July 1997, Volume 39 Issue 7

 

          Research Articles
Cytoplasmic Nucleoids in the Generative Cell, Sperm Cell and Egg Cell of Calystegia heder acea
Author: Hu Zan-min and Hu Shi-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(7)
      
    Cytoplasmic nucleoids in the generative cell of mature pollens, sperm cells of pollens cultured in vitro and egg cell of mature embryo sac in Calystegia bederacea Wall. were studied by means of the DNA fluorochrome DAPI in conjunction with epitluorescence microscopy for in situ detection of cytoplasmic DNA in cells. Results showed that many cytoplasmic DNA nucleoids were present in the generative cell and speim cells. Two types of nucleoids were observed, one with big and strong fluorescent dots, and the other with small and weak fluorescence. Many dot-shaped and a few circle-shaped nucleoids were randomly distributed in the thin layered cytoplasm of the egg cell. It was suggested that different types of nucleoids might represent plastid DNA and mitochondrion DNA respectively. Results provided cytological data that Calystegia hederaeea had the potential of plastid DNA biparental inheritance, and the mode of which merits further study via molecular biological methods.
Abstract (Browse 1668)  |  Full Text PDF       
Phytochrome and Photoregulation
Author: Gu Xue-song, Chen Zhang-liang and Zhu Yu-xian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(7)
      
    Phytoehrome is one of the most important photoreceptors in plants and plays a pivotal role in plant growth and development. GTP-binding protein, calcium-calmodulin, cGMP and the COP- DET-FUSCA molecules are signaling intermediates in phototransduction. Scientists focus efforts on defining the biochemical mechanism of phytochrome action and the signal transduction pathway from photoperception to gene expression, as well as understanding the nature, structure and fimction of phytochrome. Evidence indicates that the amino-terminal domain determines the photosensory specificity whereas the carboxyl-tenninal domain transfers signals to the downstream components.
Abstract (Browse 1719)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New Baccharane-Type Triterpenoid Isolated from the Roots of Saussurea lappa C. B. Clarke
Author: Yang Hui, Xie Jin-lun and Sun Han-dong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(7)
      
    A new baccharane-type triterpene, 3汕-acetoxy-9 (11)-baccharene (1), as well as a known compound, 汐-amyrin(2), has been isolated from the ether extract of the roots of Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke. The structure of the new compound was identified by spectrum analysis.
Abstract (Browse 2084)  |  Full Text PDF       
Dynamic Change of the Forest in Spirit Valley, Nanjing
Author: An Shu-qing, IA Sheng-feng, Wang Zheng-feng, Zhu Xue-lei and Liu Zhi-li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(7)
      
    The Changes of flora, species diversity, predominance and age structure of the forest in Spirit Valley, Nanjing were studied, based on the data collected in 1951, 1981 and 1991 from the same plot. During the 40 years, the number of species has been changed from 75 to 56, being 50 in 1981. The number of individuals from 5 097 to 20 585 and then to 3 344. Meanwhile, little variation was shown in both Simpson index and Shannon-Wiener index. All the distribution curves of predominance fit log series type, indicating important function of the dominant species. In fact, the predominance of the first 6 species respectively accounted for 75.4% ,96.2% and 84.4% of the total. Population of the pioneer species, Pinus massoniana Lamb., showed a declining trend owing to its low survival rate of its seedlings. Instead, the age structure of Pistacia chinensis Bge. Forcasted its potential dominance in the future. Occurrence of ever-green broadleaved tree populations with advancing age structures not only showed the improvement of the habitat, but also the possibility of community development to zonal vegetation.
Abstract (Browse 1777)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes of Atmospheric CO2, Photosynthesis of the Grass Layer and Soil CO2 Evolution in a Typical Temperate Deciduous Forest Stand in the Mountainous Areas of Beijing
Author: Jiang Gao-ming, Han Xing-guo and Zhou Guang-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(7)
      
