May 1997, Volume 39 Issue 5

 

          Research Articles
Antimicrobial Isoflavans from Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge
Author: Song Chun-qing, Zheng Zhi-ren, Liu Di and Hu Zhi-bi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(5)
      
    Two new antimicrobial isoflavans, (3R)-8,2'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyisoflavan and (3R)-7,2', 3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavan were isolated from root of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bnnge. Their structures were elucidated by means of chemical conversions and spectral analysis.
Abstract (Browse 2100)  |  Full Text PDF       
Growth Regulation of Lanthanum on the Rhizome of Cymbidium sinense
Author: Chen Ru-min, Luo Hong, Ye Qing-sheng, Tan Wei-di and Li Zhen-hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(5)
      
    The rhizomes of Cymbidium sinense (Andr.) Willd. were incubated in the medium of 1/2 MS + NAA + BA + La3 + . La3 + was highly effective on the regulation of the development and metabolism of rhizome, probably enhancing the activity of hormones. When the La3 + -treated steins were compared with the control, it was found that the growth rate was enhanced by 78 % increase in increment rate of fresh weight apparently resulting in better growth and having more branches; The photosynthesis rate and respiratory rate was 61% and 9% higher respectively; Protein synthesis was promoted revealing much content of about 45 kD peptides; and in addition the development of shoots was faster.
Abstract (Browse 1784)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on Activated Oxygen Metabolism in the Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Line and Its Maintainer of Polima Rape
Author: Zhang Ming-yong, Liang Cheng-ye, Duan Jun and Huang Yu-wen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(5)
      
    Metabolic changes of the activated oxygen in leaves of the "polima" rape ( Brassica napus L. ) between the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line and its maintainer during various developmental stages were compared. During the vegetative developmental stage, lower efficiency of O2 formation,higher H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and higher activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were found in the CMS than in the maintainer line, but difference in peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities were very little. During the stem elongation and flowering stages, the CMS had higher efficiency of O2- production, higher contents of H2O2 and MDA, lower activities of SOD, CAT and POD than the fertile line. It is concluded that the trend of different changes in activated oxygen metabolism may be associated with pollen abortion in rape.
Abstract (Browse 1752)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Study on the Introduction of Descurainia sophia, an Oil Plant Species for Industrial Uses
Author: Luo Peng, Yang Yi, Gao Fu-li and Lan Ze-q
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(5)
      
    The authors had collected some cruciferous oil plants with high linolenic acid content in Sichuan Province. The result of fatty acid analysis had shown that Malcolmia africana (L.) R. Br. and Arabis hirsuta (L.) Scop. have a higher linolenic acid content of 57.37% and 51.38% respectively. Thus they are worthy for further study. Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb. ex Prantl, especially that collected from Hongyuan County, has a high seed oil content of 44.17 %, a linolenic acid content of 40.9 % and a high seed yield of 1 264.5 kg/hm2. It is suggested that this oil plant species can be introduced for industrial utilization.
Abstract (Browse 1990)  |  Full Text PDF       
Multivariate Analysis of Deserta in Anxi
Author: Wang Xiao-an
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(5)
      
    Quantitative classification (TWINSPAN)and ordination (DCA) methods were used to study the gobi deserta in Anxi, and the stepwise vegression method was used to decide the interrelatire equations among the communities and the environmental factors. The results indicated that the gobi deserta could be divided into 6 types of plant communities in this region. These types were a closely related to the soil contents of total salt ( S), C1- and SO2-4 and the annual precipitation. They were distributed according to the environmental gradients from low to high salt content and from arid to extreme arid. The position of 60 sample plots in DCA ordinational first axis ( Xl ) significantly correlated with the environmental factors, viz. the soil contents of salt, C1- and SO2-4. And that in the second axis of the DCA ordination (X2) correlated well with the annual precipitation. Their relationships are expressed in the following equations: 1/Xl = 2.199 2 + 0.022 5/S C 0.018 8/Cl C0.0567/S0 (R = 0.797,P < 0.01);X2 = C82.8561 + 117.921 9 logR (R = 0.817, P <0.01).
Abstract (Browse 1722)  |  Full Text PDF       
Relationships Between Geographical Distribution of Cyclobalanopsis glauca and Climate in China
Author: Ni Jian and Song Yong-chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(5)
      
