March 1997, Volume 39 Issue 3

 

          Research Articles
Proceeding in Plant Anti-Insect Genetic Engineering
Author: Zhu Xin-sheng and Zhu Yu-xian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(3)
      
    The recent proceeding in plant insect resistance genetic engineering was reviewed here. The Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal protein (Bt-toxins) were the most intensively studied insect toxins. Recent studies mainly concentrated on the isolation of novel Bt-toxins, modification of Bt-toxin by means of code replacement, splicing and enhancing the expressing amount; Proteinase inhibitor genes and lectin genes were promising genes applied in agriculture. The proteinase inhibitor genes such as cowpea trypsin inhibitor kill the pests by inhibiting their digestive function while lectins induced illness of the pests. Some invertebrate such as scorpion and spider can produce some insect toxin targeted on insect selectively. They were another promising insect toxin genes that could be used in agriculture because they were harmless to animal and human being. The modified baculovims with some insect toxins can kill the pests more fast and widely, they were also used in anti-insect engineering. Some problems have arisen in plant anti-insect genetic engineering. Pests evolved the resistance to the transgenic plants in recent years. An effective pathway to solve this problem is to induce more insect toxin genes to one plant at the same time. Another problem is how to enhance the expressing amount of toxin proteins. Those will become the major directions of plant anti-insect genetic engineering.
Abstract (Browse 1854)  |  Full Text PDF       
Climatic Response Surface from Pollen Data for Four Arboreal Taxa in North China
Author: Wang Feng-yu, Song Chang-qing, Sun Xiang-jun and Cheng Quan-guo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(3)
      
    The pollen-climatic response surface is one of non-linear function describing the way in which the abtmdance of taxa is dependent on the joint effects of two or more climatic variables. The non-linear relationship between the pollen percentage of four selected taxa, Pinus, Picea, Betula and Quercus with the mean July temperature and annual precipitation of the sites was produced based on 215 surface samples of which the interval between the sites was more than 3 kin. The better function equation was chosen from 22 schemes that was made by transforming data so as to be applied in enviromnental reconstruction.
Abstract (Browse 1802)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genetic Diversity and Population Differentiation of Cathaya argyrophylla in Bamian Mountain
Author: Ge Song, Wang Hai-qun, Zhang Can-ming and Hong De-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(3)
      
    Genetic diversity and population differentiation of the endangered plant Cathaya argyrophylla Chun et Kuang were studied in three populations in Bamian Mountain using the method of horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. Allozyme data for 25 loci of 13 enzymes indicated low level of genetic variability in this region with P = 0.28, A = 1.36 and He = 0.100. In contrast, there existed high degree of population differentiation among the three populations with Gsr value as high as 0.26, which was very different from the published results of other coniferious species. The low intrapopulafioned variability and strong interpopulational heterogeneity of C. argyrophylla in Bamian Mountain could be the impacts from several factors including stochastic processes such as genetic drift, and restricted gene flow between populations.
Abstract (Browse 1626)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Photosynthetic Membrane and Its Characterization in Anabaena azollae
Author: Zhong jian, Peng Jian-xin, Shi Xiao-hong and Wang Guo-qiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(3)
      
    Photosynthetic properties of thylakoid membrane of Anabaena azollae Strasb. were characterized as followed: ( 1 ) Photosynthetic O2-evolution of the thylakoid cells were meas~ when various culture fluids were used as reaction media. It was fotmd that induction of the photosynthetic O2-evolution was delayed by NH4CI and the rate of that was inhibited by both NH4Cl and DCMU (an electron transport-inhibitor). (2) The absorption spectra of A. azollae cells in the range of 700 ~ 300 nm exhibited four higher peaks at 680, 625,480 and 440 nm. Among which the peak of 625 nm must be an essential absorption peak of blue-green azollae. (3) The cell walls of A. azollae cells can be broken by Yada and sonication through which the thylakoid membranes were isolated. The preparation of membranes showed the abilities of cyclic photophosphorylation and the activity of membrane-bound ATPase. (4) ATPase were isolated and partially purified from the thylakoid membrane. The pattern of SDS-PAGE showed that molecular weights of the and subunits in the AT-Pase from A. azollae thylakoid membrane were less than the molecular weights of and subunits in the ATPase from thylakoid membrane of spinach chloroplasts. However, the molecular weights of and subunits in these two ATPase preparations were similar.
Abstract (Browse 1768)  |  Full Text PDF       
Roles of Cytoplasmic Microtubules in the Regulation of Stomatal Movements
Author: Huang Rong-feng and Wang Xue-chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(3)
      
