February 1958, Volume 7 Issue 2

 

          Research Articles
妒戒批折快扶我快 扼找把抉快扶我攸 我找快抒扶我折快扼抗我抒 扼志抉抄扼找志 忱把快志快扼我扶抑 志扼志攸戒我 扼批扼抖抉志我攸技我 扭把抉我戒把忘扼找忘扶我攸 志 妊妊妊妓
Author: BㄝE. 圾扯抒把抉
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1958 7(2)
Abstract (Browse 1807)  |  Full Text PDF       
On the Laboratory Culture and Life History of Stigeoclonium subsecundum
Author: Kuo Chi-fang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1958 7(2)
      
    1. A new method of unialgal culture of attached filamentous algae has been described. It is based on the principles that the zoospores of this alga are phototropic and attach readily to an abraded surface. A continuous supply of living material for research can be made available. 2. A new culture medium was used, involving the basic inorganic materials plus a soil extract and an organic chelating agent. A stock culture has been kept in this medium over a year, including more than 50 transfers, without showing any morphological variation from the alga as grown in its natural habitat. 3. A complete life history of Stigeoclonium subsecundum has been described. It was found that S. subsecundum is a complicated polymorphic form. It produces two kinds of zoospores, macrozoospore and microzoospore, and three types of filaments. 4. The filament derived from a macrozoospore is unbranched; while the filament derived from a microzoospore is branched. 5. The microzoospores may copulate to form a zygot and germinate immediately into a filamentous plant body (type A); or pass through a resting stage to produce four macrozoospores. 6. Most microzoospores develop asexually into a branched filamentous plant body (type B). 7. The two types of filamentous plant body undergo a different early development, but are morphologically similar at maturity. Each cell of the mature type A filament produces four microzoospores; while the cell of type B filament produces either macro- or microzoospores. 8. The young unbranched filaments, usually bearing a bent tip cell, are formed most frenquently in summer, and possess a kind of brownish secretion surrounding its basal cell. 9. There is a seasonal change in production of microzoospore and macrozoospore. Macrozoospores are produced most frequently in summer months, while microzoospores are produced throughout the year, but less abundantly in June and July. 10. The fact suggests that there is a close relationship between the diurnal duration of illumination and the production of spores. Long-day treatment induces the formation of macrozoospores. 11. Fragmentation occures only in the cells of the prostrate system of the branched filaments. 12. Under unfavorable condition, both types of zoospores may become resting or cyst cells. 13. From the phylogenetical point of view, Stigeoclonium seems to be an intermediate form between Ulothrix and Draparnaldia. The biflagellate microzoospore and the unbranched filament in this species recall the microzoospore and filament of Ulothrix; while the branched filament resembling that of Draparnaldia (under the influence of surplus nitrogen). Owing to the presence of these two types of filaments in one species, S. subsecundum offers further evidence to support the theory of a Ulothrix-Stigeoclonium-Draparnaldia relationship.
Abstract (Browse 2213)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Influence of the Detillering Treatment to the Aerial Branching and Stachying Phenomena etc. of the Rice and Wheats
Author: Tsai l-shun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1958 7(2)
      
    By the application of detillering treatment the following results were obtained: (1) In Oryza sativa, aerial branching was induced in 75% of the treated plants; (2) In Hordeum distichon, aerial branching and/or stachying phenomenon was induced in 84% of the treated plants; (3) In Triticum turgidum, the stachying character was evidently strengthened; (4) In T. monococcum and T. dicoccum, the increase of the floret number in each spikelet was induced in almost 100% of the treated plants. (5) The development of these plants was accelerated, the plants became more robust and bore more seeds. This is most evident in the wheats. The height of these plants and especially the length of the distal internode were shortened. It is suggested that the results mentioned above may be due to the redistribution of nutrients after detillering and that the changes induced are merely a kind of phenotypic variations to accommodate the detillering treatment.
Abstract (Browse 1958)  |  Full Text PDF       
Morphological Studies of Sagittaria sinensis. I. The Anatomy of Roots
Author: C. L. Lee and Chang Hsin-ygng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1958 7(2)
      
