December 1998, Volume 40 Issue 12

 

          Research Articles
Influence of Doubled CO2 on Plant Growth and Soil Microbial Biomass C and N
Author: WANG Xing-Fen, LI Shi-Yi, BAI Ke-Zhi and KUANG Ting-Yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(12)
      
    Salix babylonica L., Triticum aestivum L., Chenopodium album L. and Amaranthus cruemus L. were grown in the N-deficient soil in open-top chambers blown with ambient or doubled ambient CO2 air, and their growth was measured. Soil samples were collected to assess the influence of doubled CO2 on the soil microbial biomass C (Cmic) and N (Nmic). Results showed that the biomass of shoot and root was increased by doubled CO2 in the four species of plants. Doubled CO2 increased Cmic in S. babylonica and decreased Cmic in T. aestivum and C. album. On the other hand, Nmic in three species except T. aestivum was stimulated by doubled CO2. Doubled CO2 had no significant effect on Cmic in A. cruentus and Nmic in T. aestivum. However, the ratios of Cmic- to -Nmic of all four species were consistently declined under doubled CO2 treatment. It implies that CO2 enrichment may have positive influence on the quality of organic matter of N-low soil in global change.
Abstract (Browse 1901)  |  Full Text PDF       
Relationship Between 次 as well as the Length of 3∩poly (dA) and Efficiency of Gene Expression
Author: MAO Li-Qun and GUO San-Dui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(12)
      
    Three plant high expression vectors harboring 25, 50 and 100 deoxyadenylate (dA) residues respectively in 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) were constructed by inserting poly(dA) sequence into the primary vector containing CaMV 35S promoter doubled with region B and II which is a leader sequence derived from tobacco mosaic virus, within 5'-UTR. Transient expression of chimeric GUS gene in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. ) mesophyll protoplasts showed that:doubled enhancer, 次 and poly (dA) increasd GUS expression. When both 次 and poly (dA) were present, the level of expression increased further, compared to that when only 次 was present. Moreover, when 次 was present, doubling the length of poly (dA) resulted in a further increase in GUS expression, which suggested a positive relationship between poly(dA) length and the level of expression.
Abstract (Browse 1833)  |  Full Text PDF       
Taxonomic Study of Dimocarpus longan by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique
Author: LIN Tong-Xiang, CHEN Zhen-Guang, DAI Si-Lan and WU Nai-Hu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(12)
      
    The classification and relationship among 35 samples of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. ) have been studied by RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) and statistical cluster analysis. These results showed that it was unlikely possible that "Lizhiben" and "Lizhi kongyan" were hybrid progeny of longan and litchi ( Litchi chinensis Sonn. ) as what some people believe. The "Lizhiben", and "Nanhu Jiaohe" were highly mutant varieties. There were some variance among the "Jiaohe" wilted-nut longan cultivars. Different cuhivars given the same name, such as "Dongbf', "Honghezi" and some other cultivar, were also possible. It was concluded that longan cultivars which have been tested in this research could be classified into 6 groups. The first group, including 12 cultivars such as "Shuizhang", "Youtanben", "Wulongling" etc., which were the well known best cultivars appropriate for producing dry longan, was named as Shuizhang-Wulongling group. The second group, including 11 cultivars like "Chike", "Jiaoyan", "Fuyan", "Chushuben" etc., was named as Chike-Chushuben group. The Dongbi series cuhivars were named after their cultivars as the Dongbi group. The special cuhivars, "Lidongben", "Nanhu Jiaohe" and "Lizhiben" were named respectively as Lidongben group, Nanhu Jiaohe group, and Lizhiben group, because of their more characteristic DNA polymorphism tested in all respective cuhivars. The results indicate that the application of RAPD technique in the taxonomic study has gained some resolution which could not be obtained by morphological analysis and has provided available data for developing longan production and for breeding new longan cultivars.
Abstract (Browse 2376)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Changes of Temperature Around Roots in Relation to Water Uptake by Roots and Leaf Transpiration
Author: LIANG Jian-Sheng, Zhang Jian-Hua and CAO Xian-Zu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(12)
      
