December 1997, Volume 39 Issue 12

 

          Research Articles
Pterocarpans and Isoflavans from Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge
Author: Song Chun-qing, Zheng Zhi-ren, Liu Di, Hu Zhi-bi and Sheng Wan-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(12)
      
    A new pterocarpan, (6aR, llaR)-3, 9-dimethoxy-l0-hydroxypterocarpan with four known compounds, (6aR,11aR)-3,9,10-tri-methoxypterocarpan,9,l0-di-methoxypterocarpan-3-O--D-glucopyranoside, (3R)-2'-hydroxy-7, 3', 4'-trimethoxy-isoflavan, 2'-hydroxy-3', 4'- dimethoxyisoflavan-7-O--D-glucopyranoside, were isolated from ethanolic extract of the root of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectral analysis and chemical conversions.
Abstract (Browse 1980)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Ribonucleoprotein and Argyrophilic Proteins in the Chromosomes of Prorocentrum sp.
Author: Song Lin-sheng, Feng Yi-ping and Zhang Zi-li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(12)
      
    The chromosomal ultrastructure and the chromosomal substances of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) and argyrophilic proteins of Prorocentrum sp. were studied using the techniques of conventional staining, RNP preferential staining and Ag-staining. Most part of the RNP in the chromosomes of Prorocentrum sp. was in the form of fibril distributed around the DNP throughout the chromosone. The RNP in the periphery of the chromosomes was found to form a closed membrane-like structure. Many kinds of the argyrophilic proteins were distributed regularly in the chromosome of Prorocentrum sp., but varied greatly in quantity from cell to cell. The amount of argyrophilic proteins in the chromosomes of some cells was much more than that in the nucleoplasm, but in other cells the amount of argyrophilic proteins was less than that in the nucleoplasm. The results indicated that in addition to argyrophilic proteins, RNA might play a role in the maintenance of the chromosome structure at a high level.
Abstract (Browse 1760)  |  Full Text PDF       
Palynological Evidence for Jurassic Petroleum Source of Qaidam Basin
Author: Jiang De-xin and Yang Hui-qiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(12)
      
    Forty-five species of fossil spores and pollen referred to 27 genera extracted from the crude oil samples collected from the Jurassic reservoirs of the Qaidam Basin in Qinghai Province of China were recorded. Based on the investigations of the palynomorphs in crude oil and the comparisons with those in potential source rocks, the petroleum source rocks of the petroliferous region were determined. On the basis of the palleoecological characteristics reflected by the original plants producing the spores and pollen, the sedimentary environment of the petroleum source rocks was discussed. The main species of spores and pollen found from crude oil of the Jurassic reservoirs of the Qaidam Basin are as follows: Cyathidites minor, Gleicheniidites confiexus, Dictyophyllidites harrisii, Osmundacidites wellmanii, 0. elegans, Apiculatisporis variabilis, Acanthotriletes midwayensis, Neoraistrickia truncatus, Lycopodiacidites rugulatus, Contignisporites cooksonii, Duplexisporites gyratus, D. amplectiformis, D. scanicus, Densoisporites perinatus, Protopinus scanicus, Protopicea exilioides, Protopodocarpus mollis, Piceites expositus, Piceaepollenites omoriciformis, Cedripites minor, Podocarpidites multesimus, P. paulus, Quadraeculina limbata, Q. enigmata, Q. minor, Chasmatosporites major, Cycadopites nitidus, C. typicus, C. subgranulosus, etc. The results indicated that the Lower Jurassic Xiaomeigou Formation and the Middle Jurassic Dameigou Formation should be the petroleum source rock series of the petroliferous region. The petroleum source rocks might have been evolved in the limnetic environment under wann and wet climatic conditions.
Abstract (Browse 1944)  |  Full Text PDF       
Estimation of Water and Thermal Product Index and Its Application to the Study of Vegetation-Climate Interaction in China
Author: Ni Jian and Zhang Xinshi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(12)
      
