April 1997, Volume 39 Issue 4

 

          Research Articles
Acceptance and Analysis of Plant Science Projects Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China in 1996
Author: Zhu Da-bao and Wang Yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(4)
Abstract (Browse 1709)  |  Full Text PDF       
Alteration of Gene Expression in Rice Hybrid F1 and Its Parental Seedlings
Author: Cheng Ning-hui, Gao Yan-ping, Yang Jin-shui, Qian Min and Ge Kou-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(4)
      
    Hybrid rice ( Oryza sativa L. ) seedling is more vigorous in root development and plant growth than its parental lines in the tested indica rice of hybridized combination (Shanyou 63 (Fl): Zhenshan 97A Minghui 63). Analysis of the difference in gene expression between the hybrid Fl and its parental seedlings by means of mRNA differential display indicated that gene expression of the parental lines was obviously altered the hybrid Fl both in quantity and quality., Quantitatively, there were over-expression and under-expression of genes in hybrid Fl with genetic expression trend forwards a single parent. Qualititatively, hybrid Fl could have specific gene expression, single parem (maternal or paternal) gene silence, co-suppression of paternal genes, and single paternal gene expression. The relationship between heterosis formation and alteration of gene expression of parental lines in hybrid Fl was also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1818)  |  Full Text PDF       
Abscisic Acid-Induced Changes in the Orientation of Cortical Microtubules and Their Effects on Stomatal Movement of Vicia faba
Author: Huang Rong-feng and Wang Xue-chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(4)
      
    Turgor pressure induced by osmotic substances, such as K + , C1-, and malate, stimulates the stomatal movements. Microtubules (MTs) and microfilaments (MFs) may be involved in regulating the stomatal movements. Abscisic acid-induced changes in the orientation of cortical MTs in stomatal movement of Vicia faba L. were observed with electron microscopy. It was shown that the MTs in the open stomata stimulated by light were oriented in a position transverse to the ventral wall in paradennal sections and parallel to the outer wall in cross sections (MTs were paradermally sectioned). MTs in the closed stomata induced by darkness were parallel to the dorsal and the ventral walls in paradennal sections (MTs were transversely sectioned) and transverse to the outer wall in cross sections (MTs were paradermally sectioned). However, MTs in the closed stomata induced by ABA in the light were oriented both transversely (MTs were paradermally sectioned) and parallelly (MTs were paradermally sectioned) to the ventral wall in paradermal sections. The results indicate that the changes of MT orientation induced by ABA are associated with the stomatal movement.
Abstract (Browse 1866)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Cytological Study of Plastid Inheritance in Angiosperms
Author: Hu Shi-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(4)
      
    The aim of the paper is to review the cytological basis of plasfid inheritance in angiosperms, including the recent results on eletron microscopic studies of the male cell development and the processes of fertilization, and DNA fluor chrome DAPI in conjunction with epifluoreseence microscopy for in situ detection of plastid DNA in the generative and/or sperm cells of the pollen. It is generally accepted that there are three modes of plastid inheritance in angiosperms namely, uniparental maternal, biparental and uniparental partemal plastid inheritance. From all the data attempt is mdc to summarize the cytological basis of the different modes of plasfid inheritance. The uniparental maternal plastid inheritance is dominant in angiosperms. Its cytological events are characterized as the physical exclusion of plastids, the alteration of plastids during male cell development, and the exclusion of male plastids during syngamy. The plastid alteration is mainly caused by the elimination of plasfid DNA in the generative or sperm cells of the pollen. Evidently, in the biparental plastid inheritance the generative and sperm cells contain plasfids and their DNA persistently, which are regularly transmitted into the zygote and in turn into the next generation. But the frequency of biparental plastid inheritance in certain species may be influenced by: ( 1 ) control of nuclear genotype, (2) the role of the plastidome in the process of plastid transmission and possibly in plastid multiplication, and (3) the ratio of plastid number between male and female cells, and the plastid distribution in the zygote. Recently, using RFLP method, uniparental paternal plastid inheritance is demonstrated in Medicago sativa, Daucus and Pharbitis. These results indicated that this mode of plastid inheritance is definitely present in angiosperms. The cytological mechanism is that the plastids, preserving their DNA, in the generative and sperm cells may also be transmitted into the zygote. On the other hand, the female plastids are incapable of genetic transmission. This mechamism is concerned with the fact that the egg is highly vacuolated is which most plastids are positioned in the micmpylar end. Even though the female plastids present in the zygote may become degenerated, or their DNA degraded. In addition the DNA replication rate is higher in the male plastids than that in the female plastids within the zygote. The relationship of the different modes of plastid in heritance is discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2720)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Energy Transfer Process Between the Photosystem Reaction Center and Light-Harvesting System
Author: Chen Yao-dong, Guan Yi-chun, Hou Jian-min, Tang Chong-qin, Wang Shui-cai, Hou Xun and Kuang Ting-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(4)
      