    Middle-sized chambers (40 cmx 40 cmx20 cm) and an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA)were used for the measurement of net photosynthesis of the grass layer and soil CO2 evolution, in Quercus liaotungensis Koidz. forest, which is a typical temperate forest ecosystem in the mountainous areas of Beijing. Changes of CO2 concentrations in both the atmosphere (2 m above canopy) and the forest canopy (2 m below the top of the canopy) together with those of net photosynthesis and soil CO2 evolution were also examined, in order to find the characteristics of CO2 exchange between the different components of the temperate forest ecosystem and the atmosphere. Atmospheric CO2 averaged (323 ㊣10) and (330㊣ 1) 米mol'mo1-1 respectively in summer and autumn. During the 24-hour measurements, large differences as much as 每 46 and 每 61 米mol ﹞mol- 1 respectively in the atmosphere and forest were found. Net photosynthesis of the grass layer in summer was (2.59 ㊣ 1.05) 米mol CO2﹞m-2﹞s-1, two times of that in autumn, (1.31㊣0.39) 米mol CO2﹞m-2﹞'s-1. In summer, there was much more CO2 evolved from soil than in autumn, averaging (5.18 ㊣ 0.75) 米mol CO2﹞m- 2﹞s- 1 and ( 1.96 ㊣ 0.57) tanol CO2﹞ m- 2﹞ s- 1, respectively. A significant correlation was found between soil CO2 evolution and ground temperature, with Y = 每0.864 2 + 0.310 1X, r =0.7164, P < 0.001 (n = 117). Both the minimal atmospheric CO2 level and the maximum net photosynthesis occurred around 14:00; and an increase in atmospheric CO2 and of soil CO2 evolution during night times were also found to be remarkable.
Abstract (Browse 1815)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study on Comparative Morphology of Normal and Hyperhydric Stems and leaves from Sophora japonica Plantlets Cultured in Vitro
Author: Wang Zhe-zhi and Hu Zheng-hai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(7)
      
    A large numar of plantlets were obtained from cotyledon explants of Sophom japonica L. cultured in vitro. They could be classified into 3 kinds according to their morphological characteristics, viz. the normal plantlets, the hyperhydric planfiets,and the intermediate state between the two or the sub-hyperhydric type. The free water content was more than 79% in the hyperhydric shoots,and 70% in the sub-hyperhydric shoots,while less than 50% in the normal shoots. The surface anatomy of normal, sub-hyperhydric and hyperhydric stems and leaves of the plantlets were compared by scanning electron microscopy. The surface structure of the normal plantlets was similar to those found in field-grown plants,but great change occurred in that of hyperhydric and the sub-hyperhydric plantlets. The stems and leaves surface of the hyperhydric and sub-hyperhydric plantlets appeared to be uneven, wrinkled, brittle and translucent and besides the leaves were thick, curled with a reduced surface area. There was little or no epicuticular wax on the surface of epidermal cells which had irregular shapes and patterns. All leaves were amphistomatic and the stomatal density, size and degree of opening were obviously bigger in the sub-hyperhydric and hyperhydric leaves than in the normal ones. Normal stomata had kidney-shaped guard cells and resembled closely those found in the feild-grown plants, whereas abnormal stomata had deformed guard cells. All of the morphological characteristics mentioned above indicated that the sub-hyperhydric and hyperhydric shoots bended to lose their water easily and resulted in desiccation, which might be one of the major causes of failure to transfer sub-hyperhydric and hyperhydric plantlets to soil.
Abstract (Browse 1849)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Zeatin on H202 Scavenging System of Vitis vulpina Leaf Disks Under Salt Stress
Author: Liao Xiang-ru, He Pu-chao and Zhu Xin-chan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(7)
      
    Leaf disks of Vitis vulpina L. were incubated in hquid media containing 0,75,100, 125,150,200 and 225 mmol•L-1 NaCl with or without 1 米mol•L-1 zeatin, at 25 ⊥ ,under 1 000 米mol • m-2 • s-1 continuous illumination, leaf relative permeability, contents of photosynthetic pigments and soluble protein, and activities of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (AsA-POD) and guaiacol peroxidase(G-POD) were compared. The results showed that relative leaf permeability was increased following the increase of NaC1 concentration, whereas activities of leaf CAT, AsA-POD and G-POD, and contents of leaf photosynthetic pigments were reduced significanfiy. These effects of salt stress were significantly inhibited in the presence of zeatin. The ,relationship between relative leaf permeability and activities of H2O2 scavenging enzymes were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1719)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes of Ability of Scavenging Active Oxygen During Natural Senescence of Wheat Flag leaves
Author: Shen Wen-biao, Ye Mao-bing, Xu Lang-lai and Zhang Rong-xian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(7)
      