    Roles of microtubules (MT) in regutlating stomatal movements of Vicia faba L. were investigated. The results indicated that apertures of open or closed stomata were not significantly influenced by pretreatment with amiprophos-methyl (APM) 50 mg/L, a specific inhibitor of plant MT polymerization, for 60 min. However, the induction of stomatal movements was inhibited by pretreatment with APM. The inhibition was reversible after APM was removed for 4 h. The induction of stomatal closure by ABA, Ca2 + , or darlmess was inhibited by pretreatment with APM 50 mg/L for 60 min in the light, suggesting that MT might play roles in stomatal closure. The stimulation of stomatal opening by fight was inhibited by pretreatment with APM in the dark, suggesting that MT might regulate stomatal opening as wen.
Abstract (Browse 1759)  |  Full Text PDF       
Quick Response to Salt Shock in Willow
Author: Guo Jin-yao, Hua Bao-guang and Lou Cheng-hou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(3)
      
    The quick response in transpiration to salt shock was observed in willow ( Salix babylonica L. ) plantlet. It was shown that a hydraulic signal aroused in root which was quickly transmitted to shoot when the root was treated with NaC1 100 to 500 mmol/L. In response to the hydraulic signal, water was withdrawn from the shoot; the transpiration rate of the shoot consequently increased 8 to 15 times the initial level within 1 to 2 s and followed a decline to its initial level or even lower. Moreover, electrical wave transmission (at the rate of 28 to 120 mm•s- 1 ) was recorded on the shoot about 2 min after the initial rise in transpiration, which might be an indication of active adjustment of the shoot in checking excessive water expenditure.
Abstract (Browse 1669)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Seedling Transplantation on the14CO2 Assimilation and the Apportionment of 14C ssimilations Within the Cotton Plant Interplanted in Standing Wheat
Author: Cao Hong-ming, He Ming-rong, Wang Ming-you, Wang Zhen-lin and Liu Ji-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(3)
      
    Using 14C tracer technique, the effect of cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) seedling transplantation on the 14C assimilates and 14CO2 assimilate distribution as well as redistribution were studied. It was shown that transplantation of seedlings increased both 14C assimilates and their retmnslocation in cotton seedling markedly. The distribution of 14C assimilates in the plant organs 3 days after labelling indicated that transplantation could increase the translocation of 14C assimilates into the roots and main stem, but decrease it into the tip of cotton seedling, which benefited in establishing good quality of the seedling. Furthermore, the apportionment of 14C assimilates into growing points decreased, in favor of avoiding or reducing spindling of stead growth and improving the developement of florat buds. From bloom to boll great increase of the apportionment of 14C assimilates into bolls of the transplanted plant could promote the growth and the development of squares and bolls.
Abstract (Browse 1755)  |  Full Text PDF       
Resistance to Mixed PVY and PLRV Infection in Potato Cultivars Expressing Dual PVY and PLRV Coat Protein Genes
Author: Zhang He-ling, Peng Xue-xian, Song Yan-ru, Li Tian-ran, Meng Qing, Li Cong and Cui Xiao-jiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(3)
      
    Transgenic clones of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars "Favorita" and "Tiger head" expressing dual potato vires Y (PVY) and potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) coat protein genes were inoculated with PVY and PLRV either by mechanical robbing or by vimliferoux Myzus persicae Sulz. After inoculation the symptom development was observed and the vires liter was detected with DAS-ELISA. Results showed that the transgenic clones displayed slight or no symptom. The average PVY and PLRV liters in the transgenic clones were lower than the untransformed plants. Six of the 9 "Favorita" transgenic clones had reduced average PVY liters were about 52.5% ~ 90.0% lower than that in untmnsfonned plants. Similady, 4 of the 7 "Tiger head" transgenic clones had reduced average PLRV titers 53.0% ~ 98.0% lower than that in the untmnsformed plants. Four transgenic clones of "Favorita" and 3 transgenic clones of "Tiger head" were resistant to both PVY and PLRV infection. Some highly resistant to PVY and PLRV transgenic plants were obtained in both transgenic cultivars.
Abstract (Browse 1693)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genetical Engineered Male Sterile Tobacco Plants and Their Sensitivity to Temperature
Author: Li Sheng-guo, Liu Yu-le, Zhu Feng, Luo Yu-ying, Kang Liang-yi and Tian Bo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(3)
      