    The primary reaction kinetics of the photosystem particles isolated from spinach (Spinacia oleracea Mill. ) have been studied using the subpicosecond transient absorption technique. Three lifetime components, (0.760.50) ps, (8.702.00) ps and (138.0020.00) ps, were obtained by the multi-exponential curval fitting. When the samples were exposed to strong light for one hour, only one component, 133 ps, was found. It was proposed that the 760 fs component was most probably attributed to the energy transfer from light-harvesting system to the reaction center.
Abstract (Browse 1757)  |  Full Text PDF       
Late Holocene Vegetation in Maili Region, Northeast China, as Inferred from a High-Resolution Pollen Record
Author: Ren Guo-yu and Zhang Lan-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(4)
      
    The change of vegetation in Maili region over the last 3 400 14C years has been reconstructed based on a high-resolution pollen record. It was thought that the contrast between arboreal and herb plants in different periods might well reflect the change in relative extent of the fixed sand dunes and active sand dunes, and the evolution history of the sand dunes could be thus investigated. Before 3 100 a BP, the sand dunes around Maili bog supported a denser vegetation, with Quercus mongolica Fisch., Tilia L., Ulmus L. as its dominating taxa. Declination of the open forest and increase of major herb taxa since 3 100 a BP suggest an increasing area of semi-fixed and partly active sand dunes mainly supporting Artemisia L. and Chenopodiaeeae. Such a changing process has generally been continued through the last 3 000 years. However, the period from 1 000 a BP to 660 a BP was unique in that it witnessed a lush growth of nearly all of the taxa in the region, with the expanding of Quercus mongolica population being especially obvious. The desertification process starting at 3 100 a BP ceased during that time, and the different types of sand dunes were supporting a much denser vegetation covered in the period than any others.
Abstract (Browse 1770)  |  Full Text PDF       
Factors Affecting pH Changes of in Vitro Media
Author: Mo Cheng-fan and Richard R Williams
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(4)
      
    It has been shown that the pH of agar medium changed steadily from the time when the explants were introduced until an equilibrium was reached. The equilibrium pH differed among plant species. Six species, Ptilotus exaltatus Dees ex Lehm, Lechenauhiaformosus R. Br., Rosa canina L., Melaleuca altemifolia (Maiden & E. Betche) Cheel, Anigozanthos fiavidus DC. and Zieria cytisoides Sm., cultured on 1/2 MS agar had pH equilibria in the range of 2.8 to 4.3. There were also differences in the rate of pH change. Explants lost weight over the first two weeks of culture. Equilibration of the pH of the medium before inserting the explants prevented the pH change but did not prevent the loss of plant weight. Mineral availability was not affected by the medium pH.
Abstract (Browse 1954)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of NaCl Stress on the H+-Extrusion and Redox System of the Plasma Membrane of Corn Roots
Author: Wang Bao-shan and Zhao Ke-fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(4)
      