    Cyclobalanopsis glauca (Thunb.) Oerst., which belongs to China-Japan subtype of East Asia district, is a evergreen broadleaved tree of Fagaceae. It is distributed widely in the subtropical region of China and also in Japan, Korea, India, Burma, etc. According to the data on geographical distribution of this species collected extensively, the indexes of vegetation-climate interaction which used widely in the world were calculated. These indexes include Kira' s water-temperature indexes, Penman's formula, Thornthwaite's indexes and climatic classification, Holdridge's life zone classification system, annual average temperature, mean temperature in January, mean temperature in July, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, 10 accumulated temperature and precipitation. The relationships between geographical distribution of Cyclobalanopsis glauca and climate in China has been analysed and the Kira's water-temperature indexes on the distributional upper limit, lower limit and north limit have been discussed. The relation of species versus climate in historial period and the relation of species versus climate in historial period have also been discussed according to palynological and written records. The potential change of the tree species distributional area under elevated CO2 concentration has been forecast based on Holdridge' s indexes of life zone classification system and GCM models' conclusions.
Abstract (Browse 1846)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genetic Transformation and Plant Regeneration of Watermelon Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Author: Wang Chun-xia, Jian Zhi-ying, Liu Yu, Zou Qi, Bai Yong-yan and Mao Hui-zhu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(5)
      
    Transgenic watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansfeld) plants were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Cotyledon explants excising from 2-day seedlings were first precuhured on MSA medium (MS salts + Bs vitamins + 1.0 mg/L BA + 0.2 mg/L IAA) for 3 to 4 d, then cocuhured with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain (LBA4404) carrying the modified pBI121 plasmid, which contains tomato's sense and anti-sense ACC synthase gene respectively, on original MSA medium. Explants were transferred to MSA medium with 100 mg/L kanamycin and 500 mg/L cefotaxime to select transgenic shoots after 4 d of coculture. Explants with shoot buds elongated on MS medium containing 0.2 mg/L KT, 100 mg/L kanamycin and 300 mg/L cefotaxime and 1 to 3 shoots could be recovered from an explant. All the elongated shoots (about 2 to 3 cm in length) rooted on 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L NAA. The transgenic nature of regenerants was demonstrated by plant growth on medium containing kanamycin, expression of the integrated sense and anti-sense ACC synthase gene and Southern blot analysis.
Abstract (Browse 2074)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparison of Properties of the Plasma Membrane Ca2+ -ATPase from Wheat Root and Leaf
Author: Hu Jian-cheng, Zheng Hai-jin, Chen Xin-yang, Zhang Li-ping, Wan Ai-hong and Jiang Qiao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(5)
      
    The properties of plasma membrane Ca2 + -ATPases from wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. cv. Lengchun No. 13) root and leaf were compared, and their different properties were analyzed in association with the differentia of the functions of these two organs and their relevant environments. Root plasma membrane Ca2 + -ATPase showed a high activity in a broad range of pH and an optimum reaction temperature of 45 , while the leaf enzyme activated in a narrow range of pH and an optimum reaction temperature of 50 . Hill coefficient of root plasma membrane Ca2 + -ATPase for ATP was 1.6, revealing an obvious positive cooperativity. In contrast, that of leaf plasma membrane Ca2 +-ATPase was 1.0, being in keeping with Michaelis-Menten dynamics. For Ca2 + activation, Hill coefficient of plasma membrane Ca2 + -ATPases from both organs were less than 1, suggesting that both had negative cooperativity. The enzymes were activated by calmodulin and inhibited by Mg2+.
Abstract (Browse 1730)  |  Full Text PDF       
Redox System of Plasma Membrane with Glutathione as an Electron Donor
Author: Yue Cai-jun and Chen Jia
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(5)
      
