October 1998, Volume 40 Issue 10

 

          Research Articles
Preliminary Report on Isolation of a Trans- acting Factor Gene from Zea mays
Author: XIAO Can, JIN Zhen-Hua and MA Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(10)
      
    Eight clones were isolated from maize ( Zea mays L. ) λgt11 cDNA expression library using 5' upstream regulatory sequence of DC59 as the probe and screened from carrot somatic embryo cultures. Interaction assays were performed using the systematic deletion fragments of 5' upstream regulatory sequence and the expressed proteins of each clone and gel retardation assay and the competitive binding tests were carried out. The results indicated that protein Gl0 expressed from the corresponding clone Gl0 was able to bind at - 295 to - 221 bp of the regulatory sequence specifically. This region contains a pair of direct and inverted repeats GGAA and GGAA as well as GGAA and TTCC, respectively, and a putative plant hormone abscisic-acid responsive element ACGTGG. Predicted secondary structure demonstrated that protein Gl0 encompassed DNA binding domains. This is further borne out by sequence homology comparison with other known transcription factors. So the clone Gl0 possesses several properties as a new trans-acting factor gene related to embryospecific genes.
Abstract (Browse 1838)  |  Full Text PDF       
Middle Jurassic Spore- pollen Assemblages from Turpan- Shanshan Area, Xinjiang
Author: WANG Yong-Dong,JIANG De-Xin, YANG Hui-Qiu and SUN Feng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(10)
      
    The Middle Jurassic palynoflora from the two wells of PUl and CN1 of Turpan-Shanshan area in Xinjiang consists of 97 species of fossil spores and pollen grains referred to 45 genera, of which 2 species are newly described. Three palynological assemblages including: 1) Cyathidites-Cycadopites-Quadraeculina (CCQ), 2) Cyathidites-Classopollis-Picites (CCP) and 3 ) Granu-latisporites-Classopollis-Podocarpidites (GCP) assemblages are established in the Xishanyao, Sanjianfang and Qiketai Formations, respectively. Comparisons have been made between these assemblages with those of the adjacent regions in Xinjiang and other domestic areas and at abroad. The geological age of the CCQ assemblage is suggested to be at early Middle Jurassic (corresponding to Aalenian to Bajocian age); while the CCP and GCP assemblages are considered to be at late Middle Jurassic (corresponding to early to late Bathonian age, respectively).
Abstract (Browse 1834)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Wind and Wind- sand Current on the Physiological Status of Different Sand- fixing Plants
Author: YU Yun-Jiang, XIN Yue-Yong, LIU Jia-Qiong and YU Zhi-Yong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(10)
      
    In the field wind tunnel, the physiological status gas exchange characteristics and water relationship of three kinds of sand-fixing plants (including crust and bryophyte) were studied under wind blowing and wind-sand current condition, respectively. The effects of wind and wind- sand current were different. Wind caused erosion and desiccation of crest and bryophyte. The effects of wind on grass and shrub included:inhibited photosynthesis by expanded stomata; decreased leaf temperature and intercellular CO2 concentrations;enhanced transpiration and decreased water use efficiency; aggravated desiccation by lowered leaf water potential and water capacity of soil. But the effects of wind-sand current on crest and bryophyte were denudation and cumulation, on grass and shrub were mainly mechanical injury and more did on photosynthesis and water usage. The result that different plants responsed differently in adaptation to wind and wind-sand current stress may provide scientific basis for selecting sand-fixing plants.
Abstract (Browse 1849)  |  Full Text PDF       
Gas Exchange and Water Use Efficiency of Adenophora lobophylla (Campanulaceae) at Different Altitudes on the East Boundary of the Qing- Zang Plateau
Author: ZU Yuan-Gang, YAN Xiu-Feng, ZHANG Wen-Hui, WU Shuang-Xiu, ZHOU Fu-Jun and SUN Hai-Qin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(10)
      