    During the natural senescence of wheat flag leaves in Triticum boeoticum Boiss and "Yangmai No.5" ( T. aestivum L. ), the decrease of their ability of scavenging active oxygen was an unbalanced process. During photosynthetic active duration (relative steady phase of chlorophyll content), the activity of SOD decreased slightly, but that of catalase (CAT) decreased rapidly, while the activity of ascorbate peroxidase (ASP) increased at first and then decreased. The changing disparity among the SOD, CAT, ASP activities during natural senescence of wheat leaves consequently lead to the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, which was associated with the rapid senescence of the leaf (sharp fall phase of chlorophyll content). Finally, SOD activity decreased remarkably, That the system of scavenging active oxygen appeared earlier in an unbalanced state could be one of the causes of early senescence in T. boeoticum as compared with "Yangmai No.5". The rapid accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in wheat leaves was closely related to the priming of senescence.
Abstract (Browse 1855)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Pentefezol on the Endogenous IAA Content in Rice Seedlings
Author: Wang Xi, Yu Mei-yu, Tao Long-xing and Huang Xiao-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(7)
      
    Two rice ( Oryza sativa L. ) cultivars, tall cv. "Taizongyu 65" and dwarf cv."Jiangsu*ai", were used in the experiments to study the biological efficacy of pentefezol (S-07) to endogenous IAA in dee seedlings. When dee seeds were soaked in S-07 solution for a period of time, the rice seedlings were dwarfed as the content of endogenous IAA was reduced. The results indicated that S-07 enhanced the activity of IAA-oxidase and reduced the rate of transformation of 3H-tryptophan into 3H-IAA. Thus the endogenous IAA content of rice seedlings were reduced by S-07 treatment leading to subsequent retardation of the growth rate of seedlings. Moreover the rate of distribution of 3H-IAA in leaves and roots of rice seedlings were also reduced by S-07 treatment.
Abstract (Browse 2012)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes in the DNA, RNA and Protein Contents During the Root-Tip Cell Differentiation of Triticum aestivum
Author: Cong Bin, Yang Mao-cheng and Zhang Pi-fang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(7)
      
    One to two cm long root tips of Triticum aestivum L., after three days' germination at 25 ⊥, each were cut into three regions--the meristem region, elongation region and mature region. The cells in different regions were stained with Hochest 33258, Pymnin G and FITC respectively. Nuclear DNA was measured by micmfluorometry with VIDAS digital image analysis system. The relative contents of RNA and protein in the cells were measured with a MPV-k microspectrofluorometer. It was shown that the nuclear DNA content increased during root tip cell differentiation, being maximum in the mature region. The relative content of RNA was maximum in the meristem region, but decreased continuously during the growth of tissue. The relative content of protein was maximum in the elongation region, but minimum in the meristem region. The relationships among DNA, RNA, protein and cell differentiation were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1886)  |  Full Text PDF       
Relationship Between the Rice Heading Sensitivity and the Male-Sterile Sensitivity to Photoperiod in View of Developmental Genetics
Author: Tang Xi-hua and Shao You
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(7)
      
    One photoperiod-sensitive genic male-sterile (PGMS) rice and three regular rice ( Oryza sativa asp. japonica), cultivars have been used for hybrid combinations. In order to analyse the relation between the heading sensitivity and the male-sterile sensitivity of photoperiod in Fl and F2 progenies, the expreiments were carded out in a controlled environment〞the phytotron. The results showed that these three restorers had 2 pairs of restorer genes for the photoperiod sensitive male-ster-ile rice. And the heading sensitivity to photoperiod of Fl tended to late mature PGMS rice (7001S). It was also indicated that the strong response was dominant over the weak response to photoporied in both Fl and F2 generations. As the fertility segragations, the F2 progenies from those of male-sterile rice x regular rice crosses produced clear-cut segregation for both kinds. The Fz data showed that photoperied-sensitive male-sterihty is controlled by two recessive genes, producing F2 ratio of 15: 1. And the sterile plants in Fa generations, which were cultured in long day condition, are attributed to stronger response to photoperied. No sterile plant could be found in weak response progenies. Using such experimental approach, the authors predicted that the heading sensitivity and the male-sterile sensitivity of photoperied are closely related, and not independently inherited. These results also suggested that the photoporied sensitive male-sterile gene might be expressed on the basis of the ex-pression of the photoperiod sensitive alleles.
Abstract (Browse 1654)  |  Full Text PDF       
RT-PCR Amplification and Analysis of Citrus Excortis Viroid
Author: Hu Qin-xue, Lin Mu-lan, Zhang Chun-li, Wu De-xi and Chen Jie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(7)
      
