November 1998, Volume 40 Issue 11

 

          Research Articles
PCR-RFLP Analysis on Phylogeny of Allium
Author: HE Xing-Jin, GE Song, XU Jie-Mei and HONG De-Yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(11)
      
    The molecular phylogeny of the genus Allium which includes eighteen species selected from nine sections was investigated through PCR-RFLP analysis of two chloroplast DNA fragments, including trak gene (approximately 2 520 bp) and rpL16 gene (approximately 1 230 bp). Digestion of these two fragments by 26 restriction endonucleases yielded 303 polymorphic recognition sites, of which 163 were informative sites. The restriction site data matrix were analyzed following the parsimonious Wagner and parsimonious Dollo principle of PAUP ( version 3.1.1 ). Topologically, the most parsimonious Wagner tree constructed by branch-and-bound and heuristic search was similar to the most parsimonious Dollo tree. All the taxa of Allium form a monophyletic group, and five sections based on morphological characters were supported strongly by this result. Sect. Augninum is closely related to Sect. Bromatorrhiza, Sect. Molium is closely related to Sect. Caloscordum. Their reliability was farther confirmed by the bootstrap test very well. In morphology, A. pallasii is closely related to A. caeruleum and belongs to Sect. Haplostemen, A. cepa is closely related to A. galanthum and belongs to Sect. Cepa. But evidence from cladistics of parsimonious tree based on 163 informative sites of PCR-RFLPs showed that they are neither confined to a monophyletic group nor to a natural taxon.
Abstract (Browse 1801)  |  Full Text PDF       
Change of Proteins at Different Mitotic Phases in Allium sativum
Author: YU Jian-Chun, PENG Yong-Kang, ZHAO Jian and CHEN Rui-Yang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(11)
      
    100 root tip cells at interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase of mitosis of AUium sativum L. have been isolated respectively and the proteins have been analyzed by combining micromanipulation with micro-SDS-PAGE and ultrasensitive silver staining. Comparing the protein change during the different phases it was shown that different patterns of cyclic changes occurred in various proteins. Some proteins changed with regularity which could be repeated.
Abstract (Browse 1816)  |  Full Text PDF       
Evidence for the Younger Dryas Event in the Eastern Part of Nanling Region
Author: XIAO Jia-Yi, WANG Jian, AN Zhi-Sheng, WU Xi Hao and ZHOU Wei-Jian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(11)
      
    The Younger Dryas Event has been recorded in Europe, North and South America and in Northern Part of China, although up to now, no any evidence has been found in the Southern China. A pollen spectrum in Nanling Region showed that there existed a sharp decrease of the evergreen-broad-leaved tree pollen around 10 400 a BP. It may be the effect of the Younger Dryas Event on the lower-latitude of China.
Abstract (Browse 1790)  |  Full Text PDF       
Variation of Intergeneric Somatic Hybrids Between Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia and Fortunella crassifolia cv. Meiwa
Author: SHI Yong-Zhong,DENG Xiu-Xin and YI Hua-Lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(11)
      
    Intergeneric somatic hybrid plants derived from protoplast fusion between Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Valencia and Fortunella crassifolia Swingle cv. Meiwa have been grown in the fields for 6 years. The plants grew less vigorously with uneven canopy size and some shoots frequently died. Chromosome count showed that the plants, containing non-tetraploid cells besides amphidiploid, were chimeras. Most somatic hybrid plants exhibited a new band of EST isozyme. RAPD analysis verified that several plants lacked some of the parents' markers. The results indicated that the intergeneric somatic hybrids were genetically unstable.
Abstract (Browse 1901)  |  Full Text PDF       
Application of RAPD Analysis in the Study on the Origin of Chinese Cultivated Chrysanthemum
Author: DAI Si-Lan,CHEN Jun-Yu and LI Wen-Bin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(11)
      
    The RAPD ( random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers generated by 22 20-ruer primers, discriminated 7 wild Dendraathema species, 14 cultivars and 5 interspecific hybrids by banding profiles. Of 224 bands observed, 34 bands (15%) were polymorphic. Cluster analysis based on UPGMA method indicated that: of 7 wild species, D. indicum, D. vestitum and D. nankingense were closest to the cultivated groups while D. zawadskii was most distinct. Genetic distances between the former three species and cuhivars were less than 0.40 but those between D. zawadskii and cuhivars were more than 0.50. According to the RAPD analysis and previous research, the authors discussed the origin of Chinese cultivated chrysanthemum and proposed that the cuhivars of this genus may derive from D. indicum, D. vestitum and D. nankingense. The results have provided basic research data for study on the origin of Chinese cultivated chrysanthemum.
Abstract (Browse 2628)  |  Full Text PDF       
Environmental Relations with Desert Plant Communities and Distribution of Dominants in Anxi
Author: WANG Xiao-An
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(11)
      
