February 1997, Volume 39 Issue 2

 

          Research Articles
Discussion on the Function and Specificity of the 60 kD Leaf Protein in Hubei Photoperiod-Sensitive Genic Male-Sterile Rice Nongken 58S
Author: Bai Shu-nong and Tan Ke-hui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(2)
      
    The specificity of the 60 kD leaf protein previously reported in Hubei photoperiod-sensitive genic male-sterile rice (HPGMR) Nongken 58S ( Oryza sativa L. ) was reexamined. The leaf proteins from 28 rice strains were tested with two-dimentional electrophoresis. It was found that although this protein was stably tested in Nongken 58S, not in Nongken 58, it was also expressed in many other ssp. japonica rice strains. The possible functions of this protein and the importance of setting proper controls in the study of such complicated system were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1734)  |  Full Text PDF       
Stress Resistance of Plants Induced via the Salicylic Acid-Mediated Signal Transduction Pathway
Author: Lin Zhong-ping and Hu Yuan-lei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(2)
      
    In recent years there has been growing interests in plant response to environmental stress via the salicylic-acid (SA)-mediated signal transduction pathway. Significant advances have been achieved on SA metabolism in relation to phenylpropanoid pathway and the process involved in the breakdown of H202 by catalase, which can be inhibited by SA. Evidence from a large body of literature suggests the role of SA as a signal molecule and provids the biochemical and molecular biological basis for the link between pathogen infection and the induction of systemic acquired resistance.
Abstract (Browse 1849)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structure Elucidation of a New n-Pentyl Fructofuranoside in Dendranthema morifolium(Ramat.) Tzvel.
Author: Hu Li-hong and Chen Zhong-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(2)
      
    A new compound (1) and eleven known compounds were isolated from the polaric fractions of Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel. By means of chemical and spectral analyses, compound 1 was established as n-pentyl--D-fruetofuranoside. Two known compounds n-butyl and ethyl eaffeate were strong antagonists of 5-]ipoxygenase.
Abstract (Browse 1761)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ecological Characteristics of Macroalgae in Mangrove Forests in Fujian, China
Author: Lin Peng, Chen Zhen-fen and Liu Wei-gang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(2)
      
    The flora and distribution of macroalgae as well as the biomass of its two dominant species were studied in mangrove forests in Fujian Province, China. There were totally 42 species belonging to 24 genera of macroalgae, in which 15 species/8 genera belonged to Cyanophyta, 7/3 to Rhodophyta, and 20/13 to Chlorophyta. The biomass of the dominant species Caloglossa leprieurii and Catenella impudica were 2.22 to 8.44 g/m2 DW and 2.69 g/m2 DW in June,and 0.15 to 0.20 g/m2 DW and 2.12 g/m2 DW in December, respectively. On the tnmk surface of the mangrove plants,macroalgae appeared vertically to be distributed from lower upwards into six belts, namely Vaucheria sp. belt, Catenella impudica belt, Caloglossa ogasawaraensis-Bostrychia mixta belt, Calogiossa leprieurii belt, Chaetomorpha macrotona-Rhizoclonium riparium belt, and Chlorococcum sp. belt.
Abstract (Browse 1901)  |  Full Text PDF       
Research on the Dynamics of Se Uptake and Accumulation in Different Peanut Organs
Author: Wang Qi-bing, Wu Jin-sui, Zhao Yi-fang and Qiao Yu-hui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(2)
      
    Pot experiment was conducted to study the Se bioaccumulation in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. ). The results are as follows: 1 ) The Se content, process of bioaccumulation and reserves in peanut all showed dynamic changes with plant growth. 2) Peanut could accumulate more Se after needling stage compared with the early stages, 55 % of total Se was enriched after fruiting. 3) Setended to distribute in the most actively growing organs at every growth stage. Before needling stage leaf was the main organ of Se accumulation and storage, but after that peanut pods became the main Se-accumulating and storing organ. At maturity, the total Se reserves in different parts of peanut followed the order: kernel > leaf > shell > stem > root, while the Se content in different organs had a trend of kernel > root > shell > stem > leaf.
Abstract (Browse 1744)  |  Full Text PDF       
Pollination Biology of Cycas panzhihuaensis L. Zhou et S.Y.Yang
Author: Wang Qian, Li Chao-luan, Yang Si-yuan, Huang Rong and Chen Fa-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(2)
      