    A water and thermal product index was in attempt to be established according to the relations among annual average temperature, annual precipitation, potential evapotranspiration and soil water balance. The plant community groups were constrainted to form a circular life-climate diagram using three climatic indices, annual average temperature, annual soil water surplus and deficit, and water and thermal product index. Based on the records of 689 meteorological stations of China, the annual average temperature, soil water surplus and deficit, water and thermal product index of 8 vegetation zones and 26 subzones were calculated. The vegetation types included cold-temperate (boreal) coniferous forest, cool-temperate mixed coniferous-broadleaved forest, warm-temperate deciduous broadleaved rain forest, subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest, tropical forest and monsoon rain forest, temperate steppe, temperate desert and Tibetan high-cold plateau alpine vegetation. Additionally, distributional and scatter graphs of every climatic index were drawn. All of these highlighted well the relationship and pattern between vegetation and climate in China. The isopleth of annual average temperature relatively reflected the thermal gradient in China. The differences in latitude and longitude were significant. The isopleth of soil water surplus and deficit was scattered. The isopleth of water and thermal product index not only showed better relation to thermal and water gradients but also to vegetation types. The study was an attempt of under standing the vegetation-cli- mate interaction at a large scale which merits more understanding of its mechanism, such as the interaction and feedback between vegetation and climate, plant population, and soil characteristics, etc. to further improve this method.
Abstract (Browse 1782)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Chilling Injury on the Thylakoid Membrane of Cucumber Chloroplasts
Author: Xu Chun-hui, Chen Zhi-qiang, Wang Ke-bin, Zhao Fu-hong, Lin Shi-qing, Tang Chong-qin and Kuang Ting-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(12)
      
    Some changes in the components of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L. ) thylakoid membrane occurred before any visible chilling injury appeared when cucumber leaves were treated with chilling temperature (0 , 16 h). Chilling temperature induced a specific decrease of phosphatidyl glycerol (PG) content accompanied with an increase of PS light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein com- plex (LHC ) monomer content and a decrease of LHC II oligomer content in the thylakoid membrane. It also had a significant effect on the content of lipids and the fatty acid composition of each of lipid class of purified LHC . The PG content decreased obviously and the content of other lipid classes increased. The fatty acid composition of each lipid class from purified LHC was also affected. The results suggested that the changes in PG content and LHC supermolecular structure might be the primary indications of chilling injury.
Abstract (Browse 1928)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes of Freeze-Fracture Ultrastructure and 27 kD Polypeptide of Photosynthetic Membranes During the Germination of Lotus Seeds Under Light
Author: Zuo Bao-yu, Li Guo-qing, Tang Chong-qin, Zhang Quan, Jiang Gui-zhen and Kuang Ting-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(12)
      
    Investigation of freeze-fracture electron microscopy and analysis of polypeptide components of photosynthetic membranes from lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. ) showed that the ultrastructural development of chloroplast photosynthetic membranes in the plumule were in concert with the changes of 27 kD polypeptide (LHC ) during the germination of lotus seeds under light. 1 ) Two days after germination, the thylakoid membranes of giant grana became destacked. Only endoplasmic fracture face of destacked thylakoid region (EF) and protoplasmic fracture face of destacked thylokoids (PF) could be observed with freeze-fracture electron microscopy. The majority was 30 kD polypeptide, but 27 kD was scarce. 2) Four days after germination, photosynthetic membranes changed from destacked type to small grana. At the same time, the particle density of the endoplasmic fracture face in the stacked thylakoid region (EFs) and protoplasmic fracture face in the stacked thylakoid region (PFs) began to develop and 27 kD increased while 30 kD decreased. 3) 6 to 8 days after germination, the unstacked membrane region was developed, the particle density of the endoplasmic fracture face in the unstacked region (EFu) and protoplasmic fracture face in the unstacked region (PFu) could be seen. The particles on EFs and PFs gradually appeared. In the meantime, 27 kD kept on increasing while 30 kD decreasing. 4) 10 to 12 days after gennination, fully developed stacked and unstacked photosynthetic membranes arranged orderly in the chloroplast. The density, size and distribution of particles on EFs, PFs, EFu and PFu developed nonnally. There were more and more 27 kD polypeptide, as 30 kD almost disappeared. It was significant that the ongoing changes of supramolecular architecture concured with the changes of the uhrastructure and the quantitative variations of 27 kD polypeptide. Thus not only proved that LHC II is the main internal factor which induce the membrane stacking, but also gave the evidence which indicated that sacred lotus possess an unique position in phylogeny of Angiespermae.
Abstract (Browse 2013)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytohistological Study on Morphogenesis of the Adventitious Bud in the in Vitro Culture of Micro-Cross Sectioned Leaf Midveins from Hybrid Populus
Author: Guo Quan-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(12)
      