    Four-day-old corn (Zea mays L. ) seedlings, which had grown in aerated 0.5 x Hoagland solution (pH 5.7) in dark were stressed by 50, 100 and 150 mmol/L NaCI solution for 6, 12 and 24 h respectively. The root segments (0 to 20 mm from the tip) were sampled for study. The results showed that the relative elongation rate (RER), H+-extrusion rate and Fe(CN)3-6 reduction rate of the roots declined with the increase of NaC1 concentration, but H+-extmsion rate restored somewhat with the time course. NADH oxidation rate increased up to 12 h with the increase of NaC1 concentration and then decreased significantly, while under the same concentration of NaC1 NADH oxidation rate decreased with the time course. The relative coeffecient (r) of RER and H+-extrusion rate under NaCI stress was 0.999 8. Therefore, it is suggested that the inhibition of the elongation growth by NaC1 stress is closely related to the inhibition of redox system and H + -ATPase activity of plasma membrane.
Abstract (Browse 1809)  |  Full Text PDF       
Expression of 10 kD Sulfur-Rice Prolamin Gene of Rice in Potato
Author: Yu Jing-juan and Ao Guang-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(4)
      
    Using 10 kD sulfur-rich prolamin gene of rice (PLG) as target gene, the authers constructed the expression vectors pBinLG and pBinLGP, which contained CaMV 35S promoter/PLG/NOS terminator, and Patafin Class promoter/PLG/NOS terminator respectively. They were transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 (pAL4404) by direct transformation method with incubating the leaf and tuber explants of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. ) with LBA4404 (pAL4404) and selecting in the medium containing 100 mg/L kanamycin, regenerated resistant plants were obtained. The NPT enzyme activity analysis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blotting, Northern dot blotting and Western blotting demonstrated that the target gene was integrated into the genome of potato ceils and well expressed in the plant.
Abstract (Browse 1780)  |  Full Text PDF       
Proton-Conductivity of CF0-CF1 Reconstructed into Planar Lipid Bilayer
Author: Wei Jin, He Xiang-dong, Ma Xue-hai and Shi Yu-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(4)
      
    The proton conductable ATP synthase (CF0-CF1) is the key enzyme of energy conversion in the membrane of bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplast. In spite of a large body of studies, the structure and molecular mechanism of ATP synthases are still elusive. In order to learn the mechanism of ATP synthases, the authors used voltage-olamp technique to study the effect of different conditions on the proton conductance of F0-F1 into planar lipid bilayer membrane. The results obtained were as follows: (1) When CF0-CF1 was reconstructed into planar lipid bilayer membrane, the resistance decreased by 10 times. (2) Channel-like current was recorded at the low concentration of CF0-CFl(protein 2 mg/L) in the solution. (3) In metal ion-free solution, the channel currents changed with the trans-membrane proton gradient (ApH). Under holding potential from 0 to + 150 mV, the stimulation of pH on channel current increased with a rise in the ApH from 2 to 4, the stimulation of 4.5 pH on channel current was weaker than that of pH 4.0. (4) The proton conduetance inhibitor, dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), showed a rapid and irreversible inhibition effect on the channel current. (5) In metal ion-free solution (10 mmol/L Tris-HC1), when the ApH across the black lipid membrane (BLM) maintained at 3.0, the addition of Mg2 + caused a alger channel current of CF0-CF1 than the addition of Ca2+ , with holding potential from 0 to + 150 mV. The results indicated that reconstruction of CF0-CF1 was successful and Mg2 + was directly involved in the proton conductance pathways.
Abstract (Browse 1808)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Mathematical Simulation of Stomatal Regulation Associated with Root-Originated ABA
Author: Jin Ming-xian and Wang Tian-duo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(4)
      
    A steady-state model of stomatal regulation has been developed, which includes a water flow system involving the effect of root-originated ABA. The influences of vapour pressure deficiency (VPD), air temperature and water content in the uppermost soil layer ( s1 ) on leaf water potential, ABA concentration in xylem sap ([ ABA]x) and stomatal conductance had been simulated. The resuits show that changes in VPD and air temperature affect the leaf water potential and stomatal conductance, in which the [ABA]x played a decisive role in controlling the extent of their affect, although they had very littly effect on [ ABA] x itself.
Abstract (Browse 1797)  |  Full Text PDF       
Somatic Embryogenesis and Plantlet Regeneration in Mature Zygotic Embryos of Picea meyeri
Author: Yang Jin-ling, Gui Yao-lin, Yang Ying-gen, Ding Qun-xing and Guo Zhong-chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(4)
      