    The population of cone-bearing cycad, Cycas panzhihuaensis L. Zhou et S. Y. Yang, was male-biased. Although the number of male individuals was almost equal to that of female individuals, the clonal and cone production of male individuals was 1.31 and 2.21 times as much as that of female individuals respectively. The sequence of pollen shedding was from the base to the top of the cone and microsporophyll. The peak of daily pollen shedding occurred at noon and in the afternoon. The airborne pollen concentration decreased quickly within 2.55 m and finally maintained at a low level along with the distance from emitting male cone. The megastrobilus was transformed into a receptive state at the beginning of pollination due to the regular morphological changes of megasporophylls. Two kinds of ants and one kind of cockroaches were found to be active within the megas- trobili during pollination, albeit causing no tissue damage. The microstrobili gave off a strong odor of fennel that could dispel all the insects nearby. The sterile foliar structure of the megasporophyll was able to secret aqueous droplets at dawn which might function as transporting adhered pollen grains by dislodging and accumulating them on or near micropyles during the process of droplets falling. Resuits from field observation showed that pollination of C. panzhihuaensis might be accomplished by different pollinators. Pollen grains were firstly wind-transported from microstrobili to megastrobili and then insects and secreted droplets on the megasporophyll either directly or indirectly carried the pollen grains to ovules within a megastrobilus. However, insects might play as a subsidiary pollinator due to the preferential concentration of airborne pollen grains transported to the megasporophylls.
Abstract (Browse 2295)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genetic Diversity and Differentiation of Cyclobalanopsis glauca Populations in East China
Author: Chen Xiao-yong, Wang Xi-hua and Song Yong-chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(2)
      
    Genetic diversity, genetic differentiation and gene flow among 6 Cyclobalanopsis glauca (Thunb.) Oerst. populations in East China were investigated using the assay of vertical slab polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. C. glauca maintained relatively high level of genetic variation as compared with the average plant species. Expected heterozygosity at species and population level was 0.225 2 and 0.221 6 respectively, and observed heterozygosity were 0. 166 1 and 0. 177 1 respectively. Genetic differentiation (GsT) was low among populations. GsT was 5.6%, and the means of genetic identity and genetic distance were 0.972 9 and 0.027 6 respectively. The divergence times among populations were from 14 000 to 270 000 years. The gene flow were 4.21 and 20.49 respectively.
Abstract (Browse 1752)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparison and Improvement of Polymorphism Amplification Methods Used for Detecting DNA Diversity of Plants
Author: Hu Zhi-ang, Yun Rui, Zhong Min, Dong Fu-gui, Wang Hong-xin and Qian Ying-qian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(2)
      
    A comparative study on randomly amphfied polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) used in detecting DNA diversity of natural populations of liaodong oak( Quercus liaotungensis Koidz. ), peashmb ( Caragana ssp. ) and wild soybean ( Glycine soya (L.)Sieb. et Zucc. ) was conducted. In case of using agarose gel electrophoresis with ethidium bromide (EB) staining which was traditionally used in RAPD, both methods generally showed simple profiles with less than 10 bands. By using urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Urea-PAGE) with silver staining which was usually used in DAF, the resulted RAPD profiles, similar to those in DAF ones, became much more resolved and consisted of 20 to 40 bands. Similar profile was shared by RAPD and DAF when primer OPA-02 (TACCGAGCTG) and 7.7a (CGAGCTG) were included respectively. It indicated that both methods may have similar mechanism of amplification. After running agarose gel electrophoresis and EB staining the individual bands were cut off and renm in Urea-PAGE with silver staining. It showed that each EB-stained band consists of several fragments with different length. Gene cloning confirmed that a single EB-stained band in agarose gel did contain many DNA fragments with different molecular weight. Low experimental variabihty has been found in both RAPD and DAF even if Taq DNA polymerase was used. An improved method of RAPD with PAGE and silver staining has been successfitUy used in detection of DNA diversity for natural populations of plants.
Abstract (Browse 1794)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Model of Precipitation Redistribution Within a Three-Leveled Sandy Grassland Landscape
Author: Gao Qiong and Zhang Xin-shi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(2)
      