    The ordination (DCA) and the regression analysis methods were used to study the relations between the Gobi desert plant communities as well as the distribution of the dominants and the environment in Anxi. The results indicated that the coverage(C) and density(D) of the plant communities have a close relation to the annual precipitation(R), but the species richness(N) of the plant communities has a relation to the salt content(S) in the soil. Their regression equations are as follows: C = 0. 051 968 163e0.040786821R (R = 0.95, P < 0.01), D = 0.27 147 913e0.052741829R (R =0.96,P Nitraria sphaerocarpa Maxim. > Sympegma regelli Bge. > Salsola passerina Bge. > Ephedra przewalskii Stapf., but the resistibility to salt of the main dominants was found in the order as follows: Salsola passerina > Reaumuria soongorica > Sympeg- rna regelli > Nitraria sphaerocarpa > Ephedra przewalskii.
Abstract (Browse 1850)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genetic Differentiation of Quercus mongolica and Q. liaotungensis Based on Morphological Observation, Isozyme and DNA Analysis
Author: YUN Rui, WANG Hong-Xin, HU Zhi-Ang, ZHONG Min, WEI Wei and QIAN Ying-Qian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(11)
      
    The Liaodong oak ( Quercus liaotungensis Koidz. ) is a close relative of the Mongolia oak ( Q. mongolica Fisch. ) which were separated by some morphological characters, such as the number of leaf lobes and the squamate form of cupula. Recently some authors observed that morphological diversity made the Liaodong oak unable to separate clearly from the Mongolia one, therefore, plant materials have been collected from Maoer Mountain of Heilongjiang province as a typical Q. mongolica population, and from Guandi Mountain of Shanxi Province which represented the typical Liaodong oak population to compare isozyme and DNA diversity between both species. The winter bud samples were also analysed from Dongling Mountain near Beijing City since Dongling population is an intermediate form between the Maoer population and the Guandi population morphologically. Statistics of 13 putative loci belonging to 5 enzymes showed a high level of diversity within all populations. The value of genetic distance among populations was low, and showed that the Dongling population genetically located at the middle of both typical species. DNA data also showed that both typical oak populations shared similar variation with the Dongling population. Among 172 polymorphic RAPD and DAF loci, no population-specific band has been found. A significant difference in frequency of amplified products existed in 26 loci. Except for 3 irregular ones, frequency distribution of 23 loci seems clinal. The Dongling population also genetically located at the middle of both flanking populations. It was worth to note that the OPD-08434 was probably unique to the Dongling oak since its frequency in the Guandi population has been estimated up to 100% and decreased to 0 in the Maeer population. The Dongling population received this unique DNA from the Guandi population probably by introgression. The strong gene flow in both directions implied a long history of distributive continuity for both oak species. High levels of morphological, isozymatic and DNA diversity supplied enough genetic basis for reconstruction of degraded oak ecosystems.
Abstract (Browse 1992)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Rapid Identification of Self-incompatibility of Cabbage by Amino Acid Analysis
Author: LIU Bao-Jing, SONG Ming, LI Cheng-Qiong and WANG Xiao-Jia
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(11)
      
    Amino acid analysis was employed in the study of protein in the stigma and pollen of self-incompatible and self-compatible lines of cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata ); from which distinct differences in the contents of amino acids were found between the two lines. The analysis of variance indicated that the contents of 9 kinds of amino acids in the stigma and 6 kinds in the pollen were comparatively much higher in the self-incompatible ones. Cluster analysis was per-formed in order to delete the factors related to the gene type variance. Unassured variances were abandoned by accurate examination. The threonine and tyrosine contents in the stigma and the glycine and alanine content in the pollen were considered as standards to identify self-incompatibility. In the self-incompatible lines, the above-mentioned amino acid contents were higher than 0.223%, 0.358%, 1.593% and 1.464%, respectively; whereas in the self-compatible lines, they were less than 0.185% ,0.164%, 1.470% and 1.006% correspondingly.
Abstract (Browse 1901)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New Method for Purifing Cyt b6f Protein Complex
Author: MAO Da-Zhang, YAN Jiu-Sheng,ZHAI Xiao-Jing,SUN Qin-Miao and LI Liang-Bi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(11)
      