    Oligonucleotide primers Cl (每), C2 ( + ), C3 ( + ), T1 (每), T2 ( + ) were designed and synthesized according to the central and left-terminal regions of CEVd-A strain. Using these primers, reverse tnmscription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was developed to detect and analyse citrus excortis vimid in citrus ( Citrus L. ) and etmg citron ( Citrus medica L. ) in China. RT-PCR amplified products were analysed by PAGE-silver staining method. Specific DNA bands about 210 bp and 370 bp were observed with primer pair C1/C3 and C1/C2, respectively, from the diseased citrus and etrog citron, while no products was obtained with T1/T2 pair. Under the same conditions, no amplified DNA was detected from nucleic acids of healthy samples with the above three primer pairs. Amplified products were further identified by dot blot hybridization with DIG-la-belled CEVd-cDNA probes. The results indicated that the Chinese isolate of CEVd is different in left-terminal region from the CEVd-A strain. With the established RT-PCR system, full-length CEVd-cDNA could be obtained from approximately 0.1 ng total nucleic acids of infected citrus tissues. This system is suitable for practical diagnosis.
Abstract (Browse 2014)  |  Full Text PDF       
Construction of Molecular Linkage Map in Masson Pine Using RAPD Markers and Megaga metophytes from a Single Tree
Author: Yin Tong-ming, Huang Min-ren, Wang Ming-xiu, Zhu Li-huang and Zhai Wen-xue
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(7)
      
    A set of 300 random ohgonucleotide primers was screened for random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fragments within a sample of 79 megagametophyte DNAs of a single masson pine ( Pinus massoniana Lamb. ) to generate RAPD markers and construct the molecular linkage map for masson pine. 64 repeatable RAPD markers segregated in a 1 present to 1 absent ratio. Through multipoint linkage analysis, 47 markers were assigned to 13 different linkage groups(pairs). It covered a tdtal genetic distance of over 692.5 cM (centimorgan). The average distance between markers was 14.7 cM. It supplied a linkage framework for a more saturated linkage map of masson pine.
Abstract (Browse 1781)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Structure Analysis of the Rice U2snRNA Gene
Author: Wang Xi-ping, Feng Zheng-yu, Sun Chong-rong and Cao Kai-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(7)
      
    One of the U2snRNA genes in rice ( Oryza sativa L. ), FDRGU2.3, has been isolated and sequenced. By comparison, rice U2RNA had more than 80% s'unilarity with other plant U2RNAs. It was found that the 70 nucleotides of 5'-terminal were conserved in all sequenced plant U2RNAs. The rice U2.3 gene contained two plant UsnRNA promoter elements,i.e, the upstream sequence element (USE) and TATA-like box, in the - 70 and - 30 regions respectively; the spacer between the two upstream elements were conserved in the plant U2snRNA genes. The U2.3RNA maintains the conserved U2snRNA secondary structure including four stem-loops. The nucleotide sequence of loop j was the same as that of monocot such as wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. ) and maize ( Zea mays L. ), but distinct from that of dieot such as pea ( Pisum sativum L. )and Ambidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. The nucleofide sequence of loop l showed a different variation in monoeot and dicot. These suggested that the splicing apparatus between monoeot and dicot were different.
Abstract (Browse 1717)  |  Full Text PDF       
Immuno-gold Localization of IAA in the Leaf Cells of Vicia faba
Author: Jia Wen-suo, Huang Cong-lin and Zhang Da-peng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(7)
      
    Subcellular localization of IAA in the leaf cells of Vicia faba L. was studied with immuno-gold electron microscopic technique. Nuclei and chloroplasts in mesophyll cells of the immature leaves were labeled with nuinerous gold particles, which were also seen in the cytoplasm and cell wall. In mesophyll cells of the mature leaves, gold particles were mainly distributed over the chloroplasts and cytoplasm, and a few were also located in the cell wall; but, however, none was seen in the vacuoles. Many gold particles were distributed over the phloem cells of the fine veins of the mature leaves, and were mainly located in the cell wall of the transfer cells. Some were also located in the cells of vascular bundle sheath of the fine veins, mainly distributed over the chloroplasts, cytoplasm and cell wall. Sections of mesophyll cells of the immature leaves without EDC ( 1- ethyl-3 (3-dimethylamino-propyl) carbodiimide) fixation or treated with normal rabbit IgG instead of anti-IAA rabbit serum were devoid of gold particle label. Tissue and subcellular immuno-localization of IAA and its physiological significances were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1759)  |  Full Text PDF       
Polyembryony and Multiple Seedlings in the Apomictic Plants
Author: Cai Xue, Mu Xi-jin, Zhu Zhi-qing, Hua Zhi-ming, Huang Yan-hong and Sun Qi-xin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(7)
      
