March 1998, Volume 40 Issue 3

 

          Research Articles
Purification of Maize Cytosolic 70 kD Stress Protein: a Calmodulin-binding Protein in Plants
Author: SUN Xu-Tong, ZHOU Ren-Gang, TANG Wen-Qiang and SUN Da-Ye
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(3)
      
    The maize cytosolic 70 kD stress protein (HSC70) has been purified by a two-step procedure employing affinity chromatography on ATP-agarose followed by DEAE52 ion-exchange chromatography. Using a biotinylated cauliflower calmodulin (CAM) gel-overlay technique in the presence of 1 mmol/L Ca2+ , the HSCT0 could bind to CAM. No band was shown on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel overlayed with biotinylated cauliflower CaM when 1 mmoL/L Ca2+ was replaced by 5 mmol/L EGTA. It indicated that the binding of HSC70 to CaM was dependent on Ca2+. The purified HSC70 inhibited the activity of CaM-dependent NADK and the degree of inhibition increased with augmentation of the HSC70, which appeared to be typically characteristic to CaM- binding protein.
Abstract (Browse 1749)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Micro-habitat on the Composition of Diatom Communities
Author: LIN Bi-Qin, WANG Qi-Hua and LIU Yan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(3)
      
    The relation between the trace elements and the diatom communites is described by the analysis of the composition of diatom communities in a cold spring in Changbai Mountain. The resuits are as follows: 1. Diatoms are the dominant populations in the waterbody and among them there are a large number of Diatom mesodon (Ehr.) Kutz. This is related to a great quantity of pumicestone around the waterbody; 2. The existence of Eunotia, Pinnularia, Gomphonema etc. is related to the Fe content in the waterbody; 3. D. mesodon belongs to halophile formen in oligohalobe formen, while the other kinds of species, such as some species of Eunotia and Pinnularia belong to halophobe in oligohalobe formen.
Abstract (Browse 1854)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Tourism and Industrialization on the Atmospheric Quality of Subtropical Forests and on Chlorophyll Flourescence of Two Species of Woody Plants
Author: PENG Chang-Lian,LIN Zhi-Fang,LIN Gui-Zhu, KONG Guo-Hui and LIU Hong-Xian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(3)
      
    Different impacts of human activities including tourism, religious activity and industrial activities on atmospheric CO2, NOx and SO2 concentration of the subtropical forests and the chlorophyll fluorescence of two woody plant species ( Schima superba Gardn. et Champ. and Pinus massoniaha Lamb. ) were studied. The experimental sites were at Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve and its nearby industrial area in Guangdong Province. In recent years, the Biosphere Reserve has received more than 700 000 tourists and nearly 120 000 vehicles each year. A steel production plant and a chemical plant are located in the nearby industrial area. The chlorophyll fluorescence was measured by a modulation pulse fluorometer (PAM). The results showed that the effects of human being activities have caused an increase of the concentration of CO2, NOx and SO2 within the forests. Comparing to the control site (core area of Biosphere Reserve), the CO2, NOx and SO2 concentration in the disturbed sites have increased 17 to 40 μmol· mol-1, 5 to 20 nmol· mo1-1 and 2 to 19 nmol·mol-1 respectively. The Fv/Fm, qp and ФPSⅡof two woody plants decreased with the increase of human being activities. The trend of decreasing Fv/Fm, qp and ФPSⅡ associated with an increase of qN in leaves of forests plant was consistent with the increasing CO2, NOx and SO2 concentration within the forests.
Abstract (Browse 1795)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on a Species of Thinnfeldia from Liuzhi of Guizhou Province, with Remarks on Thinnfeldia Ettingshausen in China
Author: DUAN Shu-Ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(3)
      