    A new protocol which is much simpler than current procedures, has been developed for purification of the Cyt b6f protein complex. The protocol contained only two steps dialysis-cen- trifugation and stepwise precipitation with ammonium sulfate. Moreover, this method is suitable for larger scale preparation. The purified complex from spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L. ) contained 9.8 nmol Cyt f per milligram protein. 2 Cyt b6(b-hemes) and 1 Chl a per Cyt f. SDS-PAGE showed four main bands and one weak band with low molecular weight. Its activity(PQ2H2Cyt c)was around 80 mol Cyt cnmol Cyt f-1h-l
Abstract (Browse 1862)  |  Full Text PDF       
Light Effect on the Tissue Contents and Distribution of Isoflavones in the Developing Seedling of Soybean
Author: SUN Jun-Ming, DING AN-Lin and SHEN Li-Ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(11)
      
    The contents of isoflavones in the developing soybean seedling tissues under different light conditions were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the total contents of isoflavones in soybean seedling tissues were remarkably different, being the highest in the cotyledons and lower in the leaves and roots. In the cotyledons, the isoflavones like daidzin, genistin and their malonyl conjugates were the major metabolites and were increased markedly with the time of light exposure. In contrast, there was a decrease in the content of isoflavones in the dark. When the dark grown seedlings were tranferred to the light, an increase of the isoflavone content was observed. In the leaves and roots, there was also a marked difference in the contents and types of isoflavones due to various light conditions. Leaves contained mainly the isoflavones such as genistin, malonyl gensistin and flavones rutin, which were increased gradually under light condition, but in the dark, daidzin and malonyl daidzin were the major metabolites and did not change markedly with time. In the roots, no isoflavone was detected in the dark, while five isoflavones were found in the light-grown seedlings, and all root sections were predominated by daidzein and its conjugates. These results provided the evidence that light strongly stimulates the accumulation of isoflavones in soybean seedling tissues.
Abstract (Browse 2009)  |  Full Text PDF       
Resistance of Maize Calli to Herbicide Basta and Its Relevant Effect by Some Amino Acids
Author: ZHAO Tian-Yong, WANG Guo-Ying, HUANG Zhong, ZHANG Yun-Fang and XIE You-Ju
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(11)
      
    Maize (Zea mays L. ) embryogenic calli were cultured on N6 medium and treated respectively with different concentrations of herbicide Basra and amino acids. The NH4+ concentrations and weight increase of maize calli were measured. Statistical analysis revealed that callus weight increased less when cultured on N6 medium with 4 mg/L of Basta while Nih+ concentration reached its peak when cultured on N6 with 8 mg/L of Basta. Therefore 6 mg/L of Basta was considered as the optional dosage for selection of transgenic calli L-arginine and L-glutamic acid significantly reduced the NH4+ concentration in maize calli while L-proline had little effects on NH4+ concentration even though it enhanced callus weight enormously.
Abstract (Browse 2007)  |  Full Text PDF       
Evidences for Regulation of the Inward K+ channels by CDPK in Vicia faba Guard Cells
Author: WANG Xi-Qing,WU Wei-Hua and ZHANG Ji-Shu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(11)
      
    Regulation of the inward K+ -channels in the guard cell plasma membranes plays impotant roles in regulation of stomatal movement in responses to exogenous and endogenous signals. It is well-known that elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ in guard cells inactivates these inward K + channels, and consequently inhibits stomatal opening or induces stomatal closing, yet the downstream molecular mechanism for the Ca2 + -mediated inhibition of the inward K+ channels remains unknown. The calmodulin-like domain protein kinases (CDPKs) have been identified as an unique group of protein kinases in higher plant cells. As a downstream regulator, CDPK may play roles in mediating Ca2+ regulation on the inward K+ -channels in stomatal guard cells. The authors have applied the patchclamp technique to investigate if CDPK be involved in the regulation of the inward K+ -channels in Vicia faba guard cells by cytosolic Ca2+ . The presence of the 1.5 mol/L intracellular Ca2 + result-ed in inhibition of the inward K+ channel activity by 60%, while the addition of purified CDPK from the cytoplasmic side resulted in greater inhibition than Ca2+ alone. Histone -S and protamine, which is the substrate and substrate competitive inhibitor of CDPKs respectively, completely reversed the Ca2+ -induced inhibition of the inward K+ channel activities. These results are the first reported evidences for that CDPKs are involved in the Ca2+ -mediated inward K+ -channel regulation in guard cells.
Abstract (Browse 2021)  |  Full Text PDF       
ITS1 and ITS2 Sequences of Four Possible Donors to Bread Wheat Genome and Their Phylogenetic Relationships
Author: ZHANG Wen-Ju, QU Li-Jia, GAO Wei, GU Hong-Ya, CHEN Jia-Kuan and CHEN Zhang-Liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(11)
      
