April 1998, Volume 40 Issue 4

 

          Research Articles
On Cordaites neimengensis sp. nov from Lower Permian of Zhungeerqi, Inner Mongolia, China
Author: LIU Zhao-Hua, GENG Bao-Yin, WANG Shi-Jun and LI Cheng-Sen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(4)
      
    The leaf cuticle of Cordaites neimengensis sp. nov was studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The specimens were collected from kower Permian of Zhungeerqi, Inner Mongolia (Neimenggu), China. Comparing with other species of Cordaites, it was a new species of the genus, based on the structure of its epidermis. Cordaites neimengensis sp. nov (Pis. to ; Text-fig.l,B) The specimen comprises two incomplete leaves over 16 cm in length. One is about 1.4 cm wide at the lower part and 0.3 cm wide at the upper part, with nearly 29 veins per cm and 3 to 5 interstitials. The width of the other leaf is about 7.5 cm at the lower part and 8.2 cm at the upper part with 25 veins per cm and 3 to 5 interstitials. Epidermis amphistomatic. Epidermal cells of upper cuticle aligned in longitudinal rows, nearly rectangular in shape, about 33.6 to 86.4 pm x 10.2 to 28. 8 pm in size. Stomatal apparatus consisting of 2 sunken guard cells surrounded by 2 lateral and 2 polar subsidiary cells. Stomata haplocheillic, about 56.2 pm x 45.5 pm in size, usually arranged in short chains, with one polar subsidiary cell (usually 23.1 to 25.4 pm wide, 34.1 to 39.2 pm long in size) shared with 2 consecutive stomata. The polar subsidiary cells round, oblong or rhomboid in shape. The guard cells reniform or bean-shaped, usually 9.7 to 11.6 pm wide, 23.4 to 29.1 pm long in size. Density and index of stomata about 18/mm2 and 3.2%, respectively. Epidermal cells of lower cuticle also nearly rectangular in shape, about 62.4 to 144 pm 9.6 to 16.8 pm in size. Stomata on the lower cuticle, haplocheillic, 40.8 pm wide and 48 pm long in size, with a pair of sunken guard cells, which is bean-shaped and surrounded by 2 lateral and polar subsidiary cells. Stomata arranging in parallel bands, typically one, sometimes two. As for the latter, a single row of lateral subsidiary cells (9.2 to 14.4 pm wide, 33.6 to 62.4 pm long in size) is shared with 2 parallel rows of stomata and occasionally also in bands with two rows side by side. In view outside, small papillae on the outer periclinal wall as well as the lateral subsidiary cells. In view inside, some folds along the anticlinal wall but flat about the periclinal wall. Nonstomatic bands usually with 1 to 10 rectangular cell rows. Density and index of the stomata about 209/mm2 and 27.2 %, respectively. 1401%-type: 9342; locality: Heidaigou of Zhungeerqi; Inner Mongolia, North China; Age: Lower Pennian (Shanxi Formation).
Abstract (Browse 1867)  |  Full Text PDF       
An Ecogeographical Regionalization for Biodiversity in China
Author: Ni Jian, CHEN Zhong-Xin, Dong Ming, CHEN Xu-Dong and ZHANG Xin-Shi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(4)
      
    Ecogeographical regionalization is the basis for spatial differentiation of biodiversity research. In view of the principle of international ecogeographical regionalization, this study has applied multivariate analysis and GIS method and based on some ecogeographical attributes limited to the distribution of plant and vegetation, including climatic factors, such as minimum temperature, mean temperature of the coldest month, mean temperature of the wannest month, annual average temperature, precipitation of the coldest month, precipitation of the wannest month, annual precipitation, CV of annual precipitation, biological factors such as vegetation types, vegetation division types, NPP, fiorisitic types, fauna types, abundance of plant species, genus and endemic genus; soil factors such as soil types, soil pH;topographical factors as longitude, latitude and altitude etc. The ecogeographical regionalization for biodiversity in China was made synthetically by using fuzzy cluster method. Four classes of division were used, viz., biodomain, subbiodomain, biome and bioregion. Five biodomains, seven subbiodomains and eighteen biomes were divided in China as follows: Boreal forest biodomain. A Eurasian boreal forest subbiodomain. A1 Southern Taiga mountain cold-temperate coniferous forest biome; A2 North Asian mixed coniferous-broad-leaved forest biome. Northern steppe and desert biodomain. B Eurasian steppe subbiodomain. BI Inner Asian temperate grass steppe biome; B2 Loess Plateau warm-temperate forest/shmb steppe biome. C Asia-Mrica desert subbiodomain. C1 Mid-Asian temperate desert biome; C2 Mongolian/Inner Asian temperate desert biome. East Asian biodomain. D East Asian deciduous broad-leaved forest subbiodomain. D1 East Asian deciduous broad-leaved forest biome, E East Asian evergreen broad-leaved forest subbiodomain. El East Asian mixed deciduous-evergreen broad-leaved forest biome; E2 East Asian evergreen broad-leaved forest biome; E3 East Asian monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest biome; FA Western East Asian mountain evergreen broadleaved forest biome. Palaeotropical subdomain. IV F India-Malaysian tropical forest subbiodomain. Fl Northern tropical rain forest/seasonal rain forest biome; F2 Tropical island coral reef vegetation biome. Asian plateau biodomain. G Tibet Plateau subbiodomain. G1 Tibet alpine highcold shrub meadow biome; G2 Tibet alpine high-cold steppe biome; G3 Tibet alpine high-cold desert biome; G4 Tibet alpine temperate steppe biome; G5 Tibet alpine temperate desert biome.
Abstract (Browse 2776)  |  Full Text PDF       
Change of Organic Matter in the Decomposing Oak Twigs in the Temperate Forest Ecosystems
Author: HUANG Jian-Hui, CHEN Ling-Zhi and HAN Xing-Guo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(4)
      
