January 1998, Volume 40 Issue 1

 

          Research Articles
Efficient Expression of Green Fluorescent Protein Gene in Rice Cells
Author: XU Xin-Ping, HUANG Yue, WEI Jian-Wen and LI Bao-Jian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(1)
      
    An expression vector suitable for rice ( Oryza sativa L. ), pActl. GFP, was constructed by placing the improved green fluorescent protein (GFP) ceding sequence under the control of the actin 1 (Actl) promoter of rice. Embryogenic rice calli derived from the mature embryos were bombarded with gold particles coated with pActl. GFP. Expression of GFP gene in rice cells was followed by incident-light fluorescence microscopy in vivo and in real time. Bright green fluorescence signals were visible under blue light 3 to 4 h following bombardment. After 10 to 16 h, the maximum expression of GFP gene was observed in 85% of the calli. Meanwhile, the expression of -glu- curonidase (GUS) gene driven by Actl promoter reached the highest in rice cells 40 to 48 h after transformation. GFP as a sensitive and vital reporter may be used as a replacement for GUS in rice transient expression system. However, no green fluorescence from stable expression of GFP gene was observed in transformants.
Abstract (Browse 1932)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chemical Constituents of the Root of Pimpinella thellungiana
Author: LI Fu-Xian, WANG Chang-Dai, MI Cai-Feng, SHI Hui-Li and QIAO Bo-Ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(1)
      
    A new compound was isolated from the ether extract of the root of Pimpinella thellungiana Wolff. The structure was identified on the basis of spectral data (UV, IR, 1H-HMR, 13C-NMR, 1H-1 HCOSY, 1 H-13 CCOSY and MS) as 2- (1-methoxy-2-hydroxy) propyl-4-methoxyphenol and named as thellungianin E.
Abstract (Browse 1907)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chemical Constituents from Fruits of Ligustrum lucidum
Author: WU Li-Jun, XIANG Ting, HOU Bai-Ling, LIANG Wei,YIN Shuang and ZHOU Xiao-Chuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(1)
      
    Seven compounds were isolated and identified from the fruits of Ligustrum lucidum Ait. Compounds to were isolated for the first time from the plants of this genus. Compounds is a novel compound named nuezhenidic acid whose chemical structure was elucidated by means of spectral analysis and chemical reaction.
Abstract (Browse 1993)  |  Full Text PDF       
Palynological Evidence for the Tertiary Petroleum Source of the Qaidam Basin
Author: JIANG De-Xin and YANG Hui-Qiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(1)
      
    Sixty-eight species of fossil spores and pollen referred to 31 genera extracted from the crude oil samples which were collected from the Neogene reservoirs of the Qaidam Basin in Qinghai Province were recorded. Based on the investigation of the spores and pollen in crude oils and the comparison with those in potential source rocks, the petroleum source rocks of the petroliferous region were determined. On the basis of the paleoecological characteristics reflected by the original plants producing the spores and pollen, the sedimentary environment of the petroleum source rocks was discussed. The fossil spores and pollen found from the crude oils of the Neogene reservoirs of the Qaidam Basin comprised mainly Deltoidospora regularis, Lygodiumsporites pseudomaximus, Polypodiaceaesporites haardti, Polypodiisporites favus, Echinosporis qaidamensis, Podocarpidites paranageiaformis , P. verrucorpus , P. qigequanensis , Abiespollenites lenghuensis , Abietineaepollenites cembraeformis, A. lenghuensis, Pinuspollenites labdacus, P. banksianaeformis, P. mangnaiensis, Piceaepollenites alatus, P. tobolicus, P. planoides, Cedripites deodariformis, C. pachydermus, C. ovatus, C. microsaccoides, Keteleeriaepollenites mangnaiensis, K. megasaccus, Tsugaepollenites igniculus, T. viridifiuminipites, T. spinulosus, Ephedripites fusiformis, E. fushunensis, E. ganchaigouensis, E. ma ngnaiensis, Salixipollenites elegans, Betulaepollenites lenghuensis, Momipites coryloides, Quercoidites henrici, Q. microhenrici, Cupuliferoipollenites fusus, Meliaceoidites rhomboiporus, Chenopodipollis multiplex, C. microporatus, Nitrariadites pachypolarus, Tubulifioridites macroechinatus, T. minispinulosus and Artemisiaepollenites sellularis. The results of this study indicated that the Oligocene to lower Miocene Ganchaigou Formation and the Upper Miocene to Lower Pliocene Youshashan Formation should be the petroleum source rock series of the petroliferous region; the petroleum source rocks might have been evolved in the lacustrine sedimentary environment under warm and semi-wet to semi-arid climatic conditions.
Abstract (Browse 1900)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Three Fossil Woods of Euphorbiaceae Excavated from Wuhan Area
Author: YANG Jia-Ju,QI Guo-Fan, XU Rui-Hu and YANG Li-Mao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(1)
      