    Effects of changes in temperature around roots on water uptake by roots and leaf transpiration were studied in Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit., a subtropical woody plant species, and in Zea mays L. When the temperature around roots was rapidly lowered from 25 ⊥ to 15 ⊥, the water uptake by the roots and leaf transpiration were stimulated significantly within a short period ( 14 min). However, this effect did not occur when the cooling time was prolonged neither did if occur when the temperature around the roots was resumed from 15 ⊥ to 25 ⊥. Both the hydraulic conductivity of roots and leaf transpiration were increased substantially at first (within 20 min)and then decreased steadily to a level lower than those of the control in which the roots were continuous exposed to a low temperature ( 15 ⊥ ). Low temperature also promoted the biosynthesis of ABA in roots and enhanced the xylem ABA concentration, but such stimulation did not occur untill about 30 min after cooling treatment, leaf transpiration was reduced markedly, but the hydraulic conductivity of roots increased when the root system was treated with exogenous ABA. It was suggested that some mechanisms other than ABA may be involved in the short-time cryostimulation of water uptake by roots and leaf transpiration.
Abstract (Browse 1853)  |  Full Text PDF       
Sensitivity Analysis of Individual Responses of Plants to Global Change
Author: YU Mei, GAO Qiong and GUO Jian-Ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(12)
      
    Today research on global change is becoming one of the three vital topics in ecology. Within this field, simulating an individual plant*s physiological responses to global change, especially the combined effects of CO2 enrichment and the climatic change it caused, is a useful model in predicting the changes of either natural vegetation or agricultural crops, in that the physiological basis of the responses are mostly understood and the results of simulation can be checked with experi ments at any level or step when needed. Since the scenarios of the global changes often differ with different GCM*s, and will change as the GCM*s are being improved, even though, the simulation programs can still be used to for new predictions. In this study, based on the physiological mechanisms, a systematic dynamic model of plant individual growth was established, which included a weather generator and a growth module. The combined effects of enriched CO2 and climatic change on the main physiological processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, etc., and seasonal dynamics of biomass were considered in the model. The data sets of the long-term weather records of Beijing Meteorological Station and the observed values of many ecophysiological quantities, obtained in a CO2 enrichment experiment of soybean, were used to parameterize and to validate the model. The results showed that data obtained from the simulation were quite compatible with those from the observation. When the CO2 concentration was doubled, the peak values of the total biomass and green biomass were increased approximately by 70% and 56% respectively. Furthermore, the responses of the total net assimilation and the average specific dark respiration rate within the growth season explained the internal mechanism of the biomass responses. The result indicated that the total net assimilation increased, while the average specific dark respiration rate decreased. Thus, it can be deduced that the increase of biomass was brought about not only by the increase of the net assimilation, but also by 'the decrease of the specific dark respiration rate. Sensitivity analysis was used to the soybean individual responses to global change. The seasonal dynamics of the total biomass to the combined effects of different levels of CO2, temperature and precipitation were simulated. CO2 concentration and precipitation have positive, while temperature has negative effect on total biomass. The positive effect of precipitation became weaker with increasing temperatures, while the negative effect of temperature was strengthened by the increased precipitation. The positive effect of CO2 concentration became stronger with the increasing temperatures, but weaker under enhancing precipitations. The positive effect of precipitation and the negative effect of temperature were weakened by doubling the CO2 concentration. These are partly due to the enhanced water use efficiency caused by CO2 enrichment, which in turn renders the plant individual more resistant and adaptable to the environmental change.
Abstract (Browse 1945)  |  Full Text PDF       
Stress Effects of Mixed Salts with Various Salinities on the Seedlings of Aneurolepidium chinense
Author: SHI De-Cheng, SHENG Yan-Min and ZHAO Ke Fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(12)
      
    Seedlings of Aneurolepidium chinense (Trin.) Kitag. were subjected to stress with 30 kinds of 50 to 350 mmol/L of salt mixture which were composed of NaC1, NaHCO3, Na2SO4, and Na2CO3 in various proportion. The results showed that all the responded strains, such as changes in the relative growth rate (RGR), K+ and Na+ contents, content of proline accumulation, and leave electrolyte leakage rate, were aggravated with the increasing salt concentrations and the proportion of the basic salts. The strain reaction from high pH caused by the basic salt was closely related to salinity. The high pH reaction was weaker when the salinity was lower and became progressively stronger intensely with the increasing salinity. The results indicated that there were actually two stresses, the salt and the alkaline stress in the mixed salt stress. It was reasonable to consider the total salt concentration as the strength value of salt stress and the buffer capacity as the strength value of alkaline stress. When the alkaline stress was weak, the strain effect was mainly associated with the total salt concentration, but the buffer capacity became the dominant factor effecting strain with the increasing alkaline stress.
Abstract (Browse 1867)  |  Full Text PDF       
Production of Salidroside Through Biotransformation of Exogenous Tyrosol in Rhodiola sachalinensis Cell Suspension Cultures
Author: XU Jian-Feng, SU Zhi-Guo and FENG Pu-Sun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(12)
      