    A chimeric gene TA29-Bamase/bxn was transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. ) plants. This gene confers on transgenic plants male sterility feature and resistance to the herbi- cide--bromoxynil. The resistance to the herbicide was used as a dominant marker for the male sterility trait in agricultural application. Seven of the sixteen transgenic bromoxynil-resistant plants were partially male sterile at the greenhouse temperature of 27 /23 ,and the others were male fertile. However twelve of the seventeen transgenic bromoxynil-resistant plants were male sterile at 20 /15 in the greenhouse, and the other five bearing male sterile flowers and fertile flowers were partially male sterile. As the temperature reached 27 or higher, four of the twelve male sterile plants restored their fertility in respect to their morphology and cytology of the new flowers in about one month, and 5 transgenic plants showed partially male sterile and the other 3 transgenic plants remained male sterile. The most prominent morphological change in the male sterile plants was a noticeable shortening of their stamen-filaments and absence of pollen. Cytological abnormality exhibited destruction of tapetal cell layer as early as from the stage of tetrad to the free uninuclear microspore during which the noimal tapetum was not observed. The male sterile anthers contained no pollen grains, and the male sterile flowers failed to self-pollinate, then fell off.
Abstract (Browse 1764)  |  Full Text PDF       
Rubisco Activities and the Small Subunit Gene Cloning and Functional Analysis of Aegilops squarrosa
Author: Guo Shao-dong, Wu Guang-yao and Wu Xiang-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(3)
      
    The plant materials used were the leaves of Aegilops squarrosa L., Triticum aestivum L. and a nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid wheat which was obtained by crossing T. aestivum ( )with A. squarrosa( )and backcrossing 10 generations with T. aestivum as the paternal parent. The carboxylasc and oxygenase activities of these materials were assayed. At the same time, a gtl0 eDNA library of 5.5 x 105 pfu was constructed with poly (A)RNA from the leaves of A. squarrosa seedlings. This library was screened with a partial fragment of rice rbeS, and a eDNA clone pRAS1 that includes A. squarrosa rbcS was obtained. Nucleotide sequencing indicated that the full length of this eDNA was 815 bp. Con'son of small subunit of ribulosc-l,5-bisphosphate carboxulase/oxygenase (rubisco) from A. squarrosa with that from T. aestivum and their nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid wheat revealed that the amino acid residues at positions 56, 84, 98 and 117 in the small subunit might play important roles in regulating the activities of mbisco.
Abstract (Browse 1767)  |  Full Text PDF       
Purification of Plasma Membrane of Maize Sperm Cells by Aqueous Polymer Two-Phase partitioning
Author: Xu Heng-ping and Cao Zong-xun (Tsao T H)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(3)
      
    The aqueous two-phase system of 6.2% Dextmn T500 and 6.2% PEG 3350 was used to purify the plasma membrane of isolated sperm cells from Zea mays L. The results from examination of the marker enzymes indicated that the sperm plasma membrane had a high affinity for the PEGrich upper phase, whereas mitochondria of sperm cells prefer the Dextran-rich lower phase. The purified plasma membrane by twice partitioning was morphologically identified with the aid of phosphotungstic acid-chromic acid staining. Electron microscopy showed that more than 90% of the plasma membrane spherical vesicles were stained, which was coincident with the marker analysis.
Abstract (Browse 1723)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fertilization of Different Types of Embryo Sacs and Its Embryo Formation in Polyembryonic Rice Strain AP
Author: Liu Xiang-dong, Lu Yong-gen, Xu Xue-bin and Xu Shi-xiong (Zee S Y)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(3)
      
    The ferflization and its embryo fonnation of different types of embryo sacs were studied by using the technology of GMA half-section in the APIV strain of polyembryonic rice ( Oryza sativa L. ). In rare cases,all three egg cells in the embryo sac of 5-2-1 type could fertilize and develop into three embryos. But in most cases only one or two egg cells fertilized and developed into one or two embryos in the respective type of embryo sac. The frequency of poly-egg fertilization in total all was very low in the embryo sac of 6-2-0 type and 5-3-0 type. These results indicated that the polyembryos in APIV originated mainly from overall fertilization and develotment of the embryo sac with poly-egg apparatus. This was observed,for example, in 5-2-1 type in which three embryos were fertilized and developed from three egg cells and two embryos from two egg cells. The fertlization process of double set of embryo sac was most complicated, all often abnormal. Only in few ovaries the egg cells in both large and small embeyo sac could fertilize simultaneously. The fertilization and development of egg cells in the large embryo sac might be the main cause of the formation of the so called "mid-seated embryo" (the embryo far from the micropyle end).
Abstract (Browse 2275)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytoembryological Studies on Apomixis in Boehmeria silvestrii
Author: zang Gong-gu, Zhao Li-ning and Sun Jing-san
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(3)
      