    Micro-cross sections (MCS) of midveins of leaves from hybrid Populus ( P. nigra var. betulifolia x P. trichocarpe) NE 299 were used for studying the adventitious bud formation in vitro. MCS of 400 pm or 800 fan in thickness were cut with a vibrating microstome (Lancer Vibratome, model 1000) and cultured in woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with 0.2 mg/L BA and 0.01 mg/L NAA. Then the division of some parenchyma cells located on each side of the vascular cylinder and connected with the palisade tissue (i. e. adaxial side) were initiated. At the same time the palisade tissue connected with vascular bundles also began to divide and then formed the embryonic meristematic packed cells. The origin of the midvein calli developed mainly from the vascular cylinder, the palisade tissues and the phloem parenchyma cells. Adventitious buds were generally formed on the peripheral parts of the calli, also originated from the cambium-like cells surrounded by the vascular nodules. The parenchymatous bundle sheath of the lateral veins had much higher capacity of division and grew directly into the adventitious buds with no callus phase. Observing the parenchyma cells of the vascular cylinder on the midvein, it was shown that the cells adjacent to the mesophyll cells usually contained little smaller chloroplasts while those on both abaxial and adaxial side contained stored starch granules. The defined sites and the specific cell potential in morphogenesis are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1923)  |  Full Text PDF       
Establishment of a System with High Synchronous Frequency of Somatic Embryogenesis and Embryo Seedling Formation in Camellia sinensis var. assamica
Author: Du Ke-jiu, Cao Hui-juan, Zhang Hui, Zhao Nan and Li Tian-qing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(12)
      
    The system of high synchronous frequency of somatic embryogenesis and somatic embryo seedling formation was established by means of embryonic cell hne 1 ( CL1 ) of Camellia sinensis var. assamica Kitamura. Modified MS was used as the basic medium. Cultures of CL1 was transferred to the aqueous induced medium (0.05 mg/L 2,4-D + 0.50 mg/L 6-BA) from the maintenance medium (0.1 mg/L 2,4-D + 0.5 mg/L 6-BA) for somatic embryos induction under dark condition. 28 days later, they were cultured in the liquid differentiation medium. Various kinds of somatic embryos were obtained after another 28 days. The frequency of somatic embryos was 81.5 %. Various mesh sizes of sieves were applied to collect the somatic embryos in different developmental stages which could develop to mature stage in the aqueous growth medium ( 1/2 MS + 1.0 mg/L GA3 + 0.5 mg/L 6-BA). ABA was effective to promote the formation of highly qualified somatic embryo. The mature somatic embryos sized 20 to 70 mesh had the conversion frequency 75 %. The development of somatic embryogenesis studied under a cell suspension culture system was similar to the zygotic embryogenesis.
Abstract (Browse 1899)  |  Full Text PDF       
Relationships of Starch Concentration with Specific Leaf Weight and Mineral Concentrations in Potato Leaves Under Varied CO2 and Temperature
Author: Cao Wei-xing and Theodore W. Tibbitts
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(12)
      
    Foliar concentrations of starch and major nutrients N, P, K, Ca, and Mg along with specific leaf weight (SLW) were determined in the potato (Solaruan tuberosum L. ) cvs "Denali", "Norland and "Russet Burbank" grown for 35 days under the CO2 concentrations of 500, 1 000, 1 500 and 2 000 mol' mol-l at both 16 and 20 air temperature. The starch concentration, pooled from the three cuhivars, increased with increasing CO2 concentration at both 16 and 20 , and was consistently higher at 16 than at 20 . The SLW (gm-2) was positively related to the foliar starch concentration on the basis of leaf area or dry weight. The concentrations of N, P, Ca, and Mg in leaves were negatively related to starch concentration under 14% starch on a dry weight basis. Above 14%, there was no significant relationship between nutrient and starch concentrations. The similar patterns were seen when the SLW and nutrient concentrations were expressed on a starch-free basis. In contrast, the leaf concentration of K was not closely related to the starch concentration. The results indicated that the changes in SLW and concentrations of N, P, Ca, and Mg in potato leaves only partially resulted from the changed starch concentration.
Abstract (Browse 1934)  |  Full Text PDF       
Interspecific Somatic Hybrids in Actinidia
Author: Xiao Zun-an and Han Bi-wen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(12)
      
    Protoplasts isolated from cotyledon-derived calli of Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis (2n = 2x = 58) were fused by the PEG method with cotyledon-callus protoplasts of A. deliciosa var. deliciosa (2n = 6x = 174) or with mesophyll protoplasts of A. kolomikta (2n = 2x = 58), respectively. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and flow cytometry was used to confinn the occurrence of somatic hybrids. RAPD results with some primers surveyed indicated that one clone (A. chinensis + A. deliciosa ) and four clones (A. chinensis + A. kolomikta ) had RAPD banding patterns which combined the parental banding profiles. Ploidy levels of the (A. chinensis + A. deliciosa ) clone were deduced as octoploid (2n = 8x), and the (A. chinensis + A. kolomikta) clones were tetraploid (2n = 4x), triploid (2n = 3x) or pentaploid (2n= 5x). The clones were confirmed as interspecific somatic hybrids in Actinidia.
Abstract (Browse 1986)  |  Full Text PDF       
Generation of Active Oxygen Free Radicals and Its Injury to Microsome Membranes in Wheat Leaves Under Drought Stress
Author: Zeng Fu-li, Zhang Ming-feng and Li Yu-feng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(12)
      
