the normal maize, Zea mays L., the Fl was zb/zb genotype. The development of thylakoid membranes of the albino maize (zb/zb) was inhibited at its initial stage. The content of Chi-protein complexes decreased evidently. The absorption of light energy was only 43 % and the potential activity of PS was 18.5 % in the albino maize chloroplasts as compared with the normal maize. The conversion efficiency of primary light energy of PS of the albino chloroplasts was 36.1% of the normal. The fluorescence intensity at 77 K in the albino maize chloroplasts was declined. These results proved that the constructive process of thylakoid lamellae was disturbed by the albino gene zb/zb. The Chi-protein complexes and the grana lamella, in the incomplete membrane of the albino maize were deficient, although its PS developed completely. It can be deduced that the potential activity and the conversion efficiency of the primary light energy of PS in the albino maize was lower than those in the control, perhaps, it is due to the incomplete development of the Chiprotein complexes and the electron transport chains.
Abstract (Browse 1808)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preliminary Studies of the Identification and Expression of Metallothionein-Like Gene in Festuca rubra
Author: Ma Mi,Tsang Wing Keung,Kwan K M Frances, Lau Pui Sang and Wong Yuk Shan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(11)
      
    Metallothionein (MT) is a cysteine rich protein related to heavy metal sequestering in animal and fungal cell systems. Festuca rubra cv. "Merlin" is a monocotyledonous grass species isolated from a zinc and lead mine area. Laboratory studies had demonstrated that "Merlin" could tolerate cadmium and copper up to 50 mg/L and 30 mg/L, respectively. On the contrary, just 5 mg/L Cd2+ and 2 mg/L Cu2+ already inhibited the growth of the sensitive cuhivar, Festuca rubra "S59". Molecular understanding on the metal tolerant ability of "Merlin" was studied. Based on the conserved region of plant MT-like genes, a pair of primers was synthesized as follows: 5'-GGAT- CAAGCTGCGGCTGCGGCTCAA-3' and 5'-GCAGTYGCAAGGGTCGCACTTGCAG-3'. Using PCR, a fragment of 418 bp was amplified with this pair of primers from both the "Merlin" and "S59" genomic DNA. Sequence analysis showed that the MT-like gene of the two cultivars differed by only 5 base pairs, sharing a 98.8 % homology. Amino acid sequence deduced from the amplified fragment also demonstrated a high homology (60% - 75 % ) to the other known higher plant MT-like proteins and shared the similar structural characteristics of cys-Xaa-cys regions at both end of the sequence. Northern blot analysis on the total RNA showed that the expression of the MT-like gene in the shoots of "Merlin" was enhanced when treated with both 20 mg/L Cu2 + and 20 mg/L Cd2 + . In shoots of "S59" the expression of the MT-like gene was enhanced by 20 mg/L Cu2+ but no effect was observed on the expression upon Cd2+ treatment. These evidences suggested that MT-like gene was present in both "Merlin" and "S59" cuhivars of Festuca rubra; the expression of the MT-like gene was induced by heavy metal stress, and the expression pattern was different between the tolerant ("Merlin") and the sensitive ("S59") cuhivars. Currently, the cloning of the whole gene from the cDNA and genomic library has been undergoing. This would probably give a more profound and better understanding of the molecular mechanism on metal tolerance in Festuca.
Abstract (Browse 1782)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparitive Study on Characters of Two Divergence Types of the Clone Population Leymus chinensis in the Songnen Plain of China
Author: Yang Yun-fei, Zheng Hui-ying and Li Jian-dong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(11)
      
    Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. is a rhizome grass species with high vegetative propagativity. A single species dominancy community of L. chinensis is often developed by vegetative propagation in suitable habitat. The species has two divergence types, a grey-green and a yellowgreen, in the Songnen Plain of China. The age structures of the tillers and rhizomes of the two types of clonal populations in the single species dominancy communities of L. chinensis in natural grassland were comparatively analysed. The standards of age differentiation were that the tillers developed from rhizome buds were age one, while the ages of others were identified with the generation numbers of vegetative propagations of the tiller nodes. Rhizomes of age one were developed in the current growing season, and the ages of others were defined as the number of their surviving years. The ages of each tiller or rhizome were respectively distinguished by morphological characteristics including positions of the tiller nodes and the marks of surviving tillers of vegetative daughters. The results showed that the tiller node lived 2 to 4 years in general, the oldest could live up to 5 years, and the rhizome lived 2 to 3 years in general, occasionally up to 4 years. The age spectrum of tillers from age one to age four in the grey-green population was 65.5 %, 26.6 %, 6.6 % and 1.3 % respectively, and likewise that in the yellow-green population was 63.2 %, 27.8 %, 6.9 % and 2.1% respectively. For the clonal populations of the two types, the tillers showed expanding age structures, and the tillers of age one had largest productivities, while those of the age three had evidently decreased. The accumulative length of the rhizomes of the yellow-green population was 21 218 cm/m2, and that of the grey-green populations was 18 035 cm/m2. The biomass of rhizomes demonstrated a linear decrease in relation to age increase. The vegetative propagativity of age one rhizomes was the largest, the number of buds being far more than the total above-ground tillers at the mid-ten days of August. The age two rhizomes had less potentiality of vegetative propagation and those of age three and age four had lost all the vegetative propagativity. The clonal populations of the two types of L. chinensis were always recruited through the rhizome budding.
Abstract (Browse 1724)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chemical Constituents of Rabdosia leucophylla
Author: Liao Xun, Peng Shu-lin and Ding Li-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(11)
      
    From the ethanolic extract of the aerial part of Rabdosia leucophyUa (Dunn) Hara, five compounds were isolated and identified as leucophyllin E (1), leucophyllin F (2), xindongnin A (3), maslinic acid (4) and dausterol (5), by spectral and chemical evidence. Among them, I and 2 were new compounds and the structure of 2 was also confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis.
Abstract (Browse 1612)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Studies of Sexual Reproduction and Asexual Propagation Between Populations of Adenophora lobophylla and A. potaninii
Author: Zu Yuan-gang, Zhang Wen-hui, Wu Shuang-xiu, Zhou Fu-jun and Yang Feng-jian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(11)
      
    To reveal the internal mechanism which lead to the endangerment of the AdenophoUa lobophylla Hong population, comparative studies of sexual reproduction and asexual propagation between the populations of A. lobophylla and A. potaninii Korsh were carried out. Young seedlings of A. lobophylla had less ability to occupy the uper space of the herbaceous layer than those of A. potaninii. The A. lobophylla population produced much more seeds and lived a long reproductive life to adapt the ambient environment. Though the number of flowers and fruits of A. lobophylla population was more than those of A.potaninii population, the number of its ripe seeds as well as the quality was less. Thus, the development rate from its seeds to one-year old seedlings was very low, and viability of its young seedlings was very poor. This could be the important factor causing the imminent population endangerment of A. lobophylla. Besides the sexual reproduction, the A. lobophylla population also had a comparatively tiny ability of asexual propagation, which was advantageously complementary to its sexual reproduction.
Abstract (Browse 1908)  |  Full Text PDF       
Expression of Tomato Antisense ACC Synthase Gene in Transgenic Tobacco and Its Role in Shoot Formation
Author: Ma Qing-hu and Song Yan-ru
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(11)
      
    An ACC synthase cDNA isolated from tomato ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. ) fruit was constructed in antisense orientation under the transcriptional control of CaMV 35S promoter and then introduced into tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L. ). PCR amplification demonstrated the integration of this antisense gene in tobacco genomes. Northern hybridization and reverse transcription-PCR analyses indicated the expression of this heterologous antisense gene in the transgenic tobacco tissues, which caused a decrease in the ethylene production, particularly when shoot regeneration exhibited. The ability of shoot regeneration of the transgenic plant during the culture process was enhanced remarkably as compared with that of the control. These results indicate at the molecular level that ethylene may play a regulatory role in shoot formation.
Abstract (Browse 1769)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genetic Analysis of Null Allelic RFLP Markers in Rice
Author: Qian Qian, Zhu Li-huang, Cao Li-yong, Xiong Zhen-min and Min Shao-kai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(11)
      