    Glutathione(GSH)-loaded positive plasma membrane vesicles obtained by phase partitioning of microsomal fractions from soybean ( Glycine max L. ) hypocotyls were capable of transferring electrons from internal GSH to an externally added electron receptor, such as ferricyanide (FeCN) and cytochrome (Cyt) C. The rate of reduction for FeCN and Cyt C was (21.6 0.6) nmol FeCNmin- 1mg- 1 protein and (6.6 1.0) nmol Cyt C min- 1. mg- 1 protein, respectively. The transplasma membrane electron transport was able to change the distinct absorption spectra (soret band) of Cyt P-450,which was widely present in the plant plasma membrane. This indicated that Cyt P-450 participated in the redox reaction. The transplasma membrane electron transport was associated with proton transport and the change of membrane potential.
Abstract (Browse 1753)  |  Full Text PDF       
Geographical Variation in the Characteristics of Absorption Spectra and Fluorescence Spectra of Pinus armandi
Author: Tang Li-jun, Li Bo-sheng, Tang Chong-qin, Kuang Ting-yun and Tang Pei-song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(5)
      
    By measuring the derivative absorption spectra of chloroplasts of different populations of Pinus armandi Franch., it was found that southern populations maintained higher absorption at 680 nm than at 670 nm, but some of the northern populations deviated the maximum absorption from 680 nm to 670 nm, which indicated that the activity of PS in some of the northern populations declined. Clear geographical differences also have been found in the positions of emission peaks of PS and PS in the fluorescence emission spectra at 77 K. Analysis of the fluorescence excitation spectra at 77 K revealed geographical changes in the absorption.status of Chl a. Besides, the experimental results indicated that the intact needles of Pinus armandi are not ideal materials to be used in detecting the geographical variation in photochemical reaction process because the presence of thicker coat, resin etc. can conceal the spectral differences in different populations.
Abstract (Browse 1843)  |  Full Text PDF       
Purification of the Specific Plasma Membrane Proteins from the Surface of Sperm Cells of Zea mays
Author: Yang Zhong-han, Zhang Yi-hong and Cao Zong-xun (Tsao T H)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(5)
      
    Pollen samples of 6 varieties of Zea mays L. were used to isolate the viable sperm cells. After being probed with N-hydroxysuccinimido-biotin (NHS-biotin), the sperm cell plasma membrane proteins were compared with each other using the method of Western blotting. Results showed that there was no significant difference among varieties. The molecular weights of probed plasma membrane proteins were concentrated on 91,60,43,30 and 17 kD. Immunochemical method was adopted for further purification of sperm plasma membrane protein preparation which was some- what contaminated with cell organelles. After the cell organelles were isolated from etiolated seedlings of Zea mays by sucrose density gradient super centrifugation, the crude membrane proteins of organelles, endoplasm reticulum, mitochondria, Golgi body and plasmolemma were respectively used as antigen to immunize Guinea pig. The antibody was obtained from respective antiserum, then further used to produce immuno-affinity absorbent. After the solution of membrane proteins of sperm cells passed through the column, some proteins probed whth NHS-biotin were identified. Two major proteins probed with NHS-biotin were considered to be sperm cell specific. The size of these proteins in SDS-PAGE was about 65 kD, 22 kD, respectively.
Abstract (Browse 1851)  |  Full Text PDF       
Purification and Characterization of an Extracellular Protease with Unusual Peptide Bond Specificity from Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum
Author: Huang Jing, Robert K Gholson, Carol R Roberts, Mao Da-zhang and An Jin-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(5)
      
    The cotton pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum produces extracellular protease activity when grown in the presence of casein-proteins (skim-milk). At least three proteases are produced with apparent molecular weights of 29 kD, 38 kD and 43 kD. Protease-1 can be inhibited by phosphoramidone, EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline and reactivated by incubating with zinc ions, suggesting that protease-1 is a metalloprotease. It was found that protease-1 only cleaved the peptide bond of aspartic acid and cysteic acid from N-terminal side, confirming previous observations. This property could be very useful for protein sequence analysis and preparation of specific peptides from larger proteins.
Abstract (Browse 1762)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Cytochemical Method for Light and Electron Microscopic Demonstration of Ferric Reductase
Author: Wang He, Yi Cui-lin and Zhang Fu-suo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(5)
      