    A group of angiosperm fossil woods from the Late Tertiary rocks were excavated in the northern part of Yanglou Town, Xinzhou County, the City of Wuhan, Hubei Province. The angiosperm fossil wood in China was discovered and studied for the first record. Three fossil woods have been identified to be Phyllanthus wuhaneasis J.J. Yang sp. nov. Bridelia wuhanensis J.J. Yang sp.nov, and Bischofia polycarpa Airy-Shaw of the Phyllanthoideae. A group belonging to Phyllan- thoideae of the Euphorbiaceae, and the more scorching and humid climate in Wuhan area at the ancient time than it is recently deduced from: 1. The habitat of the modem Phyllanthoideae trees are mainly in the tropical zone; 2. Besides the three species of Phyllanthoideae the previously reported Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Am. ex Wight of Mimosaceae and Ormosia pinnata Merr. of Papilionaceae which are modem tropical tree species, also were included in the fossil wood group; 3. The B/schofia polycarpa Airy-Shaw recently growing in Wuhan area in the subtropical zone, was included in the fossil wood group with previously reported Bischofia javanica BI., a modem tropical tree species which has disappeared in the subtropical zone. The modem B. polycarpa Airy-Shaw is a diffusewood tending to become semi-diffuse-wood while no such tendency was found in its fossil wood, showing the tree evolution from tropical tree species to subtropical one, for the tropical species tend to have diffuse-wood.
Abstract (Browse 1977)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Studies on Mn, Cr and Mo Contained Reconstituent Solutions and Proteins Reconstituted with Partially Metallocluster-deficient MoFe Protein
Author: WANG Dao-Yong,HUANG Ju-Fu, LUO Ai-Ling,LI Jia-Ge, DONG Ming-Li and DU Hong-Shan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(1)
      
    By treating the reduced MoFe protein from Azotobacter vinelandii with o-phenanthroline and O2, an inactive protein partially deficient in both FeMoco and P-cluster could be obtained. The inactive protein could be reactivated by the reconsfituent solutions of different colours which were prepared from mixture in different proportions of ferric homocitrate, Na2S and dithiothreitol (DTT) with K2CrO4, KMnO4 and Na2MoO4, respectively, the inactive protein could be somewhat reactivated by DTF but not by the other compounds or their mixtures which were deficient in one or two of the above compounds. 99Mo was found in the reconstituted protein of the inactive MoFe protein with a reconstituent solution containing 99Mo. Its measurement of differential perturbed angular correlation indicated that 41% of 99Mo in the reconstituted protein were in a state similar to that of 99Mo in 99MoFe protein from K. pneumoniae. The results showed that the reactivation of the inactive MoFe rotein was mainly based on the restoration of its metallocluster content. It seemed to be reasonable to postulate that Mn- or Cr-containing nitrogenase could be obtained likewise by the reconstitution of the inactive protein with the Mn- or Cr-containing reconstituent solution.
Abstract (Browse 1978)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Salt and Water Stresses on Osmotic Adjustment of Suaeda salsa Seedlings
Author: ZHANG Hai-Yan and ZHAO Ke-Fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(1)
      
    Forty-day old Suaeda salsa (L.) Pall. seedlings were treated with different concentrations of NaC1 and iso-osmotic PEG solutions. The content of the main organic solutes and inorganic ions, the osmotic potential and osmotic adjustment ability of leaves were determined 10 days after treatment. The results showed that under NaC1 stress, the sum of inorganic ions had a significant increase and their contribution to the calculated osmotic potential (COP) was up to 95 % to 98 %. The great increase of Na+ and C1- content accounted for 71% to 98% of COP, whereas the total content of organic solutes decreased slightly and thier contribution to COP was only 2 % to 5 %. Under water stress the organic solutes (amino acid, sugar and organic acid) were markedly increased, especially amino acid, which accounted for more than 9% of COP. The measured osmotic potential (MOP) from each treatment was always lower than the COP, which indicated that the other osmotic solutes were involved in the osmotic adjustment in S. salsa seedlings under these circumstances. The results also suggested that osmotic adjustment ability of S. salsa seedlings increased with the external salinity.
Abstract (Browse 1910)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparison of Cell Growth and Alkaloid Production of Catharanthus roseus Cells Cultured in Shake Flask and in Bioreactor
Author: ZHENG Zhen-Gui, LIU Di and HU Zhi-Bi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(1)
      