    The microsome membrane of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. ) leaves under different time of drought stress was purified to determine the active oxygen free radicals generated and their severity of injury to the membrane. During the drought stress the rate of O2- and H2O2 generation increased for a certain time and then decreased. The concentration of MDA increased continuously. The activity of SOD decreased gradually. The concentration of SH group and MDA increased from the beginning until the 36th hour under drought stress, thereafter MDA content continued to increase while the SH content decreased. Several physiological indexes related to membrane injury, such as root electroconductivity, leaf water potential and water content were all affected accordingly.
Abstract (Browse 1841)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Characterization of a cDNA Encoded an Embryogenic Cell Protein 63 Related to Embryogenesis from Carrot
Author: Zhu Chang-fu, Hiroshi Kamada, Hiroshi Harada, He Meng-yuan and Hao Shui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(12)
      
    cDNA library with about 6.0 x 108 plaques per g phage from carrot ( Daucus carota L. cv. Hammaki) torpedo-shaped embryos was constructed by a eDNA cloning system (gtl0). A fulllength cDNA for embryogenic cell protein 63 (ECP63), an embryogenic cell protein from carrot with a relative molecular weight of 63 000, was isolated from a eDNA library using PCR-amplified DNA as a probe. The nucleotide sequence of ECP63 cDNA was 1 989 bp in length. The cDNA encoded a polypeptide of 569 amino acids, and the calculated molecular weight of this pelypeptide was 62 000. The Northern blot analysis using labeled full-length ECP63 cDNA as a probe showed that the gene for ECP63 was expressed in embryogenic cells, globular, heart-, and torpedo-shaped embryos, but not in seedlings and non-embryogenic cells.
Abstract (Browse 1858)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Changes in Hydrating and Germinating Pollen Grain of Cotton,with Special Reference to Endoplasmic Reticulum and Coated Vesicles
Author: Yuan Zong-fei and Hu Shi-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(12)
      
    Numerous starch granules and lipid bodies stored in cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) pollen grain are mobilized at the time from pollen hydration to germination after pollination. The ultrastructural events during these processes were investigated. The starch granules were decomposed prior to the lipid bodies. From pollen hydration to gennination, the rough endoplasmie retieulum (RER) and dietyosomes with functional activities were mainly involved in its vegetative cytoplasm, in which large number of coated vesicles were contained. The most conspicuous feature occurred in the vegetative cytoplasm was the remarkable consecutive changes in the configuration of RER. As the pollen just hydrated, the RER eistemae became highly distended in various degree to form a net-work system and were further folded into large amount of RER pocket-like units, containing amyloplasts, lipid bodies and groups of coated vesicles. As the pollen continued to hydrate, the previously formed ER pockets disappeared and the ER eistemae were linked together to form a branched communicat- ing system. When the pollen started to germinate, the ER cisternae became shghtly dilated. Some of them were associated with each other to form a simple net-work system, and others remained as free vesicles. During the whole process, the coated vesicles, which always distributed in groups, were linked closely with the lipid bodies. As the lipid bodies decomposed, some of the coated vesicles lost their membranes and coalesced with the decomposed hpid bodies. Based on the close relationship between the dynamic changes of the pollen ultrastructures and the stages for pollen hydration to the initiation of germinate, the possible functions of the ER and coated vesicles are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2021)  |  Full Text PDF       
Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci for Reproductive Barriers Occurring in Hybrid Between indica and japonica Rice
Author: Liu Yong-sheng, Zhu Li-huang, Sun Jing-san, He Ping, Wang Yu-zhong and Shen Li-shuang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(12)
      
    Hybridization between Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica and 0. sativa ssp. japonica could produce heterosis but various reproductive barriers existed. The barriers included embryo sac sterility, pollen sterility, anther indehiscence and non-synchronization of male and female gamete development in the same spikelet. A molecular linkage map comprising 137 markers was constructed based on 127 doubled haploid (DH) progenies from anther culture of Fl hybrid between an indica rice variety "Zhaiyeqing 8" and a japonica rice variety "Jingxi 17". The linkage map was employed to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for reproductive barriers in DH population and its derived two backcross populations by interval mapping. Ten QTLs were detected and located on chromosomes 1, 3,4,5,6,7,8,and 12 respectively. The positions of two QTLs located on chromosomes 3 and 12 were identical to the positions for distorted segregation detected in Fa population from the same cross. All the QTIs had additive effects in increasing sterility except for stj-6 that increased fertility.
Abstract (Browse 1849)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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