    The soybean (Glycine max L. ) root Cultured under iron deficient condition was employed as the experimental material in order to raise the ferric reductase content in root. The method is chemically based on the reduction of ferricyanide by ferric reductase to ferrocyanide from which, in presense of cupric ions, an insoluble and electron-dense brownish precipitate is formed. For better observation under light microscope, the dull brown precipitate was converted into black silver precipitate of sharp-contrast using the sulfide-silver amplification method. With this method, accurrate and specific localization of ferric reductase was obtained. Under electron microscope, the dense enzymic reaction product was found as fine granules covering the plasmalemma which was in consistent with the results obtained by biochemical method. The present method for the localization of ferric reductase is more accurrate than the prussian blue staining method, because the brown precipitate in this method is finer than the prussian blue precipitate. Further, the pH 6.6 of the reaction medium is closer to the optimum pH of 5.5 to 6.5 of ferric reductase activity whereas the pH of the prussian blue staining solution is only 3.
Abstract (Browse 1855)  |  Full Text PDF       
Establishment of an Experimental System for Artificial Germination and in vitro Pollination with De-Exined Pollen in Nicotiana tabacum
Author: Wang Jin, Xia Hui-jun, Zhou Chang and Yang Hong-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(5)
      
    Tobacco flower buds at mid-binucleate pollen stage were cold-treated and their anthers were then float-cultured to release the pollen, which were subsequently macerated in enzyme solution for a short time. And de-exined pollen grains were eventually isolated. The main factors affecting artificial germination of the de-exined pollen were investigated, including osmotic pressure of the enzyme solution during the isolation process, polyethylene glycol (PEG) or sucrose in the culture medium as well as supplementation of lactoalbumin hydrolysate ( LH). Finally, a medium containing D2 macroelements, 30% PEG-6000 and 0.1% LH was established, which supported the de-exined pollen to germinate well with a frequency up to 57.8 %. Mter 24 h of culture, the generative cell in more than half of the pollen tubes, already divided into two sperms. Using a method of micro-sus- pension droplets with the aid of a small piece of filter paper, 30 to 40 de-exined pollen grains were pollinated onto the stigma, resulting in nearly half of the pollen tubes growing in the style and approximately a yield of one seed out of four de-exined pollen grains after subsequent ovary culture. The seeds were germinated into seedlings. The artificial germination of de-exined pollen can be further used as a tool for understanding the role of exine in pollen germination. The in vitro pollination with such exine-free pollen might become a new means for introducing foreign genes into the seeds and offsprings.
Abstract (Browse 1909)  |  Full Text PDF       
Observations on Abnormal Meiosis of Pollen Mother Cells in Paeonia suffruticosa subsp. spontanea
Author: Zhang Shou-zhou, Pan Kai-yu, Zhang Da-ming and Hong De-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(5)
      
    Paeonia suffruticosa subsp, spontanea presents a variety of structural heterozygosity. Some abnormalities in meiosis of pollen mother cell (PMC) were observed in one variety of the natural population from Yongji County, Shanxi Province. Abnormalities observed are as follows: (1) Univalents. They were caused by failure in pairing, asynapsis and precocious cancellation of terminal chiasma. Oriented univalent pair was distributed at two poles normally in A , while non-ori-ented univalent pair only at one pole. Another factor leading to univalents was that Chromosomes were paired but without substantial exchange. The number and ratio of three kinds of chromosomes and their univalents were analysed and the result disagreed with that of Haga and Ogata. (2) Het- eromorphic bivalents. A few cells were observed with unequal E bivalents. Segements of the short ann of one E chromosome might be deleted or else be involved in translocation. (3) Bivalent interlocking. A few cells were found with two or three bivalents interlocked, which might cause translocation. (4) A and A bridges. There were three kinds of bridges in A and A ; they were one single chromatid bridge, two single chromatid bridges and double bridge. The ratio of these three kinds of bridges was 11.8 %, 1.5 % and O. 19 % respectively. Bridges at A occurred as continuity of those of A owing to simultaneous development of microspores. Some bridges without fragments are also discussed. (5) There were 1.69% A cells with abnormal disjunction of bivalents, which were caused by nondisjunct bivalents pulled to one pole and non-oriented univalent pair moving to one pole. (6) A few cells were found with lagged univalents and micronucli at A , A and T , some fragments could be observed at A and M . The relationship between abnormalities in meiosis of PMC and somatic karyotype and pollen sterility are discussed. It is concluded that aborted pollen grains and ovules, space limitation in carpellum and low germination rate of seeds in natural populations are the main causes leading to endangerous status of this speciesP, suffruticosa subsp. spontanea, the heterozygosity degree of Sect. Mudan is lower than that of the other two sections.
Abstract (Browse 1952)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Changes in the Mesocarp Cells of Grape Berry During Its Development
Author: Zhang Da-peng, Li Min and Wang Yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(5)
      