    The cell growth and alkaloid production of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don cells cultured in the shake flasks with different volumes and in the stirred tank bioreactor (10 L) were compared. Cell dry weight and alkaloid production showed no significant difference in the small volume scale-up shake flasks. When more broths were added to a certain volume in the shake flask, both cell weight and alkaloid production were decreased. The maximum cell dry weight was similar between the cell cultures in the shake flask and the bioreactor, but the alkaloid production of cells was much less in the bioreactor. Gas regime and shear stress were recognized to be the main factors contributing the important effect on alkaloid production during the scale-up processes.
Abstract (Browse 1938)  |  Full Text PDF       
Identifying Candidate Disease Resistance Genes in Rice by Sequence Homology and Chromosomal Locations
Author: WANG Shi-Ping, LIU Ke-De, WANG Jiang and ZHANG Qi-Fa
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(1)
      
    Specific and degenerated oligonucleotide primes were designed according to the sequences of known plant disease resistance genes and the conserved region of protein kinases. The products of polymerase chain reaction amplified from rice genomic DNA using these primes were cloned. Twenty-six of the clones were assigned to 34 loci on two rice molecular linkage maps. Chro- mosomal locations for 10 clones corresponded to 8 previous reported rice disease resistance genes. The property of some clones with chromosomal locations corresponded to the known blast resistance genes was further confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the genomic DNA of blast resistance isogenic lines. Some of the clones as the probes differentiated the resistance isogenic lines from the susceptible recurrent parents.
Abstract (Browse 1935)  |  Full Text PDF       
Molecular Cytogenetic Identification of Triticum aestivum-Secale cereale Substitution and Addition Lines
Author: LI Hong-Jie,ZHU Zhi-Qing, ZHANG Yan-Min, GUO Bei-Hai, WEN Yu-Xiang and JIA Xu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(1)
      
    Two substitution lines, designated as 930498 and 930483, and one addition line, designated as 930029, via Fo immature embryo culture of Triticum aestivum x octoploid triticale ( x Triti-cosecale Wittmack) were identified. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using total genomic DNA of rye ( Secale cereale L. ) as probe corroborated the existence of rye chromosomes, further confirmed through chromosome paring at meiotic metaphase 1, C-banding and glutenin SDS- PAGE. The results demonstrated that the two substitution lines are ID/IR, and the addition line is also IR addition. Rye chromosomes that are distinct to the red-colored wheat chromosomes appear yellow-green at mitotic metaphase after FISH.
Abstract (Browse 1874)  |  Full Text PDF       
Variation of the Wheatgrass Chromosomes in Wheat-wheatgrass Disomic Addition Line TAI 14 Revealed by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization
Author: HAN Fang-Pu, HE Meng-Yuan, HAO Shui, MA You-Zhi and XIN Zhi-Yong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(1)
      
    The karyotype of the primary wheat-wheatgrass disomic addition line TAI-14 was 2n = 44 in which all of the chromosomes were metacentric and submetacentric. However, in the progeny of the TAI-14, a pair of telocentric chromosomes were observed. In order to clarify whether the telocentric chromosomes were of common wheat or of wheatgrass, the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique was employed. It was revealed that the wheat chromosomes exhibited red fluorescence while the ditelocentric chromosomes green fluorescence. Therefore, the primary TAI-14 was conversed from the disomic addition line into the ditelocentrie addition line. The possible explanation for such a variation and the potential significance of the ditelocentric addition line were discussed briefly.
Abstract (Browse 1779)  |  Full Text PDF       
Distribution of Membrane-bound Calcium and Activited Calmodulin in Isolated Zygotes and Young Embryos of Triticum aestivum
Author: ZHAO Jie, ZHOU Chang and YANG Hong-Yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(1)
      
    The method of non-enzymatic, manual microdissection was established to isolate zygotes and young embryos in Triticum aestivum L. The distribution of membrane-bound calcium and activated calmodulin in the isolated zygotes and young embryos was visualized by chlorotetracycline (CTC) and fluphenanize (FPZ) fluorescence probe respectively. The CTC fluorescence was polar distributed in the zygote protoplast. The distribution of the CFC and FPZ fluorescence from twocelled embryos to multicellular embryos was observed. In the young pear-shaped embryos the CTC and FPZ fluorescence of the embryos was slightly higher than that of the suspensor. In a pear-shaped embryo beginning with differentiation the CTC fluorescence was restricted to several-layer of cells between embryo and suspensor and the several ventral cells of the embryo. In the embryos with newly differentiated plumule the basal part of the embryo possessed a higher CTC fluorescence, while the FPZ fluorescence was only distributed in the basal part. It indicated that the distribution of CTC and FPZ fluorescence was in coincidence with the sites that plumule and radicle were beginning to differentiate. The technique of isolated zygotes and the possible function of calcium and calmodulin during embryo development are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1853)  |  Full Text PDF       
Floral Numerical Variation and Seed Set in Natural Populations of Liriodendron chinense
Author: HUANG Shuang-Quan, GUO You-Hao, WU Yan, LIU Qin, ZHANG Fan and CHEN Jia-Kuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(1)
      