    Using 247 RFLP markers distributed on 12 chromosomes combined with 8 kinds of restriction enzymes, null allelism were analyzed in "Nanjing 11" (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica ), "Kinmaze ge mutant" ( O. sativa L. ssp. japonica ) and "Bellemont" ( intermediate type). Nine probes showed null allelism, among which RG573, G93, G122, G402 and G1318 were specific for "Nanjing 11" ,G261 for "Kinmaze ge mutant", RG229 for "Bellemont", C397 for both "Nanjing 11" and "Bellemont", and RG131 for "Bellemont" and "Kinmaze ge mutant". The null allelic genotype and the indica or japonica phenotype of each individual in the segregation population ("Nanjing 11 "/Kinmaze ge mutant) was described by using 7 null allelic RFLP markers and morphological index characters. The null allelic RFLP markers displayed dominant inheritance in the F2 population, T-test showed that the t-values of G93,G122,G1318 and G397 were extremely significant,and the t-values of G261 and RG573 were also quite significant, indicating that null allelic probes could be used for identifying indica and japonica rice specifically.
Abstract (Browse 1707)  |  Full Text PDF       
Differential Expression of MADS-box Genes in the Morphogenesis of Calli in Rice
Author: Wang Guang-qing, Hu Jian-guang, Zhao Xiang-shan, Cheng Ning-hui, Qian Xiao-yin and Yang Jin-shui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(11)
      
    Total RNAs from the suspension cell line, callus, redifferentiatied callus and regenerated plantlets of rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) "Zhenshan 97B" were reverse-transcribed with poly (T) primers. The cDNAswere amplified by a pair of poly (T) primers and MADS (MCM1-Ag- amous-Deficiens-SRF) domain-specific primers and then separated on a sequencing gel. Several differentially expressed cDNA fragments were isolated. Sequencing of RMI, one of the differentially expressed gene cDNA fragments, showed that it contained a MADS domain, the primary structure of which shared a 63 % homology with the typical MADS-box agamous protein of Arabidopsis thaliana. Computer analysis also indicated that the secondary structure of RMI peptide was significantly similar to that of agamous protein. It was shown that RMi belonged to the MADS-box gene family. Molecular hybridization showed that RMI was silent in the suspension cells, while active in the callus, redifferentiated callus and regenerated plantlets.
Abstract (Browse 1916)  |  Full Text PDF       
Solubilization and Characterization of ABA Binding Proteins from Plasma Membrane of Maize Roots
Author: Chen Jia, Wu Zhong-yi and Zhu Mei-jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(11)
      
    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that influences a number of essential physiological and developmental processes, including seed development and plant adaptation to environmental stress. While the molecular mechanism of ABA action is unknown, this hormone is supposed to interact with cellular receptors, leading to the activation of a number of biochemical processes. High affinity of ABA-binding proteins (ABA-BP) in some plants, either membrane-bound (ABA-BPm) or soluble, have been previously described, but the proteins have not been further characterized. The solubilization, purification and characterization of ABA-BP are essential for the preparation of immuno and cDNA-probes of ABA receptor, and they are the initial steps to elucidate how ABA triggers the signal transduction pathway that ultimately leads to the adaptation of environmental stress. By means of differential centrifugation and two-phase aqueous system, plasma membrane with high purity was prepared from maize roots which had been grown in dark for 3 days. Solubilization of ABA-BPm was dependent on the detergent (Triton X-100) concentration, the optimum concentration being 0.2% (W/V). The solubilization efficiency with 0.2% Triton X-100 (87%) was higher than that with acetone (65%). Radioactivity ligand binding assay showed that the binding of 3H-ABA to ABA-BPm was specific, reversible, saturable and of high affinity. After solubilization with the nonionic detergent (Triton X-100),ABA-BPs (solubilized ABA-BPm) retained their high affinity-binding to 3H-ABA, while BSA did not. The specific binding capacity of ABA-BPs were 2.77 nmoL/g protein, which indicated that ABA-BP were located in the plasma membrane. Some ABA-BPm properties, like temperature and pH dependence for ABA binding, were not significantly changed after solubilization. The ABA-BPm activity of binding ABA was insensitive to temperature change (0 to 25 ). In the first 5 minutes the amount of ABA bound reached 50% of the maximum value, which occurred in 30 min and remained unchanged for at least another 30 min. However, ABA-BPs binding ABA was sensitive to temperature. Although the maximal binding capacity of ABA-BPs was the same as that of ABA-BPm at 25 , it was very low at 0 . The binding of ABA to ABA-BPs proceeded very slowly, taking a time of at least 15 min to reach half of its maximum capacity. The short duration of maximal binding activity (less than 30 min) indicated that ABA-BPs became unstable after the phospholipid bilayer acting as the protective environment was removed by solubilization.
Abstract (Browse 1734)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Medium pH Decrease on Salidroside Release and Cell Viability in Cell Suspension Culture of Rhodiola sachalinensis
Author: Xu Jian-feng, Liu Chuan-bin, Fang Xiao dan and Feng Pu-sun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(11)
      