    Litter bag method was used in this study on the twig decomposition of an oak ( Quercus liaotungensis Koidz. ) which is dominant in the warm temperate deciduous forests. A consecutive five-year investigation was carded out to measure the changes of organic components in the twig litter. The decomposition of oak twigs based on rates of the mass loss during the first five years was simulated using the Olson exponential equation. The simulated data fit well with the observed values. Oak twigs were predicted to reach 95% decomposition within 21 years. During the first five years, the concentration of protein in the remaining litter increased from 3.5 % to 5.5 %, while the concentration of semicellulose decreased from 16.0% to 8.0%. However, there was no obvious change in the concentrations of lignin and cellulose. The loss of lignin, crude-cellulose, cellulose and semicellulose could be well simulated using the Olson exponential equation. However, this was not so effective for protein.
Abstract (Browse 2050)  |  Full Text PDF       
Regulation of Antioxidant Enzymes by Salicylic Acid in Cucumber Leaves
Author: LI Zhao-Liang,YUAN Yong-Bing, LIU Cheng-Lian and CAO Zong-Xun (TSAOTsung-Hsum)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(4)
      
    Activities of the antioxidant enzymes involved in superoxide anion (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) metabolism were determined and the contents of O2 and 14202 were also measured. All concentrations of sahcylic acid (SA) tested (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mmoL/L) significantly enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities not only in the first treated true leaf (leaf 1 ) but also in the second untreated true leaf (leaf 2) of Cucumis sativus L. When the leaves were treated with 1 mmol/L SA within 6 to 72 h, the activity of POD increased by 22 % to 67% in the treated leaf 1 and by 14% to 86% in the untreated leaf 2. However, no changes were observed during 3 h after treatment and at 96 h following treatment. Measurement of O2- and H202 showed that there was a significant decrease in 02' content and an increase in H202 content after SA treatment, but catalase (CAT) activity was only slighfiy inhibited and this suggested that the reason of the increase in H2O2 by SA treatment is not due to the inhibition of CAT but rather the increase in SOD activity. It was also found that SA at all concentrations tested could not induce new SOD isozyme but it induced 1 to 2 bands of new POD isozyme within one day after treatment. The results indicate that SA might involve in the regulation of antioxidant enzymes.
Abstract (Browse 1878)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Composition of Molecular Species of Phosphatidylglycerol in Relation to Cold-resistance of Poplar
Author: SHEN Man, HUANG Min-Ren, WANG Ming-Xiu, HU Zi-Ling and BAO Hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(4)
      