    Field measurements were made of leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn), apparent quantum yield (AQY), dark respiration (Rd), transpiration (Tr), water use efficiency (WUE), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), leaf temperature (TI), stomatal density, air temperature (Ta) and relative soil water content (SWC) for Adenophora lobophylla Hong in August, 1996. The species grows in the region from an altitude of 2 300 m to 3 400 m on the eastern boundary of the Qing-Zang Plateau in Sichuan Province, China. Leaf gas exchange, water use efficiency and plasticity of populations in field were compared among different altitudes to evaluate the possible interactions between adaptation of A. lobophylla and environmental factors in these habitats. Pn and AQY at low altitudes were lower than those at high altitudes. They strongly responded to SWC and Ta. On the other hand, Rd at low altitudes was higher than that at high altitudes because of the higher air temperature there. The growth rates at low altitudes were associated with the increases in Rd and a relevant less Pn. Stomata showed strong responses to leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit at the leaf surface (Vpdl) and Tl in these habitats. Increasing stomatal limitations to photosynthesis appeared to be responsible for the reduction in Pn at high Tl, Vpdl and low available soil water for A. lobophylla at low ahitudes. Nonstomatal limitation to photosynthesis also happened at extreme soil water deficits and high Tl and Vpdl at an altitude of 2 300 m. Tr had a close relationship with stomatal conductance and was also affected by leaf temperature and leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit at the leaf surface among habitats grown in different ahitudes. WUE increased with altitude. Increasing stomatal densities showed different plasticity of A. lobophylla as altitude increased. SWC and Ta appeared to be important factors to limit carbon assimilation in A. lobophylla at low altitudes, primarily through the process of stomatal closure. The overall results are in consistence with the hypothesis that strong pressure from tmfavorable environmental factors to gas exchange and wateruse of A. lobophylla may prevent their population expansion at low altitudes, which indicate that the above-mentioned restrictions might lead to the endangerment of A. lobophylla.
Abstract (Browse 1886)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Carbon Cycle of Leymus chinensis Steppe in the Xilin River Basin
Author: LI Ling-Hao, LIU Xian-Hua and CHEN Zuo-Zhong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(10)
      
    Based on the past researches, an initial study on the carbon cycle of Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. steppe in the Xilin river basin of Neimenggu (Inner Mongolia) was conducted by combining field surveys and the CENTURY model simulation. The major results were summarized as follows: 1) Observed annual amount of carbon fixation via primary production for a L. chinensis community on a fenced site in the basin averaged (231.25 + 74.41 ) g C,m-2,a-1, average annual carbon input into soil was about 220.75 g C, m- 2, a- 1, while carbon output from the community via soil respiration was estimated to be (181.03 + 46.32) g C, m-2, a-1 by CENTURY model simulation; 2) The community had a simulated net carbon gain of about 19.88 g C,m-2,a-1 and an observed carbon gain of 39.72 g C,m-2,a-1; 3) About 12.4% of carbon originally stored in soil had been lost due to over-grazing over the recent 40-year period in Leymus chinensis steppe in the Xilin river basin.
Abstract (Browse 2008)  |  Full Text PDF       
Spectral Profiles on the Protease Activities in Laminaria,Undaria and Porphyra
Author: WANG Ying, LI Xiao-Yu, XU Cun-Shuan and DAI Ji-Xun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(10)
      
    G-PAGE was used to investigate the protease patterns and activities in 11 species of Laminaria Lamx., Undaria Suringar and Porphyra C. Ag. It was shown that (1) the patterns and activities of the protease were pH dependent and the optimum pH for protease activities was 8.0; (2) the more closer the inter-species relationship, the more similarities were observed among the patterns and activities of the proteases; (3) two protease patterns (19 kD, 18 kD) in the eight species of Laminaria were regarded as the genetic indicator of Laminaria; (4) the results suggested that the G-PAGE analysis of proteases could be valuable in the systematic taxonomic study of algae.
Abstract (Browse 1899)  |  Full Text PDF       
RAPD Comparison Study on Mitochondrial DNA of the D2 Cytoplasmic Male Sterile (CMS) Line with K-, V-and T-type CMS Lines in Wheat
Author: YAO Hong, LI Chuan-You, XIE Wei-Wu, WU Yu-Wen, ZHANG Yan and WANG Bin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(10)
      
    A new line of cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. ) named msD2-CA8057 (briefly as D:) was compared with K-, V- and T-type CMS lines by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) RAPD analysis. It was revealed that the mtDNA of this D2 line was different from that of the other three types although differences were also found between the K-, V- and T-type lines themselves. This result provided some evidences at the molecular level for the identification of the cytoplasm of this D2 line as a new type of CMS line. In the experiment the authors also found polymorphism between two CMS lines, which had the same source of T-type cytoplasm but had different nuclear background. This was the first time to provide direct evidence about the mtDNA mutation in T-type CMS wheat lines during the routine backcross process. Such changes are most likely resulted from the influence of different nuclear background.
Abstract (Browse 2001)  |  Full Text PDF       
RAPD Analysis of Sixteen Varieties of Mustard
Author: QIAO Ai-Min, LIU Pei-Ying and LEI Jian-Jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(10)
      