    In Rhodiola sachalinensis A. Bot. cell cultures, low yields of salidroside was supposed to be associated with the low efficiency of glucosylation reaction at the stationary phase of cell growth, when large amounts of the substrate, aglycon tyrosol, were accumulated. Considering the activity of tyrosol glucosyhransferase being the highest at the exponential growth phase, the author added exogenous tyrosol into the cultures at this time so as to produce salidroside through biotransformation. The effects of tyrosol concentration, the way of tyrosol addition as well as the cell density on the transformation rate and salidroside yield were investigated. It was found that the transformation rate attained 95 % after cells were incubated in the medium containing 1 mmol/L tyrosol for 24 h. Excess high concentrations of tyrosol in medium ( > 3 mmol/L) caused inhibition of transformation rate and cell growth. By 3 repeated additions of tyrosol in low concentrations, the salidroside yields of 1 320 mg/L, 1 740 mg/L and 1 980 mg/L to the cell densities of 6 g DW/L, 12 g DW/L and 18 g DW/L were obtained respectively.
Abstract (Browse 2092)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cloning of the Telomere Associated Sequences of Rye B-chromosomes
Author: GUO Ge, CHEN Cheng Bin, LI Xiu Lan, SONG Wen Qin and CHEN Rui Yang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(12)
      
    The short arm terminal segments of 10 rye ( Secale cereal L. ) B-chromosomes were isolated by means of needle microdissection technology. A two-step single primer PCR method was used to amplify the telomere associated sequences of rye B-chromosomes. The PCR products were located in the terminal region of the short ann of rye B-chromosomes by chromosome in situ hybridization, and most A-chromosomes also showed clear signal dots. Some PCR products were cloned in pUC19 vector and one clone pp3 was sequenced. Sequence analysis demonstrated that it has high similarity with the maize subtelomeric clone pBF266. Further utility of this mierodissection-PCR system in construction of high density RFLP map was discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1854)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genetic Molecular Linkage Map Construction and Genome Analysis of Rice Doubled Haploid Population
Author: SHEN Li Shuang, HE Ping, XU Yun Bi, TAN Zhen Bo, LU Chao Fu Xu and Zhu Li Huang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(12)
      
    A high density genetic linkage map comprised of aA. 4 loci was constructed from a doubled haploid population derived from a inter-subspecific cross between an Oryza satire L. ssp. Indica vari.t.v ("Zhaiyeqing 8") and a japonica variety ("Jingxi 17"). The genetic map consisted of 276 RFLP markers, 34 RAPD markers, 89 microsatellite markers, 10 AFLP markers, 26 markers based on telomeric repetitive associated sequence (TAS) and 9 isozyme markers. This genetic map was highly comparable with other high density rice genetic maps and had its unique feature which meritted it suitable for sustained genetic analysis.
Abstract (Browse 1935)  |  Full Text PDF       
A BAC Library Constructed to the Rice Cultivar
Author: PENG Kai-Man, ZHANG Hong-Bin and ZHANG Qi-Fa
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(12)
      
    "Minghui 63" is the restorer line for a number of the most important commercial rice hybrids varieties in China. To facilitate long-term commitment in genetic analysis and molecular cloning of the superior genes in the genome of "Minghui 63", the authors have constructed a largeinsert genomic DNA library using the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) cloning vector (pBe- loBAC 11). Size fractionated Hind m digest of genomic DNA was ligated to the BAC vector, and the ligation mixture was used to transform the bacterial strain DH10B. A total of over 26 000 clones were obtained with the average insert size of about 150 kb, ranging from 90 to 240 kb. These clones thus represent 9 x rice haploid genome equivalents. The library is now being used for physical mapping of several genomic regions for map-based gene cloning.
Abstract (Browse 1810)  |  Full Text PDF       
Programmed Cell Death During the Vessel Element Differentiation of the Secondary Xylem in Eucommia ulmoides Shoots
Author: WANG Ya-Qing and CUI Ke-Ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(12)
      
    The result from in situ end-labelling of fragmented DNA indicated that the vessel element differentiation of the secondary xylem in Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. was a typical programmed cell death (PCD) which involved a series of events, viz. synthesis of components essential for the secondary wall formation and a well organized succession of protoplast degeneration and autolysis in the tracheary cells. The nuclei gradually became irregular with highly condensed chromatin. In some nuclei, the cistema of the nuclear envelope became unevenly dilated within which some inner membrane protrusion enclosed with nuclear materials were present. The nuclear envelope underwent disruption and the nucleus eventually degenerated. However, as the nucleus was one of the most stable components in the cell, it was among the last organelles disappeared during the autolytic process. In the process, there were two forms of degeneration in the mitochondria (Mit). In one form the Mit shrank and became disorganized; in the other, part of the matrix in the Mit became electron-lucent with breakage of the membrane nearby. The cytoplasmic component residues were phagocitized and sequestered by the dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) cisternae. The RER and vacuoles did play a vital role in the further degeneration of other organelles just similar to the lysosomes acting in the animal cells. The autolyzed debri might be utilized in situ by taking part in the formation of secondary wall or be transported to the adjacent cells through the pits.
Abstract (Browse 2030)  |  Full Text PDF       
Stability Effects of Cold-acclimation on the Plasmolemma Ca2+ ATPase of Winter Wheat Seedlings
Author: WANG Hong, SUN De-Lan,LU Cun-Fu and JIAN Ling-Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(12)
      