    With a careful study of the external forms and the cuticles of the fossil leaves, a species of Thinafeldia, which was collected from Langdai, Liuzhi County of Guizhou Province, has been identified as T. rhomboidalis Ett. Compare with two other species T. alethopteroides Sze and T. laxa Sze found in Yanchang Formation, Northern Shaanxi, which showed very similar external form (no cuticle structure) of T. rhomboidalis, therefore it is appropriate to clarify them as T. rhomboidalis. As for the genus Thinnfeldia, based on the study of Chinese material, the author set forth her opinion that Thianfeldia should be a separate genus instead of merging into the genus of Pachypteris as has been clarified by many palaeobotanists.
Abstract (Browse 1901)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isozyme Analysis of F 5 and BC 1F 4 from Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare)× Roegneria ciliaris
Author: LI Wan-Ji,LI Yi-Ping and LIU Fang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(3)
      
    栽培大麦,纤毛鹅观草,属间杂种,酯酶,过氧化物酶 ISOZYME ANALYSIS OF F5 AND BCiF4 FROM CULTIVATED BARLEY ( HORDEUM VULGARE ) ~ ROEGNERIA CILIARIS LI Wan-Ji LI Yi-Ping L1U Fang Abstract Esterase and peroxidase isozymes were analysed in the variants including 4 types, 16 lines of Fs, BC1F4 and the parents derived from cultivated barley ( Hordeum vulgare cv. Arupo) x Roegneria ciliaris (Trin.) Nevski in young roots, shoots, spikes and seeds. The zymogram patterns of esterase and peroxidase demonstrated that the 16 lines of F5 and BC1F4 had all or most bands of the cultivated barley parent cv. "Arupo", 1 to 3 bands from the male R. ciliaris, and new hybrid isozyme bands in various amount. Some bands of parent "Arupo" were lost. It suggested that the genetic substances come from R. ciliaris were stably inherited to the progenies of selfing and backcrossing, and there were some variations among the lines. There was certain relationship between isozyme variance and plant characters. Thus, in identifying the translocation lines by isozyme analysis, it would be preferable to study the various organ-specific isozymes or to trace one type of isozyme pattern in consequence.
Abstract (Browse 3904)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Jasmonic Acid Methyl Ester on the Photosynthesis of Rice Seedlings
Author: WU Wen-Hua and PAN Rui-Chi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(3)
      
    The contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, as well as the photosynthetic rate and the activity of RuBP carboxylase in leaves of rice ( Oryza sativa L. ) seedlings were apparently decreased by treating with 2.5 x 10-4 mol/L jasmonic acid methyl ester (Ja-Me). The synthesis and contents of RubisCO and its large and small subunit were distinctly reduced by this treatment either. Only did 2.5 x 10-7 mol/L Ja-Me treatment suppress the synthesis of large RubisCO subunit and decrease the content of small RubisCO subunit, it had no effects on the chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate and RuBP carboxylase activity in leaves of rice seedlings.
Abstract (Browse 1911)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of La(NO3)3 on Root Growth and IAA Content of Masson Pine Seedlings
Author: JIANG Ling, WANG Zhang-Rong and ZHOU Xie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(3)
      
    Treated with 0.1 to 1.0 mg/L La(NO3)3 in Hoagland solution, root-pruning masson pine ( Pinus massoniana Lamb. ) seedlings developed the lateral roots 1.75 to 3.75 times more in number than the control. The fresh and dry weight of roots were increased by 33.7 % and 46.4 %. The root length was only in the range of 0.05 to 0.5 mg/L La(NO3)3, had slightly pmmotive effect but when the concentration of La(NO3)3 exceeded more than 1.0 mg/L, the root length of root-pruning masson pine seedling was decreased to 53.3% of the control. The free-lAA content of the lateral root was raised with the increase of La(NO3)3 concentration in cultural solution, while the activity of IAA oxidase was decreased. On the other hand, La (NO3)3 was exerted less pmmotive effect on shoots than on roots.
Abstract (Browse 1852)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study of Specific Protein on Sex Differentiation of Momordica charantia
Author: WANG Qiao-Mei and ZENG Guang-Wen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(3)
      