    Translucent white embryogenic calli were produced from mature zygotic embryos of Picea meyeri Rehd. et Wils. which were stored at 4 to 6 cE for one month and then cultured on modified medium LP supplemented with 2 mg/L 2,4-D and 1 mg/L 6-BA in the dark for one month. It was shown from the whole callus-stained sections that the embryogenic callus consisted of a group of small meristematic cells at one end (embryonal end) and many long cells at the other (suspensor) which were named as embryogenic suspensor masses (ESM). ESM, when subcultured on medium MS supplemented with 1 mg/L 2,4-D and 1 mg/L KT in the dark, remained good reproductive and embryogenic potential. When ESM were transferred to MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/L ABA and 5 mg/L AgNOs for one month, a lot of normal somatic embryos were produced. The mature somatic embryo developed root of 1.5 to 2.5 cm in length if cultured on 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 0.5% activated charcoal but without hormone for 40 d and leaves for 60 d. Light,concentrations of ABA, sucrose and AgNO3 were the main factors of influencing somatic embryogenesis.
Abstract (Browse 1896)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparison of the Changes of Membrane Protective System in Rice Seedlings During Enhancement of Chilling Resistance by Different Stress Pretreatment
Author: Zeng Shao-xi, Wang Yi-rou and Li Mei-ru
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(4)
      
    The changes of the membrane protective system in rice ( Oryza sativa L. ) seedlings during the enhancement of chilling resistance with salt, cold and heat shock pretreatment were compared to explore the mechanism of cross adaptation of the plants. The different stress pretreatments maintained the cell membrane stability and enhanced the chilling resistance of the seedlings at the chilling stress. By comparison with nonpretreated seedlings, there were similarities and specificities among the three stress pretreated seedlings on the changes of enzymic and nonenzymic protective system as well as isoenzymes zymograms. The SOD activities in all the three pretreated seedlings were very similarly higher than those of the nonpretreated seedlings at any tested time. The catalase (CAT) activities of heat shock pretreated seedlings were always higher than those of the nonpretreated seedlings at the three stages. In contrast, the CAT activities of salt pretreated seedlings were lower. Those of the cold pretreated seedlings were lower after the pretreatment and chillings injury, however were higher after the rescovery for 2 days. The peroxidase (POD) activities of the salt and cold pretreated seedlings were lower or identical with those of the nonpretreated seedlings after the pretreatment and lower than those of the nonpretreated seedlings after chilling injury; those of the heat shock pretreated seedlings were egual to the nonpretreated seedlings. However, the activities in all the three pretreated seedlings were higher after the rescovery for 2 days. The contents of ascorbic acid (ASA) and the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) in cold pretreated seedlings were markedly higher than those of nonpretreated seedlings at the three tested time. In salt and heat shock pretreated seedlings, the contents of AsA and GSH were lower or slightly higher after the treatment and chilling injury, but were higher after the reseovery for 2 days. Using polyacrylamide gel eleetrophoresis analysis, the zymogram of SOD isoenzymes had similar four bands in the salt, cold and heat shock pretreated and nonpretreated seedlings at the three tested time. The intensities of isoenzyme bands 1, 2 in three pretreated seedlings were higher than those of nonpretreated seedlings. As compared with nonpretreated seedlings, a new isoenzyme band of POD appeared in the salt, cold and heat shock pretreated seedlings after treatmem and chi!ling injury. A hand 4 appeared in the heat shock pretreated seedlings after pretreatment and a 5th band appeared in the salt and cold pretreated seedlings after pretreatment and was also induced in all the three different pretreated seedlings after chilling injury, but disappeared after reseovery for 2 days. Band 8 of salt pretreated seedlings was lacking in all three periods. These results indicated that the changes of membrane protective system in rice seedlings during the enhancement of chilling resistance by the salt, cold and heat shock pretreatments exhibited some common characters and their speeifieities. It seems that even ff the plants were exposed to the same environmental stress, they may not only use a single resistance mechanism for adaptation.
Abstract (Browse 1876)  |  Full Text PDF       
Access and Identification of Intergeneric Hybrid Between Brassica junceaCrambe abyssinica
Author: Wang You-ping, Luo Peng, Li Xu-feng and Lan Ze-qu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(4)
      