    Systematic observation of the ultrastructural changes in the fruit mesocarp cells of the "Kyoho' grapevine ( Vitis vinifera V. labrusca ) with transmission electron microscopy was conducted. The nhrastructure of a mesocarp cell during the developmental phase (the first rapid growth phase) was mainly characterized by the following features: a large central vacuole; a compact cell wall with evenly stained material distributed in the wall, of which the middle lamella was not easily distinguishable; a electron-dense cytoplasm; a full nucleus of often banana-shaped; numerous highly developed mitochondria distributed around the plastids; plentiful tube-like rough endoplasmic reticula; a quantity of vesicles present in the protoplasm, within which many being coalesced and merged into the central vacuole; small vesicles traversed in array through some plasmadesmata; many developed chloroplast or plastids, within some of which were accumulated starch grains. All of these cellular ultrastructural characteristics during the phase suggested the existence of a very active material and energy metabolism. During the developmental phase (lag phase of berry growth), the most marked ultrastructural changes in the mesocarp cells was a nuclear envelope invagination leading to the formation of the lamella or lobed nucleus with a higher electron density in the agglomerate karyoplasm than that in phase , which was considered as an expansion of the interface between nucleus and cytoplasm so to facilitate the communication between them;some organella such as mitochondria and plastids were wrapped in this lamella nucleus as a result of the invagination of cytoplasm to nucleus; the cytoplasm was less electron-dense than in phase I; plenty of the mitochondria appeared to be distributed preferably around the nucleus and vesicles; a'large number of vesicles formed from dilation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum cisterna merged into the central vacuole and occasionally were seen on the brink of plasma membrane; some circled rough endoplasmic reticula enclosed a portion of the cytoplasm, which were thought to result in cytoplasmic autolysis; the tonoplast structure remained intact;the number of plastids decreased and the starch grains found within it during phase disappeared in this phase; the electron-dense middle lamella of cell wall was clearly visible; invagination or exvagination occurred in the wall and plasma membrane of some cells. Based on the main cytological features during the phase , it was deduced that some intense activities of material metabolism and interor intracellular signal communications were being carried on in the mesocarp cells during this stage under the calm or almost unchanged morphological appearance of the fruit, in order to prepare the sudden change of the developmental phase m . During the developmental phase (second rapid growth phase or ripening period), mesocarp cells presented an obvious process of senescence and degeneration: the cell walls lost their integrity or even disappeared in some cells; the cytoplasm .became very thin or almost electron-transparent, in which only some vesicles, a quantity of wadding debris of dissolved cytoplasmic components and some lipid bodies were left; cytoplasmic contents such as vesicles were fused into the central vacuole of which the tonoplast nearly disappeared. Nevertheless the mitochondria remained intact and numerous; and the plasma membranes appeared still in their integrity, which could be related to the maintenance of berry growth or ripening.
Abstract (Browse 2034)  |  Full Text PDF       
The 1H-NMR Features of Natural Taxane Diterpenoid Compounds
Author: Zhou Jin-yun and Fang Qi-cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(5)
      
    The paper reports the IH-NMR features of natural taxane diterpenoids with different skeleton types on the basis of the systematic analysis of their 1H-NMR data. According to the characteristics of 1H-NMR of taxane diterpenoids it proved possible to differentiate unevocally 6/8/6 membered ring and 5/7/6 membered ring systems.
Abstract (Browse 1712)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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