    The 1TS1 and ITS2 of rDNA of four diploid species, newly Triticum urartu Thum. (AA), T. monococcum var. boeoticum (Boiss.) MK (AA),Aegilops speltoides Tausch. (BB) and Ae. taus&ii Coss. (DD), the most possible donors of A, B and D genomes to broad wheat ( T. aestivum), were amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced. Some published sequences were discussed and rectified. The length of ITS1 sequences in four species was 221 to 223 bp, and that of 1TS2 was 216 to 217 bp. In pairwise sequence comparisons among four species, divergence ranged from 0.029 0 to 0.064 0 in ITS1, and from 0.009 3 to 0.058 0 in ITS2. Based on ITS1, ITS2 and 1TS1 + ITS2 data respectively, the same most parsimony tree that is congruent with the phylogenetic relationships was generated which was concordant with their morphological and cytological characteristics. In the trees, T. urartu and T. monococcum var. boeoticum constituted one monophyly, whereas two species of the genus Aegilops, Ac. speltoides and Ac. tauschii, fortmed another mono- phyly but with lower bootstrap value than the first clade. This study suggests that ITS region is a useful molecular marker in the studies on the origin and evolution of Triticum.
Abstract (Browse 1888)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Microdissection and Microcloning of the Rye Chromosome 1R
Author: JIANG Ci-Zhong, SONG Wen-Qin, LI Xiu-Lan and CHEN Rui-Yang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(11)
      
    Two 1R chromosomes of Secale cereale L. were isolated from one metaphase cell by means of chromosome micro-isolation, and the chromosomal DNA was amplified adopting the cohesive adapters single primer polymerase chain reaction (CASP-PCR) technique. The CASP-PCR products were labeled as probes. The results of Southern blot hybridization confirmed that the CASP- PCR products derived from the chromosome IR were homologous with the genomic DNA of S. cereale. The clones of PCR products were obtained with high efficiency. Over 10 000 recombinant clones were obtained from one-tenth of the ligation mixture which was transferred into the competent E. coli DH5a. The size of the inserted fragments of clones ranged from 250 bp to 500 bp. This research has established the foundation for further selection of chromosome 1R markers.
Abstract (Browse 1875)  |  Full Text PDF       
Review of the Fossil Evidence for the Origin and Earliest Evolution of the Seed-plants
Author: Jason Hilton
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(11)
      
    The earliest identified seed-plants are found in Latest Devonian aged sediments from Northwest Europe and North America and are believed to have evolved from within the progymnosperms, a group of anatomically advanced pteridophytic plants. However, current evidence makes it problematic to determine from which particular progynmospermous lineage the seed-plants evolved, with the major contender being the Aneurophytalean progymnosperms. The evidence for the ancestral stock to the seed-plants is summarised and the morphologies of the earliest known seed-plants are considered. From their first geological occurrence, the seed-plants are morphologically diverse to such an extent that the identification of a single potential ancestral morphology is impossible. In the light of the evidence so far presented, the precise origin of the seed-plants is unresolved and in need of new evidence relating to the progynmosperm/seed-plant transition. Future lines of research are also suggested.
Abstract (Browse 1870)  |  Full Text PDF       
Phenolics From Ceratostigma minus
Author: YUE Jian-Min, ZHAO Yu, ZHAO Qin-Shi, LIN Zhong-Wen,SUN Han-Dong, WU Hou-Ming and XU Jing-Fei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(11)
      
    Fourteen phenolics were isolated from the whole plant of Ceratostigma minus Stapf ex Prain. Two of them were elucidated as new compounds, plumbocatechins A (1) and B (2). The others were identified as known compounds, plumbolactone A (3), plumbagic acid (4), isoshinanolone (5), epiisoshinanolone (6), N- trans-caffeoyl-tyramine, N- trans-feruloyltyramine, apocynin, vanillic acid, syringic acid, gallocatechin, ( + )-catechin and 1,2,6-tri-O-galloylglueose. The structure elucidation of the two new compounds were mainly achieved by 2D-NMR techniques.
Abstract (Browse 1966)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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