    The composition of molecular species and the positional distribution in fatty acids of phosphatidylglycerol (PG) isolated from poplar ( Populus deltoides cv. Lux 1-69/55 and Poeuramericarla cv.I- 45/51 ) leaves were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), enzym hydrolysis and gas phase chromatography (C,C), and the different cold-resistant poplars were compared with respect to the compositions of molecular species of PG isolated from their leaves. The results showed that the fatty acid compositions ( sn- 1/sn-2) of the major molecular species in PCs from poplar leaves were as follows: 18:3/18:2(18:2/18:3), 18:3/16: 1(3t); 18:3/16:0; 18:2/ 16:1 (3t); 16:0/18:2,18:2/16:0; 18: 1/16: l(3t); 16:0/16: l(3t); 18: 1/18: 1,16:0/18: 1( 18: 1/16:0); 16:0/16:0o The positional distribution of fatty acids in lPG from poplar leaves was found that 16:1(30 was exclusively occupied the sn-2 position, whereas 16:0 was present in both the sn1 position and the sn-2 position. The C18 acids were principally localized at the sn-2 position. The relative contents of the unsaturated molecular species of leaf PCs were more than 70% in both coldresistant poplar and cold-sensitive poplar. The ratio of the unsaturated/saturated molecular species of PG isolated from the cold-resistant -45 poplar was 3.10, which was higher than that of the PG from the cold-sensitive cottonwood, which was 2.38. The sum of the relative contents of the disaturated molecular species of the PG from poplar leaves was closely associated with the cold-resistance of plants. The [ 16:0/16:0+ 16:0/16: l(3t) ] of the PG from cottonwood was higher than that of the PG from cold-resistant I -45 poplar. The differences in the compositions of molecular species and the phase transition temperatures of PCs between cold-resistant and cold-sensitive plants were discussed in terms of the pathways and the activities of selective acyhransferases involved in the PG biosynthesis in chloroplast.
Abstract (Browse 1955)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on RubisCO Characteristics During Flag Leaf Aging in Hybrid Wheat and Its Parent
Author: XIAO Kai, ZHANG Rong-Xian, ZOU Ding-Hui and QIAN Wei-Pu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(4)
      
    The RuBPcase content and activity, and the RuBPoase activity of the flag leaf of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) reached the highest values at leaf full expansion or at the 10th day after leaf full expansion, then gradually reduced. There was evident of heterosis on the above mentioned parameters during life span of the flag leaf especially the late phase of leaf aging in the tested hybrid wheat as compared with those in its parents. The RuBPcase specific activity of the flag leaf changed slightly during the relatively steady phase of the chlorophyll content, then gradually decreased during the sharp fall phase of the chlorophyll content. Both RuBPcase and RuBPoase activity in the tested hybrid wheat were higher than in its parents, showing that hybrid wheat had higher photosynthetic carboxylation function, accompanied with photorespiration. All these results were in accordance with the measurements of kinetic constants Km (CO2) and Km (O2) of the RubisCO of flag leaf.
Abstract (Browse 1845)  |  Full Text PDF       
Heat-stable Proteins and Acquisition of Desiccation Tolerance in Peanut Seeds
Author: YANG Xiao-Quan, JIANG Xiao-Cheng and FU Jia-Rui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(4)
      
    The acquisition and induction of desiccation tolerance associated with the expression of heat-stable proteins in the developing peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. ) seeds were studied. Desiccation tolerance of peanut seeds was achieved during 45 to 65 DAP (days after pegging) embryogenesis, while a set of low molecular weight (9 to 15.5 kD) heat-stable polypeptides was preferentially expressed. Slow drying regime applied in vitro to 25 and 35 DAP peanut embryos induced desiccation tolerance and the expression of the same subset of polypeptides. Mature drying treatment enhanced the ability of 65 DAP peanut embryos to withstand fast drying, also increased the heat stability of arachins, the major peanut storage protein, which was heat labile during 45 to 65 DAP embryogenesis. It was concluded that the heat-stable proteins may contribute to desiccation tolerance of the peanut seeds, and the low molecular weight heat-stable polypeptides may confer nonspecifieally heat tolerance on peanut storage proteins which were normally heat labile.
Abstract (Browse 1782)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genetic Mechanism of the Occurrence of Salt-tolerant Variant of Octoploid Triticale Under Tissue and Cell Culture
Author: WANG Xiao-Jun and BAO Wen-Kui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(4)
      
    Three pairs of haploid and diploid cell lines, respectively originating from three octoploid triticale lines, F1 hybrids B and C and primary strain F, were used for in vitro selection of salt-tolerant variants at 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% NaC1 levels, for the purpose of studying the genetic mechanism of the occurrence of salt-tolerant variant. Experimental and analytical results showed that non-selected cell lines consisted of three classes of cells. The first-class cells which accounted for the majority of a cell line had no salt adaptability, the second-class cells were non-vari-ant cells with some salt adaptability, that could be gradually eliminated through subcultures on selection medium. The third-class were variant cells. The percentage of the second-class cells in the hybrid-derived cell lines was less than that of the cell lines from homozygous primary strain, thus it was relatively easy to select the salt-tolerant variants from the hybrid-derived cell lines. In comparing the variant frequencies of the three rounds of selections it was found that the variation in second round selection was based on the variation accurred in the first round selection, and by comparing the characteristics of these variants it was proposed that a genetic mechanism played in the production of salt-tolerant variant cell could be an amplification of the salt tolerance genes with dominant effectiveness. The normal homologous chromosome in the diploid cell could interfere with the expression of the salt-tolerant variation resulted from gene amplification. Such interference varied with the different genetic background of the triticale lines and appeared inconsistent among different rounds of selections.
Abstract (Browse 1754)  |  Full Text PDF       
Identification and Functional Analysis of D1 snoRNA and Its Gene from Rice
Author: ZHONG Ling, LU Yong-Jun, ZHOU Hui,SHI Su-Hua and QU Liang-Hu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(4)
      