    The release of intracellular salidroside could be effectively induced by decreasing the medium pH in cell suspension culture of Rhodiola sachalinensis A. Bor. The transport of salidroside across the membrane was a dynamic process with an H+ -antiport mechanism, in which the ratio of intra- and extra-cellular salidroside content was medium pH dependant. If the cultured cells were induced to release salidroside in a medium with a constant pH of 3 for less than 3 h, the growth ability of the cells were retained. When transferred to the productive medium, the treated cells still sustained their ability of synthesizing salidroside.
Abstract (Browse 1874)  |  Full Text PDF       
Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachymans Induced Accumulation of Salicylic Acid in Cucumber Leaves
Author: Li Zhao-liang,Yuan Yong-bing, Ju Zhi-guo,Liu Cheng-lian and Cao Zong-xun(Tsao T. H.)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(11)
      
    The contents of free salicylic acid (SA) and conjugated SA were determined by using TLC and HPLC at different time after inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae pv.lachymans in the first true leaf of cucumber ( Cucumis sativa L. ) plant. A 30% C 197% increase in free SA content in the inoculated leaves was observed. The change of conjugated SA was similar to that of free SA. There occurred a decrease not only in free SA but also in conjugated SA three days after inoculation. The systemic appearance of free SA in the uninoculated leaves was also found two days after inoculation. The content of free SA in the uninoculated leaves increased by 29% to 46% at the initial stage of inoculation; it reached its peak in three days but it stopped increasing five days after inoculation. The content of the conjugated salicylate in the uninoculated leaves significantly increased by 62% to 107% ,while the increase in conjugated salicylate began five days after inoculation. The authors' findings suggested that inoculation with P. syr/ngae pv. lachymans in the first true leaf of cucumber plant could improve the systemic acquired resistance by enhancing SA level in the uninoculated leaves.
Abstract (Browse 1768)  |  Full Text PDF       
Biosynthesis of Chlorophyll Regulates Reconstruction of Thylakoid Membrane in Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803
Author: Wu Qing-yu and Xu Hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(11)
      
    By DNA recombination technology in vitro, ORF469- mutant of cynobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was constructed, in which the ORF469 fragment relative to the light-inde-pendent protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) reduction was deleted. In BG-11 medium with 5 mmol/L glucose, the mutant was grown in darkness with a brief period (10 min) of illumination everyday (light-activated heterotrophic growth, LAHG) for 2 weeks to delete chlorophyll (Chl). The 665 mn Chl peak was replaced by the 629 nm Pchlide peak in the absorption spectra of the methanol extracts. The absorption spectra of the intact cells showed only shoulder peak at 620 nm (representing phyco- biliprotein). The thylakoid membrane disappeared, but the amount of phycobilisome did not decrease. When the mutant was transferred from LAHG condition to continuous light illumination for 3 h, the absorbance at 665 nm became higher than that at 629 nm and two peaks at 620 nm and 440 nm,representing phycobiliprotein and Chi-protein complex respectively, appeared in the absorption spectra of the intact cells. Mter exposure to the light for 8 h, the thylakoid membrane was visible in the cells. And for 24 h, a shoulder peak was present at 680 nm in the absorption spectra of the intact cells. Meanwhile the absorption spectra of the methanol extracts had no difference from that of cells grown in the light. Mter 48 h, the shape of the absorption spectra of the intact cells became the same as that of cells grown in the light. The layers of thylakoid membranes were as clear as those of the cells grown in the light. The results indicated that the biosynthesis of chlorophyll regulates the reconstmction of thylakoid membrane rendering the Chl protein complex to play its functional role in photosystems.
Abstract (Browse 1776)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Study of Pollen Actin Content in Ginkgo and Maize
Author: Zhang Hong, Liu Xiong and Yan Long-fei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(11)
      