    The cold-acclimation effects on the Ca2 + -ATPase activities in plasmolemma of the winter wheat seedlings ( Triticum aestivum L. ) were studied with electromicmscopic-cytochemical assay in which cerium trichloride precipitation method was adopted. The main conclusions are: (1) The plasmolemma Ca2+ -ATPase activities of the wheat seedlings treated at 每9 ⊥ for 3 h decreased considerably as compared with those of the seedlings grown at the optimal temperature of 20 ⊥. A further impediment of the enzyme activities was observed when the cold-stress was prolonged to 12 h at 每9 ⊥. And complete enzyme inactivation as well as damage of ultrastructure of cells occurred when the seedlings were subjected to cold-stress at 每9 ⊥ for 24 h. (2) If seedlings were cold-ac- climated at 2 ⊥ for 15 d, the plasmolemma Ca2 + -ATPase activities were higher than those of the non-acclimated seedlings. When the cold-acclimated seedlings were then treated at 每9 ⊥ for 3 h, the enzyme activities decreased less markedly than those of the non-acclimated seedings under the same treatment condition. Similarly, under prolonged cold-stress of both seedlings at 每 9 ⊥ for 12 h, the enzyme activities of the cold-acclimated seedlings still kept higher than those of the non-ac- climated ones. Finally, when the cold-stress lasted for 24 h at 每 9 ⊥, the enzyme activities of the cold acclimated seedlings remained active, and the cellular ultrastructure also remained unchanged. The above results indicate that cold-acclimation has enhanced the stability of the plasmolemma Ca2 + -ATPase activities of the winter seedlings under low temperature stress.
Abstract (Browse 1877)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chromosome Location of Two RFLP Markers umc22 and umc122 Tightly Linked to the Ht1 Gene in Maize
Author: LI Li-Jia, SONG Yun-Chun, YAN Hui-Min and LIU LI-Hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(12)
      
    A biotin-labeled in situ hybridization technique was used in order to physically map two RFLP markers-umc22 and umc122-tightly linked to the Htl gene on the chromosomes of maize ( Zea mays L. ). The results showed that both markers located on the chromosomes 2,7 and umc22 also hybridized with chromosome 4, which demonstrated that the two markers were a duplicated or triplicated sequence. The average detection rate of in situ hybridization was 17.46%. The percent distances of umc22 and umc122 from centromere on the chromosome 2 were 58.36 ㊣ 3.19 and 61.02 ㊣ 4.32 respectively, and on the chromosome 7 were 44.70 ㊣ 2.11 and 45.19 ㊣ 2.27 respectively, which indicates that there are no differences between genetic and physical distances of two markers umc22 and umc122. It was deduced that the gene Htl should also have its homeologous sequence between the hybridization sites of umc22 and umc122 on 7 L besides its location between the two hybridization sites.
Abstract (Browse 1885)  |  Full Text PDF       
In situ Localization of Calmodulin mRNA and Protein in the Developing Anthers and Pistils in Rice
Author: CHEN Shao-Rong, HAN Hong-Mei, LU Ying-Tang and YANG Hong-Yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(12)
      
    The temporal and spatial distribution patterns of calmodulin mRNA and protein were detected by in situ RNA hybridization and in situ immunohistochemical localization, respectively, in the developing anthers and pistils in rice ( Oryza sativa L. cv. Chunjiang). Calmodulin (CAM) gene was substantially expressed in the tapetum, stigma, pollen tube track, degenerated synergid and transfusion parenchyma cells. Less but significant amounts of CAM were also localized in the microspore mother cells, microspores, pollen, antipodal cells, egg cell and central cell. The density of reaction products varied with different developmental stages. During the earlier developmental stages of anther, CAM gene was expressed strongly, then declined gradually and became centralized in some special sites such as the tapetmn, pollen germination apertures, etc. During the embryogenesis, CAM gene was expressed stronger in the endosperm cells than in the proembryo cells at the earlier stage but it was reversed at the stage of embryo differentiation. The authors propose that CAM may be involved in regulating such events as microspore development, pollen germination, pollen tube growth, fertilization, and substance transport during sexual plant reproduction through Ca2 +-CAM signaling pathways.
Abstract (Browse 2113)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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