    D1 DNA and its partial upstream sequence in the first intron of the hsp70 gene from three rice species (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica, 0. sativa L. ssp. japonica and 0. rufipogon W. Griffith) were sequenced and compared, and the D1 snoRNA encoded by D1 DNA was also identified by Northern hybridization and cDNA sequencing. D1 snoRNA, with a 14 nucleotides (nts) complementary to rice 25S rRNA, belongs to the antisense snoRNA family, and is suggested to guide the methylation of the 807th nucleotide position in rice 25S rRNA. The distance between D1 DNA and C1 DNA was only 105 nts. It was demonstrated that two snoRNA in an intron continually encoded within such a short region was a rare case, which provided us with a good system to study the processing mechanism of posttranscription of snoRNAs in tandem structure.
Abstract (Browse 1838)  |  Full Text PDF       
Expression of Mouse MT-cDNA in Filamentous Cyanobacterium to Enhance Its Metal- resistance
Author: GUO Xiang-Xue, ZHAO Hui, SHI Ding-Ji, XU Jie, XU Xu-Dong and Ru Bing-Gen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(4)
      
    The cMT-like promoter (stat O-P) was used for the expression of mMT- cDNA in cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, to enhance its metal-binding ability and specificity. Shuttle vector pKT-MRE was constructed and replicated in E. coli HB101, and triparental conjugate transfer was applied for transforming cyanobacterial cells. Sm-screening, Southern and Western blotting analysis were used for the identification of the transgenic cyanobacterium clones. Transgenic cyanobacterial metal-absorption ability, heavy metal-resistance and photosynthesis measurements in the medium containing heavy metal ion indicated that the expression of foreign mMT- I enhanced the cyanobactefial heavy metal-resistance to 1.5 times in the transgenic Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.
Abstract (Browse 1874)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Development of Gynoecium After Anthesis and Fertilization in Eleutherococcus brachypus (Araliaceae)
Author: WANG Zhong-Li, LIU Lin-De, TIAN Guo-Wei and SHENG Jia-Heng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(4)
      
    Eleutherococcus brachypus Harms. is a protandrous plant because the female gametophyte delays its maturation until the fifth day after anthesis and pollen shelling. On the fifth day after anthesis, about 57.69% of the embryo sacs matured and the rest degenerated or failed to develop. Fertilization began in the embryo sac on the fifth day. On the tenth day fertilization took place in 53.37 % of the total of embryo sacs. The stigma became receptible after 3 to 4 days of anthesis. It took 2 to 3 days from the germination of pollen grains on stigma to the fusion of male and female nuclei. The process of fertilization in E. brachypus is not different from most other angiosperms. It belonged to the type of premitotic syngamy. The observations and statistical analysis were made on the number feature of male and female nucleoli in the zygote. The result indicated that it took three days or so from the appearance of male nucleolus in the zygote to its fusion with the female nucleotus. Refering to the number of free nuclei of the endosperm, the fusion of male and female nucleoli in most of the zygotes occurred in the stage of 32 to 128 nuclei of the endosperm. Most zygotes con-tained a big nucleolus resulting from the fusion of male and female nucleolus and proceeding to mitosis. A few without fusion could also proceed to the mitotic stage. Features of multiple sperms entering the embryo sac or entering the egg cell and the degeneration of mature embryo sacs were observed as well. The sign of the termination of fertilization in angiosperms was discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1927)  |  Full Text PDF       
Seed Dormancy and Germination in Cimicifuga nanchuanensis
Author: FU Jin, QI Wen-Qing, GU Zeng-Hui and YOU Rui-Lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(4)
      