    In Momordica charantia L. the soluble protein profile of flower bud at hermaphroditic stage and three early developmental stages (the 7th, 10th and 13th day after initial budding) of male and female flowers were analysed with capillary electrophoresis. Some specific proteins related to sex differentiation were detected. The 11 kD protein, which appeared at the 7th day of budding and existed through the three developmental stages of the female flowers with little change of content, might be an "essential protein" for the expression of female flower differentiation program. Similarly, the 30 kD protein might be an "essential protein" for the expression of the male flower differentiation.
Abstract (Browse 1840)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation,Culture and Plant Regeneration of Protoplasts from an Embryogenic Callus Tissue of Gossypium hirsutum
Author: WANG Zhe-Zhi, ZHANG Su-Feng and HU Zheng-Hai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(3)
      
    Protoplasts were isolated and cultured from hypocotyl embryogenic callus tissue of Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. "Lumian 6". The highest yields of viable protoplasts were obtained from a vigorous embryogenic callus 7 to 9 d old subcultured on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L IAA and 1 mg/L KT using a solution of 1% cellulase Onozuka R-10, 1% pectinase, 0.7 mmol/L KH2PO4, 2.5 mmol/L Ca2+ , and 0.5 mol/L osmoticum (mannitol), at pH 5.8 and at a temperature of 30 ℃. After separation and purification (in 21% sucrose floatation medium), the protoplasts were laid up in a quiet liquid protoplast culture medium containing K3 salts, NT vitamins with 0.1 mg/L 2,4-D, 0.2 mg/L KT and 0.45 mol/L glucose for 10 to 15 min. The protoplasts were fractioned into an upper and a lower layer in the centrifugal tube. Most of the protoplasts in the lower layer were smaller, round and rich in cytoplasts in which contain many granular substances. When this kind of protoplasts were cultured in the thin liquid protoplast culture medium with a density of 1 x l0s to 5 x los protoplasts/mL, the division and the callus formation of the regenerated cells were easily observed. The first divisions occurred in 3 days and small cell clusters could be seen after 2 to 3 weeks in the culture. At this moment, the addition of the protoplast culture medium with decreased osmoticum once or twice is needed for the continuous protoplasts division to form calli. Regenerated calli, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, were transferred in succession on MS medium with 2 mg/L IAA and 1 mg/L KT for the initiation of embryogenesis. The embryoids germinated on the hormonefree MS medium and a number of plantlets were obtained. It seems that using vigorous embryogenic callus and decreasing osmoticum are the two critical factors for plant regeneration of cotton protoplasts.
Abstract (Browse 1890)  |  Full Text PDF       
Transgenic Tobacco Plants with a Fully Synthesized GFM CryIA Gene Provide Effective Tobacco Bollworm (Heliothis armigera) Control
Author: HUANG Qi-Man, MAO Li-Qun, HUANG Wei-Hong and GUO San-Dui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(3)
      
    GFM CrylA gene is a fully modified synthetic gene derived from insecticidal crystal prorein gene of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt). It was synthesized based on the codon usage of plant genes instead of changing the primary sequences of amino acids of insecticidal crystal protein (ICP) gene of Bacillus thuringiensis Htibner. To test the function of the synthetic GFM CrylA gene, we introduced the GFM CrylA gene into tobacco plant cells via an Agrobacterium tumefacieus (Smith et Townsedn) Conn binary vector system. As expected, the GFM CrylA gene is expressed under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and allows efficient production of lepidopteran insectspecific toxic proteins in the transformed tobacco plants. Bioassays using transgenic tobacco plants with tobacco bollworm showed that the transgenic tobacco plants expressing proteins of GFM CrylA gene had effective control to tobacco bollworm. In this paper the authors firstly report the complete synthesis of GFM CryIA gene and the construction of plant expression vector pGBI4AB. The authors performed introduction of the synthetic GFM CrylA gene into the tobacco plants, and the integration of GFM CrylA gene into tobacco genome was confirmed by Southern blot analysis of the tobacco genomic DNA. The gene was efficiently expressed in the transgenic tobacco plants and effective tobacco bollworm control was verified by the insect-bioassays.
Abstract (Browse 1907)  |  Full Text PDF       
Mechanism of the Increase of Polyphenol Oxidase Activity in Pineapple Fruit Induced by GA3
Author: ZHOU Yu-Chan, PAN Xiao-Ping and TANG You-Lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(3)
      
