June 1998, Volume 40 Issue 6


          Research Articles
Improved Approaches of in situ Hybridization and in situ Enzyme Histochemistry for Gene Expression Analyses in Plants
Author: LIU Qing-Fa, HAO Zheng-Rong and SHEN Da-Leng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(6)
    Improved methods for both in situ hybridization and in situ enzyme histochenfistry were described. The procedures for both methods have been significantly simplified by omitting: some unnecessary treatments and substituting the cumbersome and laborious techniques, and the reliability of in situ histochemistry was increased by reversing the operations of Block and Debmuwers procedure. The improved steps are: Instead of the conventional fixation, a simplified FAA procedure by adding liquid nitrogen onto the embedded tissues during sectioning to ensure high quality of the sections; labeled DNA by random-priming, other than labeled RNA by transcription, was used as probes in hybridization, which was conducted in a moisture-saturated plastic chamber other than emerging in mineral oil. The improved procedure for tissue in situ histochemical study was that the GUS coloration was carried out before fixation, embedding and sectioning, which was different from the procedure as described by Block and Debrouwer.
Abstract (Browse 1829)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Cordaitean Fossil Plants from Cathaysian Area in China
Author: WANG Shi-Jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(6)
    The cordaitean plants distributed throughout the Carboniferous and Permian of Cathaysian in China. There are four modes of the cordaitean plant preservation, viz. by impression, compression, pith cast, and permineralization. The cordaitean plants preserved by the respective types are listed as follows: 1. By impression, Cordaites principalis, C. schenkii, C. borassifolia, C. vetted, C. sandlimorpha, C. linsiana, C. yujiaensis, C. albostriata, C. linearis, C. dengfengensis, C. oblongifolius; Cordaitanthus volkmannii, C. curtus, C. taiyuanensis, C. rigidus, C. digymois ; 2. By compression, Cordaites baodeensis, C. huainanensis, and one unnamed cuticle of Cordaites in the coal of Taiyuan Formation from Xuzhou Coalfield, Jiangsu Province; 3. By pith cast, Artisia approximata; 4. By pennineralization, including four organ assemblages in the coalballs, namely Shanxioxylon sinense assemblage, Sh. taiyuanense assemblage, Pennsylvanioxylon tianii assemblage and Penn. cf. nauertianum assemblage; and one silified cordaitean stem Dadoxylon ( Cordaites ) sahnii with a septate pith. Cordaitean leaves appeared at first in Visean (Early Carboniferous), but they did not become common until Stephanian (Late Carboniferous) and Early Permian and distributed throughout the south, north and northwest of China. Especially in Taiyuan Formation, Shanxi Formation and Lower Shihezi Formation, up to 13 species of the cordaitean leaves have been recorded. Besides some large leaves, such as Cordaites principalis and C. schenkii etc. and several small ones, such as C. vetteri, C. sandlimorpha, C. linsiana, C. albostriata, C. dentgfengensis and C. oblongifolius appeared in Early Permian. In the early kate Permian, cordaitean leaves were abundant only in the southern part of North China and some places of South China. And they became few in the late Late Permian in the whole region of Cathaysian Flora in China. Cones and seeds of cordaites now are mainly reported from the Lower Permian in north and northwest of China and so did the permineralized cordaitean plants.
Abstract (Browse 1993)  |  Full Text PDF       
On the Characteristics of Transpiration and Its Responses to Shade in Ginkgo biloba
Author: GUO Zhi-Hua,WANG Bo Sun and ZHAGN Hong-Da
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(6)
    With a CI-301PS portable photosynthesis system as a measuring device, a field study on the characteristics of transpiration and the responses of transpiration (E), stomatal resistance (R) and water use efficiency (WUE) to shade in Ginkgo biloba L. grown in Mt. Lushan was conducted. The results showed that with sufficient water in soil, the highest transpiration rate in a sunny summer day appeared in the afternoon. The WUE was maximum at about 8 a.m. and then decreased at noon remarkably. Different responses of E, R and WUE to shade were noticed which indicated that G. biloba was very suitable to the present climate. Moreover, the temperature of air, photosynthetic active radiation and R were the dominant factors affecting transpiration.