    Polyembryony and multiple seedlings in seeds of 6 different apomictic species were observed. The frequency of polyembryonic seed formation in FortuneUa margarita (Lour.) Swingle, Citrus unshiu Marcoritch and Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim., all of which were characterized by the occurrence of adventitious embryo directly formed from a somatic cell of the ovule, was 97.50%, 100% and 45.00% respectively. The number of embryo per polyembryonic seed ranged from 2 to . 49,3 to 54 and 2 to 6 respectively. In Poa pratensis L. , Elymus rectisetum and Malus hupehensis (Pampan) Rehd., characterized by the gametophyte apomixis, the embryo of which arised directly from the egg cell of the unreduced embryo sac, and the frequency of polyembryonic seed was 34.25 %, 8.11% and 37.50% respectively. The number of embryo per pelyembryonic seed ranged from 2 to 3 for the former two species, and 2 to 15 for the latter. The frequency of multiple seedlings in Fortunella margarta, Poapratensis and Malus hupehensis was 22.00%, 6.14% and 2.22% respectively. Analysis was carried out with seeds containing a single embryo in Port pratensis, Elymus rectisetum, Malus hupehensis and Citrus. The morphological variation, position and distribution of embryos in polyembryonic seed were also described. The authors' primary conclusions are as follows: 1. The phenomena of pelyembryony and multiple seedlings of apomictic plant could be used as sketchy screening indicator for identifying plants tending to be apomictic;2. In order to characterize the apomictic type, specific studies in macrosporogenesis, the development of embryo sac and the early embryogenesis might be very important considerations as embryological evidence of the possibility of apomictic formation of the seed in the tested plants.
Abstract (Browse 2471)  |  Full Text PDF       
Morphological Studies on the Process of Chromosome Construction in Physarum polycephalum
Author: Zeng Xian-lu, Jiao Ming-da, Wang Xiao-guang and Hao Shui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(7)
      
    The process of morphological construction of chromosomes in Physarura polycephalum was studied with transmission electron microscopy. The synchronous plasmodinm materials were sampled in 5 to 10 min time intervals during the mitotic cycle. In mitotic prophase, the compact lumped chromatin of Ga-phase gradually decondensed into loose structure. Meanwhile, the loose chromatin gradually reorganized into the chromatin thread structure that was about 80 to 150 nm in diameter. This process was completed in about 30 min. In the loose chromatin threads many condensed regions appeared which increased and expanded, as the prophase proceeded, and the chromatin thread became shorter and thicker. Finally, the metaphase chromosomes of 300 to 350 nm in diameter were formed. This process also took about 30 min. At the same time, nucleoli gradually moved from the center to the edge of the nucleus and disintegrated in about 50 min in the prophase. The results revealed that the whole process of morphological construction of chromosomes in this species was completed in about one hour. The process could be divided into two consecutive steps, that is, the reorganization and condensation of chromatin. The 25 to 30 nm chromatin fibers were the fmest morphological unit that could be identified.
Abstract (Browse 1721)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Identification of Three New 2,2-Dimethylchroman Derivatives
Author: Li Guo-lin and Zhu Da-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1997 39(7)
      
    Three new 2,2-dimethylehroman derivatives named leptin A ( i ), leptin B ( j ), and leptin C ( k ), along with a known compound--isoevodionol ( l ), have been isolated from the aerial parts of Evodia lepta (Spreng.) Merr. Based on the spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence, compounds i , j , k were elucidated as cis-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-acetyl-7-methoxy-2,2-dimethylehroman,trans-3,4, 5-trihydroxy-6-aeetyl-7-methoxy-2, 2-dimethylehroman and 3,5-dihy- droxy-4-ethoxy-6-aeetyl-7-methoxy-2,2- dimethylehroman, respectively.
Abstract (Browse 1788)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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