    Ginkgo ( Ginkgo biloba L. ) is a famous gymnosperm species, originated from China and known as "living fossil". Western blotting analysis has proved that actin also exists in ginkgo pollen like in angiosperm, but its content was only about one sixth as much as that of maize (Zea mays L. ) pollen based on the densitometry of SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Assay on actin inhibition of DNase activity demonstrated that actin content of maize pollen was as about 7 times as that of ginkgo pollen. The plausible relationship between the actin content and the evolution of plant kingdom was discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1678)  |  Full Text PDF       
Responses to Ethylene and Protein Synthesis of Carnation Flowers
Author: Jiang Wei-bo, Mayak Shimon and Halevy Abraham H.
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(11)
      
    The symptoms of petal response to ethylene, including petal in-rolling and increase in ion leakage through cell membrane, were completely inhibited by treatment of transcription inhibitor a-amanitin as well as protein synthesis inhibitor---cycloheximide. It was observed in Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. White Sim that protein synthesis in flowers declined and the responsiveness to ethylene increased as the flowers became matured. However, when the flowers were pre-treated with aminooxyacetic acid (AOA), an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis, the observed responsiveness to ethylene in flowers declined with age. These results suggested that responsiveness to ethylene in flowers may be due to a declination in the capacity of protein synthesis in flowers.
Abstract (Browse 1742)  |  Full Text PDF       
Formation and Development of Embryo Sac Wall in Rice
Author: Liu Xiang-dong, Xu Shi-xiong (Zee S. Y.) and Lu Yong-gen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(11)
      
    The formation and development of the wall of embryo sac, from functional megaspore to mature embryo sac of rice ( Oryza sativa L. ), were studied with transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that the embryo sac wall was derived from the wall of the functional megaspore. Later, it became much thickened mainly due to the piling up of wall remains from the degenerated nucellar cells. Plasmodesmata were frequently observed in the wall near the chalazal pole of the func-tional megaspore. Some of these plasmodesmata persisted through the stage of eight-nucleate embryo sac formation. At the four-nucleate embryo sac stage, wall ingrowths began in the micropyle region. At the eight-nucleate embryo sac stage cells began to form in the embryo sac but the patterns of development of wall ingrowths in these cells were different. In the central cell, wall ingrowth appeared in the region of the embryo sac wall adjacent to the nucellar, cells, especially in the region near the micropyle and the chalaza pole. Wall ingrowths were quite well developed in the wall near the micropyle region and much more well,developed in the mature cell. Ingrowths failed to develop in other parts of the cell wall. In the antipodals, ingrowths developed only in the region of the embryo sac wall adjacent to nucellar cells. Ingrowths were absent in other regions of the wall of the antipodals. In the synergids, only the common wall between the synergids developed wall ingrowths. These wall ingrowths later formed part of the filiform apparatus which could be observed clearly before the embryo sac was obviously enlarged. In the egg cell, ingrowths were limited only in the wall adjacent to the synergids. The reasons and the functional significance of the formation of wall ingrowths in various parts of the embryo sac were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1906)  |  Full Text PDF       
Molecular Cloning, Sequencing of Chalcone Isomerase Gene and Its Expression in E. coli
Author: Yan Hua, Song Yun, Li Yi-yun, Yan Rui-ming, Li Yi and Chen Zhang-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(11)
      
    Anthocyanidins belong to a class of biosynthetic metabolites of flavonoids in higher plants. Chalcone isomerase (CHI) catalyzes the conversion of naringenin chalcone into flavanone. Chi-a gene was cloned from Petunia hybrida Vilm. The sequence of the coding region was 726 bp, encoding a protein of 241 amino acids and was expressed in E. coli. The amino acid sequence homology was compared with CHI from a variety with plant species.
Abstract (Browse 1893)  |  Full Text PDF       
Pollen Morphology of Calligonum in China and Its Stratigraphical Significance
Author: Zhang Yu-long and Xi Yi-zhen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(11)
      
    Pollen morphology of 11 species of Calligonum L. in China was examined under LM and SEM. Based on ornamentation observed under SEM,it might be divided into 4 types, viz. reticu-late-foveolate with circular or subcircular lumina, retieulate-foveolate with polygonal lumina, reticu-late-perforate and reticulate-perforate or reticulate-fossulate in the sequence of evolutionary trend. According to the shape of os, the pollen grains of Calligonum were different from those of the other genera of Polygonaceae.
Abstract (Browse 1952)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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