    RAPD assessment on genetic variations of 16 mustard ( Brassica juncea Coss. ) varieties were carried out. 27 primers were screened from sixty 10 bp arbitrary primers, and a total of 336 DNA bands were amplified, among which 275 (81.85 % ) were polymorphic. The average number of DNA band amplified by each primer was 12.44, and the average genetic distance among 16 mustard varieties was 7.34. Based on UPGA cluster analysis of 240 DNA hands amplified by 19 primers, a DNA molecular dendmgram was established for 16 vegetable mustard varieties in China, which divided the 16 mustard varieties into three groups: group A, B and C. Group A included seven varieties, group B eight and group C only one. Group B could be divided into two subgroups:Bi and Be. The molecular foundation of genetic diversity of mustard was explored.
Abstract (Browse 1793)  |  Full Text PDF       
Distribution and Organization of AA Genome- specific and Tandemly Repetitive Sequences in Chinese Common Wild Rice and Cultivated Rice
Author: WANG Zhen-Shan, CHEN Hao, LI Xiao-Bing, LIANG Cheng-Zhi, WANG Xiang-Kun and ZHU Li-Huang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(10)
      
    Repetitive DNA sequences are useful molecular markers for studying plant genome evolution and species diversity. The authors report the isolation and characterization of repetitive DNA sequences (pOs139) from Oryza sativa cuhivars "Zhaiyeqing". By Southern blot analysis, the authors discovered that pOs139 sequences were organized not only tandemly, but also highly specifc for the AA genome of Oryza genus. Sequence analysis revealed that the clone pOs139 contains a 355 bp repetitive unit. The genomic DNA of 29 Chinese common wild accessions, and 43 cultivated rice accessions, were analyzed by Southern blot with pOs139 as a probe. The results illustrated that there was significant difference in hybridization patterns between japonica and indica subspecies. Hybridization bands of indica subspecies were much more than those of japonica, and the Chinese common wild rice was similar to indica in hybridization patterns. The copy number estimated by dot blot hybridization analysis indicated that a considerable degree of variation existed among different accessions of O. sativa and the Chinese common wild rice. It is interesting to note that japonica subspecies contains relatively low copy numbers of pOs139-related repetitive DNA sequences, while the indica and Chinese common wild rice contain relatively high copy numbers.
Abstract (Browse 1662)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Study on the Interactions Between Three Respectively Different Disease- resistant Cucumber Cultivars and Phytophthora melonis
Author: HAN Xiao-Bing, LI Rong-Qian and WANG Jian-Bo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(10)
      
    Ultrastructural changes during the process of interactions between three different diseaseresistant, susceptible, moderately resistant and resistant cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. ) cuhivars and Phytophthora melonis Katsura were respectively compared and the associated factors in the observed differences in colonization were determined. During the process of interaction in the susceptible cultivar, both inter- and intracellular growth of hyphae associated with extensive colonization of healthy hyphae and marked alteration of mesophyll cells, such as aggregation of cytoplasm and disintegration of cellular organelle were demonstrated. The general disorganization of host cell was observed in areas directly adjacent to the fungal hyphae and in cells several layers from the nearest visible hyphae. In the moderately resistant cultivar during interaction the host showed limited hypha growth with responses of resistance including 1 ) breakage of plasmodesmata to prevent the host cells to contact the hyphae, 2) increasing the quantity of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus so as to increase the quantity of secretory protein, 3) a plasmalemma invagination containing granular material at the site in contact with the intercellular hyphae. The interaction in the resistant cuhivar was characterized as a hypersensitive reaction (HR) which means a rapid necrosis of the infected cells and the cells surrounding the invaded hyphae, resulting in death of the invaded hyphae. Formation of cell wall appositions right at the penetration sites of hyphae and haustorium-like structure was observed. The results indicate that the mechanism of host response to P. melonis invasion was differ- ent between the moderately resistant and the resistant cucumber cultivars.
Abstract (Browse 1817)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructure of the Vegetative Cells of Nostoc flagelliforme Prepared with High Pressure Freezing and Freeze Substitution Technique
Author: ZHU Jian, WANG Jun, HUA Zhen-Ji and Martin M┨ller
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(10)
      