    A series of investigation concerning the formation and development of the various organs in Sagittaria sinensis Sims, a common water plant, has been undertaken. The present paper deals only with a study of the formation and differentiation of its root system. The tuber which we utilize as food is the swollen apex of a stolon. The elongated terminal bud in the tuber exhibited nodes and internodes in early stages of development, and the adventitious roots were vigorously grown around the third node from the base of the bud. In the transverse section of the third node the roots became radially arranged. These roots, as in most of the water plants, possessed no root hairs. Instead, there were numerous minute secondary roots. The stolons which appeared at a more advanced stage were intermingled with the adventitious roots as the bud continued to extend. The adventitious root originated from the meristematic cells peripheral to the procambium, forming a group of cells distinct from the surrounding parenchyma cells. It became conical shaped after several cell divisions and three layers could be identified: these were initials of root cap (calyptrogen), initials of cortex and epidermis and initials of central cylinder. Later on the cells of the middle part of calyptrogen began to divide periclinally and anticlinally; while the peripheral cells undertook anticlinal divisions only. The initials of cortex and epidermis maintained the uniseriate condition in the middle portion, while the peripheral cells of this layer divided vigorously. In each division a small and a large cell were formed. The outer small cell became the epidermal cell and the inner large one continued to divide into cortical cells, which were very regularly arranged. The outermost two layers of the cortex, i.e. the exodermis, together with the epidermis, later formed a special thick layer. Many scattered secretory cells were differentiated from the cortical cells and later intruded into the exodermis. The cells in the central cylinder were also arranged orderly. The phloem appeared first, and was followed by the development of vessels. The "central cells" were large and usually divided transversely. The cells at the base of a root gradually joined the procambium cells of the young stem. In a mature root, the root cap consisted of about ten layers of cells of which four zones could be recognized, i.e. surface zone, central zone, peripheral zone, and calyptrogen. Only the cells of calyptrogen still sustained the ability of mitosis. The cells of initials of cortex and epidermis gradually decreased in number until there were only two or three cells. In transverse section the matured secretory cells imbedded in the exodermis appeared as groups of four cells, rhombic shaped, with a large central cavity. Later the combined layer of the epidermis and the exodermis became suberized and shrunken. Among the cortical cells, of which many were binucleate, there were large intercellular spaces forming the conspicuous aerenchyma. In the innermost layers the cells were compactly arranged with no visible intercellular spaces. The endodermal layer, although obscure in the immature part, became distinctive at the base of the root by the presence of the Casparian strip. The pericycle consisted of large isodiametric cells which usually became differentiated into the initials of the secondary roots. The differentiation and maturation of the vascular tissues in the cylinder were similar to that of other higher plants. The "central cells" enlarged tremendously and occasionally segments of double row of cells were seen in the longitudinal sections. Secondary roots were formed at early stages of development of the adventitious root. In transverse sections the earliest detectable initials of the secondary roots consisted of three enlarged cells. The middle one of these cells divided periclinally at first, from which the outer daughter-cell accompanied the other two large cells to form the initials of cortex and epidermis, whereas the inner one gave rise to the initials of central cylinder. The neighbouring cells in the endodermis differentiated simultaneously to become the calyptrogen of the secondary roots. Thus, the secondary roots were originated from two different kinds of tissues, the endodermis and the pericycle. Further differentiation and maturation were similar to the development of adventitious root in this plant.
Abstract (Browse 2159)  |  Full Text PDF       
妍 孜我戒我抉抖抉忍我折快扼抗抉技 戒扶忘折快扶我我 志我志我扭忘把我我 批把忘扼找快扶我抄 技忘扶忍把抉志
Author: 妤.均. 坐快扶抗快抖抆 我朴忘扶 妒-扼批扶抆
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1958 7(2)
Abstract (Browse 1829)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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