    The authors presented a simple model of precipitation redistribution within a threeleveled (hard ridge, soft hill and lower land) sandy grassland landscape. The model assumed that when the soil water is smaller than field capacity, redistribution flow is negligible. However, when precipitation rate is large enough and soil water goes beyond the field capacity, the excessive soil water will flow laterally to the lower levels through noncapillary pores. Exponential distribution of precipitation was assumed and tested with real data. Then based on the exponential distribution of precipitation the model was solved to give the equivalent precipitation of each level in the landscape.
Abstract (Browse 1719)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genotypic Mapping Using RFLP Markers on Doubled Haploids Derived from a Cross Between indica and japonica Rice
Author: Li Ping, Zhu Li-huang, Zhou Kai-da and Chen-Ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(2)
      
    A rice RFLP map with 233 loci based on a population of 81 doubled haploids (DH) from the indica/japonica hybrid of "Gui 630'/"02428" was used to analyse the genome ratios and graphical genotypes of DH lines. The Gui 630 genome ratio of the individual DH lines varied from 29.3% to 78.6% with an average of 49% while the ratios of most DH lines ranged between 44% and 49%. Of the mapped RFLP markers 130 showed skewed segregations with a significant deviation from the expected monogenic ratio, but the numbers of the markers deviated towards male and female parent were approximately equal. It was found that the markers with the segregation deviation in the same direction tend to cluster on some chromosomes and some of their regions. The average "Gui 630' genome ratios of different chromosomes in the DH population varied greatly between 29% and 65 %. In addition, several chromosomes were inherited completely from either one of the parents in some DH lines, indicating the rare occurrence of crossover along the pairing homologous chromosomes during meiosis.
Abstract (Browse 1744)  |  Full Text PDF       
Protein Changes in Rice Seedlings During the Enhancement of Chilling Resistance by Different Stress Pretreatments
Author: Zeng Shao-xi, Wang Yi-rou and Li Mei-ru
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(2)
      
    Changes of proteins in the rice ( Oryza sativa L. ) seedlings from different stress pretreatments were compared for exploring the mechanism of cross adaptation to different stresses. The chilling resistances of rice seedlings (under 1 , 150 mol•m-2•s-1 PFD for 2 days) were enhanced distinctly by salt, heat shock and cold pretreatments. The survial rates of the pretreated rice seedlings after being recovered from chilling injury for 2 days were greatly higher than those of nonpretreated seedlings. The contents of total soluble protein and heat-unstable protein from the different kinds of pretreated seedlings showed a similar trend of changes. In comparing with the nonpretreated seedlings, total soluble protein and heat-unstable protein were lower just after pretreatment and chilling injury but became higher after recovery for 2 days. The heat-stable protein in the seedlings pretreated by cold or heat shock was higher than those of the nonpretreated seedlings at all three sampling time ( after pretreated; after chilling injury; after recovery for 2 days). However, the change of heat-stable protein in salt pretreated seedlings was similar to the changes of the soluble and heat-unstable proteins. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that the component changes of the soluble, heat-stable and heat-unstable proteins among the three pretreated seedlings had both common newly induced polypeptides and different specific newly polypeptides by comparison with the nonpretreated seedlings. These results suggested that the cross adaptation of plants to different environmental stresses involved certain common molecular mechanism, yet the plants might not adapt the same environmental stress with the same resistance mechanism.
Abstract (Browse 1788)  |  Full Text PDF       
Relationship of Stomata Sensitivity to ABA and ABA Binding Proteins on the Plasmalemma of Guard Cells in Vicia faba
Author: Wang Heng-bin, Wang Xue-chen, Chen Jia, Cao Min and Li Yun-yin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(2)
      