    No increase in polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity was found by addition of GA3 solution in the enzyme extraction. But acid phosphatase activity was found to be increased in pineapple fruit (Armnas comosus (L.) Merr. ) treated with GA3, which was mainly caused by the significant increase in inorganic phosphate (Pi) content. Phospholipase D activities decreased gradually during the period of fruit ripening but GA3 treatment slowed down these processes. On the other hand, the increase of PPO activities in fruit treated with GA3 was enhanced by the addition of ABA treatment.
Abstract (Browse 2302)  |  Full Text PDF       
Random Amplified Polymorphism of DNA Analysis in Aegilops tauschii
Author: KONG Ling-Rang, DONG Yu-Chen and JIA Ji-Zeng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(3)
      
    The genomic DNA variations of 29 accessions of two Aegilops tauschii (Coss.) Schmal. subspeicies from different regions were assayed by random amplified polymorphism of DNA (RAPD) . 136 bands (45.79 % ) behavied polymorphic in 297 RAPD bands amplified by 31 random decamer primers. Of 288 RAPD bands displayed in 20 accessions of ssp. eusquarrosa and 268 bands in 9 accessions of ssp. strangulata, 136 bands (47.22%) and 87 bands (29.29%) were polymorphic respectively, indicating a more divergence of the genomic DNA in the former subspecies than in the latter. In addition, the DNA polymorphism of accessions collected from China was less abundant than that from Iran and former USSR. Genetic distance analysis of 29 accessions based on the 297 RAPD bands revealed that there were two evident clusters in the dendrogram. The accessions of the same subspecies were clustered first. This revealed that the divergence between the two subspecies of Ae. tauschii was greater than that within one subspecies from different geographical regions. The authors also discuss the utilization of Ae. tauschii ssp. eusquarrosa in wheat improvement.
Abstract (Browse 1754)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Cloning of rolC Gene and Over Expression of Cytokinins in Nicotiana tabacum
Author: JIA Yan-Tao, MA Mi, QU Gui-Ping, QIAN Zhong-Xing and LIN Zhong-Ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(3)
      
    Using PCR method the rolC gene was amplified from Agrobacterium rhizogenes, and CaMV 35S/rolC expression vector pCaR was constructed. The chimeric gene via agrobacterium mediated procedure was transformed separately into the wild type tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. W38) and the transgenic tobacco of ipt gene. The putative transgenic plants were assayed with Southem blot and RNA Dot blot analysis. The observation suggested that the transgenic tobacco exhibited the abnormal phenotypes as a consequence of the overproduction of cytokinins. Whereas the ELISA assay indicated that the cytokinins level increased separately in transgenic plants. The growth of the transgenic plants show multiple budding of shoots with short intemodal length.
Abstract (Browse 1834)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Study of Pollination Biology of Pedicularis (Scrophulariaceae) in Northwest Yunnan, China
Author: WANG Hong and LI De-Zhu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(3)
      
    The pollination biology of Pedicularis L. was studied in the Zhongdian and Deqin counties of Northwest Yunnan in the summer of 1993. From late July to late August, 18 species of Pedicularis were found in full bloom, while P. integrifolia was almost out of bloom. A preliminary study of pollination biology of six species was conducted. The paper reports the results of four betterstudied species, among which P. tsekouensis Bonati and P. roylei Maxim. are of short-tubed, emstrate and nectarless corolla type and P. longifiora var. tubiformis ( Klotz. ) Tsoong and P. siphonantha var. delavayi (Franch.) Tsoong are long-tubed, rostrate and nectarless. The shorttubed P. tsekouensis and P. roylei were found exclusively by Bombus friseanus workers standing on the lower lips of the corolla and vibrating pollen from anthers concealed within the galea. The pollen deposited on the dorsal side of the head-thorax of the workers was transferred to the stigma of another plant by the insects nototribically. The long-tubed species were pollinated by Bomus rufofasciatus workers hanging inverted from the corolla and buzzing pollen, the stigma contacted pollen on the ventral side of the pollinator’s thorax. This falls into the stemotfibical pollination type. The blooming phenology of later-summer Pedicularis seems corresponding to the emergence of short-tongued bumblebee workers rather than longer tongue queens. Preliminary observations were made to check whether keptopteran insects were the pollinators of the very long-tubed species but no such phenomenon was found. The long-tubes of the yellow flowered P. longifiora var. tubiformis and those of the magentha flowered P. siphonantha var. delavayi may be just an adaptation in extending the rostrate vibration pollination mechanism beyond the relatively short plants. This seems a result of coevolution of these alpine plants and their pollinating bumblebees.
Abstract (Browse 1929)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Rice Repetitive DNA Sequence pRRD3
Author: HUANG Wen, LONG Yan, XU Li-Ping, WANG Chun-Xin and LIU Liang-Shi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(3)
      