    Cytoembryological studies were carried out to determine the apomictic mechanisms of Boehmeria silvestrii (Pamp.) W.T. Wang. The results showed that the modes of reproductiou conforms diplospory. But the development of unreduced embryo sac in B. silvestrii differs from the known types. The first meiotic division in megasporocyte reached diakinesis, but never advanced further. The chromosomes exhibited in the univalent state which maintained at a longer time. Before reaching the metaphase I which was characterized by the disappearance nuclear membrane and the appearance of spindle, the megasporocyte "jumped" bom diakinesis into interkinesis without reduction of chromosome number. The second meiotic division proceeded normally and gave rise to in a dyad of diploid megaspores. The micropylar megaspore degenerated, while the ebalazal megaspore underwent three mitoses to form an eight-nucleated mature embryo sac including an egg, two synergids, two polar nuclei and three antipodals. The embryo and the endosperm respectively originated from egg and secondary nucleus autonomously divided without pollination. The endosperm was of the nuclear type and developed earlier than embryo.
Abstract (Browse 1833)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cell Structures of Psudonodules Formed on the Roots of Barley and Rice
Author: Shan Xue-qin and Jing Yu-xiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(3)
      
    There were three methods used to introduce the invasion of Rhizobium astragai Huakui and R. sesbania sp. into the roots of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L. ) and rice ( Oryza sativa L. ) with subsequent formation of pseudonodules on their roots. One was to treat rhizobia and plants first with a certain strength of magnetic field, to inoculate rhizobia to plants, and then to culture them togather. Secondly, the rice plants were innoculated with rhizobium cultured medium containing the root extract of rice seedlings. And thirdly, plants were treated with exogenous 2,4-D before rhizobium innoculation. The cell structures of pseudonodules were very fine with organelles and infection threads, from which bacteria were released into the cytoplasm. Bacteria were enclosed in a paribacteroid membrane becoming the bactereid. These morphological structures were similar to those of legumes nodules with symbiotic characteristics, but the bacteroids were vesiculated. In the pseudonedules on rice roots formed by R. sesbania sp. cultured in the medium containing rice extract, the bacteria were distributed both in the intercellular and intracellular spaces. Here the structures of the infected cells were coarse containing free bacteria without paribacteroid membrane. The character of the pseudonodules formed after 2,4-D treatment were the same as those described above, but a large amount of bacteria were present in the central vascadar system of parent roots. These kinds of structures were completely different from those of legume nodules. The morphological relationship between the bacteria and plants could be attributed to an asymbiotic association.
Abstract (Browse 1743)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Aspects of the Female Germ Unit in Pelargonium hortorum
Author: Guo Feng-li and Hu Shi-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(3)
      
    The constituent ceils of the female germ unit in the embryo sac of Pelargonium homman Bailey just before fertilization were studied using transmission electron microscope. It was revealed that a large area between the egg and synergicls and between the synergids were sepemted by their plasma membranes at the chalazal portion of the egg apparatus. Only a small portion at the micmpylar end of the cells had normal wall. Common wall was also lacking between the egg and the central cell at the chalazal end. Furthermore,the spacebetween the two plasma membranes was alternatively narrow and wide. There were a large number of single or double membrane-bound vesicles in the wider space. These vesicles appeared to be originated from the cortical ER in the egg and central cell, and probably contained substances essential for the formation of the zygote wail. The egg had numerous giant mitoehondria, starch-contained plastids and RER. Based on the ultrastructural observations, it is proposed that the egg cell is provided high potential of physiological synthetic activity but still being quiescentas compared to the synergid. In the central cell, the location of the polar nuclei (or secondary nucleus) toward the micropylar end is essential for the simultaneous fusion of the sperm and egg and sperm and central cell during double fertilization. At the micropylar end of the central cell, lateral wall ingrowths developed abutted against the nucellus which was characteristic as transfer cell and indicated important site for the megagametophyte to obtain nutrients from the sporophyte. A great number of mitochondria were located toward the filiform apparatus in the synergids, which was quite similar as occurred in many other plants with the exception of the following features. Lipid bodies were formed at the end of RER. The nucleus of the synergids contained micronucleolus. After pollination but before the entrance of the pollen tube in the embryo sac, one of the synergid cells began to degenerate.
Abstract (Browse 1938)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructure of the Secretory Cavity Development in the Fruit of Zanthoxylum bungeanum
Author: Liu Wen-zhe and Hu Zheng-hai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(3)
      
    It was proved by electron microscopic observation that the secretory cavity which was found to be formed schizogenously was consisted of an oil chamber lined with epithelial cells and Sheath cells in the fruit of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. The ultrastructure of the secretory cavity in different stages of development showed that the essential oil started to be accumulated in the oil chamber when it appeared in the form of oil droplets in the plastids and cytoplasm of the epithelial cells. Based on the character of changes in various organdies, the authors inferred that the plastids were the main organdie where oil was synthesized. Endoplasmic reticulum participated in the process of oil synthesis and oil transportion, while mitochontrion was the energy provider. It seems that oil droplets were synthesized by the plastids in the sheath cells and were transported to the epithelial cells where oil was accumulated. The epithelial cells then excreted the oil droplets in two ways into the oil chamber for accumulation. In the mature secretory cavity owing to the functional change of the plasfids, protein crystals and starch grains were also found in the plastids.
Abstract (Browse 1710)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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