    An intergeneric hybrid between Brassica juncea (L.) Coss. x Crambe abyssinica Hochst. ex R. E. Fries was obtained for the first time through routine method combined with embryo rescue. The inductivity of hybrids was 2.1%. In many respects the Fl hybrid resembled either its maternal or paternal parent br both. Consequenfiy, retarded growth, wrinkled leaves and rudimentary anthers in Fl plant were observed. Fl pollen varied in size and 10% ~ 15% were of the paternal pollen type,i.e. ,4-colpate. Fl pollen viability was low and 12% ~ 25% of pollens was viable, with a mean of 18.5%. The chromosome number of Fl somatic cell was 63 which was intermediate between the two parents. Most of pollen mother cells had 63 chromosomes. Analysis of isozymes further confirmed that the F1 hybrid combined the paternal characteristic bands.
Abstract (Browse 2087)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructure of the Floral Nectary of Arabidopsis thaliana L. Prepared from High Pressure Freezing and Freeze Substitution
Author: Zhu Jian, Hu Zheng-hai and Martin Mller
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(4)
      
    High pressure freezing and freeze substitution techniques were used to study the floral nectary of Arabidopsis thaliana L. focused on its ultrastmcture of mature nectary at pre-secretory, early secretory and heavy secretory stages. Questions of whether or not the transported vesicles fuse with the plasma]emma, and whether or not the "densely-stained cells" were comparable to companion cells during the secretory process were especially emphasized. The flowers of A. thaliana contained a pair of rather large lateral nectaries and 2 to 4 median ones. The median nectaries were situated at the bases of the two long stamens or between them while each of the. lateral ones was situated nearby each short stamen and between two petals. Before and during the secretion changes in the size of vacuoles and starch grains in the chloroplasts, the number of dictyosomes and endoplasmic mticulum and the distribution of mitechondria occurred before and during the stage of secretion. It appears that transported vesicles from the dictyosomes were transferred directly from one nectarfferous cell to another or to the exterior. They did not fuse with the plasmalemma when they left the cells. A great number of special "densely-stained cells" were different from the companion cells nearby the sieve elements. It was suggested that a tunnel be formed by these "densely-stained cells" connecting the stomata at the top of nectary leading the out-flow of nectar.
Abstract (Browse 1863)  |  Full Text PDF       
Analysis of Cytoplasmic Ca2+ Levels in Carrot and Its Callus
Author: Ye Meng-wei, Sun Tian-en, Lu Xu-dong and Du Hong-xiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(4)
      
    Measuremem of cytoplasmic [ Ca2 + ]i in Daucus carota var. sativa DC. was improved first modifying the preparative medium of, protoplast, then, under norm. al physiological condition, introducing fluorescent Ca2 + indicators indo-1 K + and fura-2 K + into the protoplasts with gentle and non-invasiva loading procedure. The cytoplasmic free Ca2 + could be well labeled. Cytoplasmic calcium levels of individual cells were measured via single-wave microfluorometry. That [ Ca2 + ]i of protoplasts of carrot and its callus labeled with indo-1 K+ and with fura-2 K+ were 88.3 nmol/L, 263.0 nmol/L and 99.9 nmol/L, 255.5 nmoL/L, respectively. It was shown that cytoplasmic [ Ca2 + ]i of carrot callus in the state of dedifferentiation in cell cycle was much higher than carrot root cells in the differentiated resting cells. In addition, the authors performed the in vitro calibration of the two fluorescent Ca2 + indicators respectively to determine their linear relationship between calcium ion concentration and the two indicators in order to ensure the reliability of measurements.
Abstract (Browse 1802)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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