    A moderately repetitive DNA sequence from rice ( Oryza sativa L. ) has been cloned by the method of DNA renaturation kinetics. Different restriction enzymes digestion and Southern hybridization indicated that this sequence was organized in tandem array and dispersed in rice genome. There was a perfect plant promoter element TGTATAAATA within the sequence. Copy number of the cloned repetitive DNA sequence pRRD3 was determined within 34 varieties of Oryza, detectable differences were found between wild rice and cultivated rice as well as subspecies indica and japonica. Southern blot analysis on different AA genome type rice DNA showed genome subtype-specific hybridization pattern, suggesting that the repetitive DNA sequence pRRD3 is a useful probe to study the evolution and classification of rice.
Abstract (Browse 1660)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytoplasmic Inheritance of Sweet Potato: with Respect to the Study of Plastids and Mitochondria and the Existence of Their DNA in Sperm Cells
Author: YUAN Zong-Fei, HU Shi-Yi, MA Shu-Fang and LIU Qing-Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(3)
      
    The mature pollen of sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas lam. ) was bicellular. After pollination generative cell divided into a pair of sperm cells before its germination. The pair of sperm cells remained in the hydrated pollen was similar in their shape and volume with enriched cytoplasmic plastids and mitochondria. The specific fluorescence of cytoplasm DNA indicated that the sperm cells and the generative cell contained numerous organelle nucleoids. The pair of sperm cells had no significant difference in their numbers of organelle nucleoids. Two kinds of organelle nucleoids existed in the pair of sperm cells. Tile ones as big and strong fluorescent dots appeared to be the plastid nucleoids and the others as tile small and weak fluorescent dots could be the mitochondrial nucleoid. Few of the angiosperms were of biparental or paternal plastid inheritance. The result of this study has provided the cytological evidence for another genus, Ipomoea, which is of biparental or paternal plastid inheritance besides Pharbitis and Calystegia in Convolvulaceae.
Abstract (Browse 1997)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Photoperiod-sensitive Genic Malesterile Rice in Terms of Developmental Biology
Author: TONG Zhe
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(3)
      
    Investigations on the mechanism of fertility alternation and its regulation in photoperiodsensitive genic male-sterile rice (PGMR) have received considerable attention due to the important significance in both basic research of plant developmental biology and PGMR potential value in the development of two line hybrid rice seed programs. The present review described the major achivements of study on PGMR in terms of developmental biology: phytochrome was found to be the photoreceptor involved in photoperiod-modulated fertility alternation in PGMR; chloroplasts played a significant role in the photoperiodic signal transduction; gibberellins and auxin might be the chemical signals for fertility regulation; identifying of special proteins promoted the exploration of specially expressed genes related to fertility regulation in PGMR. The author hypothesized that four main steps of photoperiodic signal transduction were involved in the realization of male sterility-multistage magni-fied injury effects to normal function of PGMR induced by long-day stress. There was defect in the anther development of PGMR, and the resistance of anthers to environmental stress was weakened. The multifactor coaction model for photoperiod regulation in fertility alternation in PGMR was proposed and discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1785)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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