    The floral numerical variation and seed setting of an endemic plant of China Liriodendron chinense (Hemsl.) Sarg. were observed during 1994 to 1996 in three natural populations, located respectively in Songtao County, Guizhou Province (briefly G), Kelipo, Longshan County, Hunan Province (H) and Longwangshan Nature Reserv., Anji County, Zhejiang Province (Z). In general, the number of perianth segments is nine. The variation including ten, eleven, and twelve was reported. Pollen quantity of a single flower, pollen size and the number of pistils were found less variated in Population Z than that in Population G and H, the two populations having numerical perianth variation. Furthermore, the seed production of the two populations was higher than population Z. There was a significant positive correlation ( r = 0.76) between the mean pollen size and seed set in populations. Comparing the seed set with the pollen ovule ratios (P/O) in the three populations, based on three years data,it was found that a population with lower P/O rate usually tended to produce higher seed set. This suggested that resource allocation limited the seed set of this endangered plant, and the relationship between the floral numerical variation and seed set in populations indicated that the potential genetic diversity had significant influence on seed production.
Abstract (Browse 1864)  |  Full Text PDF       
Differentiation and Ultrastructure of the Protophloem Sieve Elements of Minor Veins in the Maize Leaves: Changes in the Protoplast
Author: OUYANG Xue-Zhi, XIE Shao-Ping and LI Bao-Jian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(1)
      
    Protophloem sieve element differentiation in the minor veins of the maize ( Zea mays L. ) leaves was first evidenced as an increase of the wall thickness, which began in the comers of the cell and then extended to other parts of the wall, and the appearance of long rough endoplasmic reticulum cistemae distributed throughout the cytoplasm, and then the presence of characteristic crystalloid inclusions within the plastids. As differentiation progressed, long cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum appeared to transform into shorter forms and eventually aggregated into small stacks, losing their ribosomes during the process. The nuclei degenerated, although frequently persisted until very late in differentiation the stages of maturation, as darkly stained amorphous aggregates surrounded by double nuclear envelope or only inner membrane of nuclear envelope. Subsequently, the nuclear envelope collapsed and became discontinuous. At the beginning of nuclear degeneration the perinuclear spaces were partly dilated and sometimes the outer nuclear envelope in the dilated portions then ruptured, and was accompanied by the disappearance of the cytoplasmic portion near it. During the peried of nuclear degeneration, in addition to the endoplasmic reticulum, plastids and mitochondria underwent structural modification, while components such as ribosomes, cytoplasmic ground substances, vacuoles and dictyosomes disintegrated and disappeared. At maturity, the surviving protoplasmic components, including plasmalemma, mitochondria, small stacked smooth endoplasmic reticulum and P-type plastids with crystalloids, became parietal in position. As differentiation of adjacent metaphloem sieve elements proceeded, the protoplasmic components of the mature protophloem sieve elements progresively degenerated and finally obliterated.
Abstract (Browse 1961)  |  Full Text PDF       
Centenary on S.G.Nawaschin's Discovery of Double Fertilization: Retrospects and Prospects
Author: HU Shi-Yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(1)
      
    A review on the double fertilization in angiosperm is addressed at its centennial discovery by S.G. Nawaschen. Studies in the first 50 years mainly by light microscopy had defined this process of double fertilization as a general characteristic in angiosperms. In the later 50 years research works in this field have been greatly advanced on account of the developing new techniques especially the electron-microscopy. The topics in this review include: (1) The growth of pollen tube entering the embryo sac: role of the synergid in the pollen tube receiption and signals from the degenerated synergid. (2) The arrival of male gametes to female gametes: structure and function of the male germ unit, the function of cytoskeleton in the delivery of sperm cells. (3) Gametic fusion: the structure and function of the female germ unit, gametic membrane fusion, karyogamy, DNA contents in sperm and egg nuclei, the relationship between the karyogamy and cell cycle, sperm dimorphism and preferential fertilization, and spermegg recognition. Future directions for the research of double fertilization are also recommended.
Abstract (Browse 3129)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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