    Based on the previous investigations of the dissociation constant and m~Mmum binding capacity of ABA binding proteins per guard cell protoplast(GCP) in Viciafaba L., the authors have furthered their study in the effects of pH and light/dark on the activity of ABA binding proteins. The results showed that pH did not change the dissociation constant but at different pH the number of the hotrod ABA molecules per GCP was different. After illumination for 90 min the dissociation constant Df the ABA binding proteins was increased and the ABA binding capacity per GCP was decreased. Both effects were reversed when GCPs were kept in fully dark for 90 min. The results indicated that the change of stomata sensitivity of ABA by light/dark could be regulated through the change of dissociation contant to the ABA binding proteins.
Abstract (Browse 1674)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Study of the Sunny-Side and Shaded Side Peels of the Cold-Stored Apple Fruits and Superficial Scald Development
Author: Zhang Yuan-hu, Zou Qi and Ye Bao-xing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(2)
      
    Ultrastructure of the storey-side and the shaded side peels of the apple ( Malus pumila Mill. ) fruits stored at 0 for 4 months and later developed scald at 20 were observed by electron microscopy. It was found that electron dense matehals (EDM) in the apple cuticle was strongly correlated with scald development. EDM could move firm cuticle to inner cells along the cell walls. The accumulation of EDM on the cells could cause the breakage of plasmalemma and damage internal structure. The EDM could move into the cell as the cell collapsed. It was assumed that EDM could be a compound product of a-fhrnesene oxidation in the cuticle. At the end of cold storage, no scald developed on beth the sunny-side and the shaded side peels of' apples. Little EDM was found in the walls of outer hypodennal cells of the sunny-side fruit peel in which the cells maintained their healthy structure, but some epidermal cells in the shaded side fmit peel were destroyed by EDM. It was also found that much EDM existed in the walls of outer hypodermal cells. There was no scald symptoms develop on the sunny-side peel after the shaded side peel of the fruit severely scalded at 20 . Only a few cells in the outer hypodermis of the sunny-side peel of the fruit were damaged by EDM, most of the cells maintained their healthy structure, but all of the cells in the shaded side peel of the fruit were destroyed and electron-dense was increased. It was suggested that the epidermal and hypodermal cells were damaged by EDM in the cuticle from outside of the cells.
Abstract (Browse 1765)  |  Full Text PDF       
Embryological Study on Mosla chinensis (Lamiaceae)
Author: Pan Kai-yu, Wen Jie and Zhou Shi-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(2)
      
    The formation of microspores and megaspores, the development of male and female gametophytes, the embryogenesis and the development of endosperm were studied in Mosla chinensis Bueh.-Ham. ex Maxim. (Lamiaceae). The development of anther wall was of the dicotyledonous type, of anthers the 4-sporangiate, and that of the tapetum was of the glandular type, of 2 4 cell nuclei. The primary sporogenous cells fimctioned directly as microspore mother cells and were arranged in a single row in a microsporangium. The cytokinesis in meiosis of the microspore mother cells was of the simultaneous type. Tetrads were tetrahedral, but sometimes isobilateral. Mature pollen grains contained two cells. Ovules were anatropous, unitegmic and tenuinucellate. The tetrad of megaspores was hnear shaped, with the first or rarely the second cell from the chalazal end being functional. The development of embryo sacs belongs to the polygonum type. The micropylar region of the mature embryo sacs was nearly ovate and slightly shorter than the narrowed chalazal region. The embryogenesis was of the onagrad type. The endosperm was cellular. The micropylar haustorimn was unicellular with 3-nuclei and the chalazal haustorium was unicellular and 2-nucleated. Seeds were exalbuminous and seedcoat is developed from the integument. The ovary wall developed into pericarp. The embryological characters of Mosla chinensis were mostly consistent with those of Perila ocimoides Linn. However, the cells of the endothecium were elongated and not fiberized at the 2- celled pollen stage in the former, whereas radially elongated and fiberized at this stage in the latter. Furthermore the micropylar haustorium, though unicellular in both, was 3-nucleated in the former and 4-nucleated in the latter. Unfortunately, there is no information of the function and arrangement of the primary sporogenous cells in Perilla, available for comparison. The embryological data so far available infer that the genus Mosla is closely related to Perilla.
Abstract (Browse 3253)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultracytochemical Localization of Calcium in the Pollen Tube Track of Cotton Gynoecium
Author: Zhang Jin-song, Yang Hong-yuan, Zhu Ling and Tong Hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(2)
      
    Cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) stigma, style and ovule segments were fixed pre- and post-pollination in glutaraidehyde and osmium solutions containing potassium pyroantimonate, processed with conventional dehydration and infiltration procedure, and embedded in Epon 821 resin. To identify the element constitution of the pyroanti-monate deposits in the samples, wave-and energydispersive X-ray microanalyses were employed, and it was confirmed that the deposits were truly calcium pyroantimonate. Transmission electron microscopic observations revealed that the deposits were more abundant at the whole pollen tube track as compared with the adjacent tissues. They were mainly localized in the apoplast system, i.e. the intercellular matrix of the stigmatic tissue, the outer cell wall layers of stylar transmitting tissue, the intercellular openings and gaps of micropyle, and the degenerated column of nucellus, h was reported that these apoplast spaces were just the positions where pollen tabes grew. The pollen tube tip growing in the micropyle was also rich in calcium, which was especially locaiized at the new wall, vesicles and mitochondria. All these observations suggested that calcium in the gynoecium tissues may play an suggested important role in the pollen tube growth in situ.
Abstract (Browse 1803)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytological Basis of Plastid Inheritance in Phaseolus vulgaris-Investigations of Plastids, Mitochondria and Their DNA Nucleoids During Pollen Development
Author: liu Xing-liang, Hu Shi-yi and Wang Su
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(2)
      
    Electron microscopic and DNA fluorescence microscopic observations of the plastids, mitochondria and their DNA in the developing pollen of Phaseolus vulgaris L. have demonstrated that the male plastids were excluded during microspore mitosis. The formed generative cell was free of plastids because of regional localization of plastids in early developing microspore and the extremely unequal distribution during division. The fluorescence observations of DNA showed that cytoplasmic (plastid and mitochondria) nucleoids degenerated and disappeared during the development of microspore/pollen, and were never presented in the generative cell at different development stages. These results provided precise cytological evidence of maternal plastid inheritance in Phaseolus vulgaris, which was not in accord with the biparental plastid inheritance identified from early genetic analysis. Based on authors' previous observations in a variety of common bean that the organelle DNA of male gamete was completely degenerated, the early genetic finding of the biparental plastid inheritance was unlikely to be effected by genotypic difference. Thus those biparental plastid inheritance might be caused by occational male plastid transmission, and plastid uniparental maternal inheritance was the species character of Phaseolus vulgaris.
Abstract (Browse 1663)  |  Full Text PDF       
Somaclonal Variation in Chromosome Number and Nuclei Number of Regenerated Plants from Protoplasts of Actinidia eriantha
Author: Zhang Yuan-ji, Qian Ying-qian, Cai Qi-gui, Mu Xi-jin, Wei Xiao-ping and Zhou Yun-luo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(2)
      
    By counting the chromosome number of root tip cells in 18 regenerated plants derived from protoplasts of Actinidia eriantha Benth., the authors found 12 euploid plants and 6 mixoploid plants. Of the 12 euploid plants, 6 were diploid (2n = 2x = 58) and the other 6 were tetraploid (2n =4x = 116). The chromosome numbers of the mixoploid plants varied from 59 to 203. Mttltinueleate phenomenon was also observed in the interphase cells of 10 protoplast-derived plants. Cells with binuclei or trinuelei were common and cells having heptanuclei were also seen occassionally. Muhinucleate phenomenon did not occur in the control, i. e., the donor plant, where the chromosome number was 2n = 2x = 58.
Abstract (Browse 1755)  |  Full Text PDF       
Micronucleus Formation in Microspores of Ginkgo biloba and Its Significance in Evolution
Author: Zhang Zhong-ming, Sodmergen and Li Zheng-li (Lee C L)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(2)
      
    During the study on microspore formation and its development in Ginkgo biloba L. the authors have noticed in DAPI stained squashed specimen, some abnormal chromosomal arrangements appeared in metaphase and metaphase . There were also some chromosomal bridges in telophase and and some micronuclei in tetrads too. One of the five observed trees even has abnormality frequency as high as 6.5 %. These micronucleus-contained cells could subsequently become sterile. Study of such diversities, when referred to that in paleobotany may provide insight into the evolution trends of this species.
Abstract (Browse 1823)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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