    Seed anatomy, dormancy breakage, the temperature effect to seed germination and seed life-span of Cimicifuga nanchuanensis Hsiao were studied and the endangerment of this plant in association to these biological characteristics was explored. The embryos were at the globular stage at the time of seed shedding in late November. Low temperature and humid conditions or treatment with exogenous GA3 stimulated the development of embryos and sped up the process of seed germination. The optimum temperature of germination was 20 , but the seeds almost lost their viability after 9 months of storage. Nevertheless, in its natural habitation, the seeds could not acquire enough environmental humidity to accomplish their after-ripening during the dry and cold winter from late November to the following March; after then the temperature in the spring (averaged 10.1 in April and May) was much lower than 20 or so which is favorable for seed germination. Moreover, the testa could not provide adequate protection for the embryos and the short life-span of the seeds prevents their survival until the next germination. Therefore it seems reasonable to infer that the unfavorable environmental condition during the process of after-ripening until seed maturation is involved in the cause of endangerment of this plant species.
Abstract (Browse 1843)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Observations on the Distribution of the Intra-and Intercellular Cytoskeleton of the Endosperm Cells in Triticum aestivum
Author: ZHANG Wei-Cheng, LI Rui-Qiu, YAN Wen-Mei and GAO Xiao-Yan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(4)
      
    By means of Triton X-l00 extraction and DGD (diethylene glycol distearate) embedment-free section method the distribution pattern and characteristics of intra- and intercellular cytoskeleton of endosperm cells of Triticum aestivum L. were studied with electron microscopy. Threedimensional architecture of the cytoskeleton could be recognized as a meshwork mainly composed of microtubules (MT) and microfilaments (MF). Attention was stressed on the interface of the adjoining cytoskeletal frameworks where an attractive phenomenon observed was that the MF extruding from the surface of the cytoskeleton often traversed the whole wall boundary and connected the neighbouring frameworks into an entity. In the endosperm tissue two types of transcellular MF distribution could be distinguished, the MF in bundles traversing the enlarged intercellular channels and the MF individually penetrating the wall boundary; that seemed to coordinate with the co-presence of normal and modified plasmodesmata in the same wall. The above observations demonstrated the intercellular cytoskeletal continuity within the symplast and confirmed that the MF was the main constituent of the traversing cytoplasmic strands, the possibility of MF being organized as a structural element of the normal plasmodesmata was also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1692)  |  Full Text PDF       
Retrotransposons in the Genomes of Higher Plants
Author: WANG Shi-Ping and ZHANG Qi-Fa
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(4)
      
    Retrotransposons with high copy numbers and extensive sequence heterogeneity are widely distributed in higher plants. Retrotransposons can be divided into three major classes according to their structure organization and the amino acid sequences of the encoded reverse transcriptase. They are Tyl-copia-like retrotransposons, Ty3-gypsy-like retrotransposons, and LINE (long interspersed nuclear elements ) -like retrotransposons. Retrotransposons have been found in the flanking regions of normal plant genes. These dements may provide regulatory sequences for gene expression and may be involved in gene duplication during evolution. So far, transcriptionally active retrotransposons are only identified in the root of tobacco under normal developmental and growth conditions. Most of the retroelements in plants appear to be "genomic parasites". But they contribute greatly to the genetic diversity and genome size variability of plants. Some silent retrotransposons in plant genomes only possess the capability to transpose under certain circumstances, such as tissue culture or stimulation by microbial elicitors. The expression of these retrotransposons produces mutant progeny which may be useful for crop improvement and natural selection. Recently, active retrotransposons of tobacco were introduced into a few heterogeneous plant species. These elements transposed in the genome of new hosts which reveals the possibility of using retroelements to study plant gene functions.
Abstract (Browse 1876)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation of Viable Male and Female Gametes in Cunninghamia lanceolata
Author: CHENG Xiao-Fei, LI Wen-Dian and HONG Ju-Sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(4)
      
    Viable male and female gametes were isolated from pollinated ovules of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook. Prior to their penetration into the female gametophyte, the pollen tubes were drawn out from the nucetlus. The isolated pollen tubes were branched and one of them became swollen. An enlarged spermatogenous cell and subsquently a pair of sperm cells were formed as the pollen tube reached the regions over and against the archegonia. The sperm cells were released from the pollen tubes manually with the use of a stereomicroscope. The positive FDA reaction gave evidence of the sperm cells viability, and the Fluorescent Brightener 28 positive demonstrated the presence of cell wall. The egg cells were enzymatically isolated from the female gametophytes. The isolated egg cells were spherical, contained 1 to 2 large and many small vacuoles. FDA test showed the egg cells were viable, and the viability sustained for 8 days in 2 to 4 without any protectants. Fusion between single pair of male and female gametic protoplasts was attempted with PEG method, but only adhesion of the two was obtained.
Abstract (Browse 1907)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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