    The ultrastructure of the vegetative cells of Nostoc fiagelliforme Born. et Flah. was investigated with high pressure freezing and freeze substitution technique and compared with the results obtained by using conventional preparation methods. During the processes of chemical fixation, dehydration and embedding, the cell structures might be more artificially modified than that obtained from high pressure freezing and freeze substitution. With the present method, the sheath of N. fiageUiforme could be well-penetrated and no extra big space could exist between the cell and the sheath. The cell protoplasm rarely shrinked. Some fine structures of cell inclusions and unit membranes became visualized. Many bacteria were harbored in the sheath. In addition, the presence of big vacuoles in the cell of N. fiageUiforme as well as the presence of bacteria in the sheath shown in the present preparation for cyanobacteria has not been described so far in the literature.
Abstract (Browse 1863)  |  Full Text PDF       
Distribution of F-actin and Microtubules in Pollen and Pollen Tube of Lilium davidii
Author: LI Yan, YAN Long-Fei (YEN Lung-Fei) and XU Shi-Xiong (S.Y. ZEE)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(10)
      
    F-actin and microtubules are important components of pollen tube, which have very important function in cytoplasm streaming of pollen tube. The authors observed the distribution of Factin and microtubules in the pollen tube of Lilium davidii Duch. by immunofluorescence technique and confocol laser scanning microscopy, through which some new results were obtained. 1. Chemical fixation could preserve F-actin well in pollen tube, so the relation between F-actin and microtubules could be studied by the methods of chemical fixation and fluorescence labelling in pollen tube. 2. F-actin bundles were absent near the pollen tube tip, while microtubules were abundant and web formed in the pollen tube tip. The authors found that the terminal of microtubules was closely associated with the plasma membrane in the pollen tube tip. 3. Only a few F-actin bundles co-exist with the microtubules in the pollen tube of Lilium davidii. The results provided new evidence for the fimction and relationship between F-actin and microtubules in the pollen tube.
Abstract (Browse 1877)  |  Full Text PDF       
Protein Phosphatases and Signaling Cascades in Higher Plants
Author: LUAN Sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(10)
      
    Protein kinases and phosphatases play a central role in cellular signaling. Although protein kinases have been widely studied in higher plants, protein phosphatases have been largely neglected until recently. The article focuses on the most recent studies that have placed protein phosphatases in the context of several signal cascades in higher plants. These pathways include stomatal regulation and abscisic acid signal transduction, pathogen and stress responses, and developmental control. Studies clearly have demonstrated that protein phosphatases function not only to counterbalance the protein kinases but also take a leading role in many signaling processes.
Abstract (Browse 1873)  |  Full Text PDF       
Application of Comet Assay in Plant Protoplast Apoptosis Detection
Author: JIANG Xiao-Fang, ZHU Hai-Zhen, ZHOU Jun, CHEN Hao-Ming and DAI Yao-Ren
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(10)
      
    The authors report the application of neutral comet assay in the detection of apoptosis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. ) pretoplasts. The results suggested a close inter-relationship between comet formation and nuclear compacting into densed masses at the nuclear periphery (a typical morphological symptom of apoptosis). Standard detection of hallmarks of apoptosis, including DNA laddering and TdT-mediated biotin-dUTP nick end-Lase Labeling (TUNEL), was also performed in order to conform the reliability of comet assay in the detection of apoptosis in plant protoplasts.
Abstract (Browse 2271)  |  Full Text PDF       
Heat- shock Induced Protein in Pea Leaves Which is Immunoreactive to Gro EL Antibody
Author: CHEN Zhong and SU Wei-Ai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(10)
      
    A high molecular weight protein was found in pea ( Pisum sativum L. ) seedling by means of Westem-blotting, and it consisted of a ct (60.4 kD) and α β (65.5 kD) subunits. The protein had low ATPase activity. Its expression could be enhanced by 3 to 4 folds under heat-shock stress, but was not affected by exogenous ABA. The results of localization and 35S-Met labeling showed that it was a cytoplasmic protein and its synthesis was not inhibited by chloramphenicol.
Abstract (Browse 1832)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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