Abstract (Browse 2550)  |  Full Text PDF       
Modelling the NET Primary Productivity of the Natural Potential Vegetation in China
Author: LI Di-Qiang, SUN Cheng-Yong and ZHANG Xin-Shi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(6)
    The relationship between net primary productivity (NPP) of natural potential vegetation in China and its climate control has been studied. First, site water balance indices are calculated by means of climate station document interpolation. NPP field document is strongly correlated with actual evapotranspiration in growth period, annual actual evapotranspiration, annual potential evapotranspiration and water deficiency indices. Then according to the mechanism of NPP accumulation, a WBINPP model is developed basing on a collection of NPP field document all over the country and site water balance indices interaction: NPP = 2.55 GAEe - 4.20922-1. 9665. Al. Comparing with other NPP models, such as Miami, Thomthwaite Memorial and Chikugo, WBINPP model is more rational and strongly fit to field doccment, the correlation coefficient is 0. 845. According to WBINPP model, a spatial pattern analysis for NPP in China is conducted by means of a GIS software, EIS, and the result shows NPP is declined from Southeastern China to Northwestern China. NPP of the greatest value is above 22 thm-2. a-1 in the region located in Hainan and Taiwan Province; while with different values of 12 ~ 16, 8 ~ 12, 4 - 8 thm-2a-1 in the region of middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, the Northern China plain and the Northeastern Region in China, respectively. In the Northern steppe zone NPP is about 2 thm- 2a- 1 and in the dry desert zone is lower than 2 thm- 2a-1.
Abstract (Browse 1799)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Revision of Plant Life- form System and an Analysis of the Life- form Spectrum of Forest Plants in the Warm Temperate Zone of China
Author: GAO Xian-Ming and CHEN Ling-Zhi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(6)
    The Raunkiear' s plant life-form system was revised, according to the features of the forest plants in the warm-temperate zone of China, and based on the revised system, the life-form spectrum analysis has shown that the hemieryptophytes are the dominant life-form, accounted for 33. 9% of all the forest vascular plants, followed by the geoeryptophytes, which cover 19.7%, and all of the phanerophytes make up 27.5 %. There are only few macrophanerophytes, being higher than 25 m, because of human activties as well as the inadequate water and temperature supply in this area. The general spectrum of the warm-temperate zone of China eould basically represent the charactefisties of middle latitude climate that is rainy and warm in summer, and frigid and dry in winter.
Abstract (Browse 1983)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Methylglyoxal- bis (Guanylhydrazone) Treatment on Polyamine Contents of Photosensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice and Its Relationship with Fertility Transformation
Author: LI Rong-Wei and LI He-Sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(6)
    Treatments with methylglyoxal-bis (guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) apparently decreased pollen fertility and bagged seed settings of Nongken 58S short day fertile rice plants, without affecting its normal growth. 10 - 4 molL- 1 MGBG was the optimum concentration for short day fertile rice plants, whereas MGBG in different concentrations did not function very well when spraying on long day sterile rice plants. The treatment mainly reduced the seed settings of the middle and bottom branches in short days and had little effect on those of the top branches. MGBG treatment resulted in an increase of putrescine content and a reduction of spermidine and spennine; the latter of which could be inferred as one of the causes of sterility.
Abstract (Browse 1764)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Ultraviolet- B Irradiation on Lipid Peroxidation in Spinach Leaves
Author: HUANG Shao-Bai,LIU Xiao-Zhong, DAI Qiu-Jie, and WANG Zhi-Xia
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(6)
    Spinach ( Spinacia oleracea Mill. ) cultivar "Huabo No. 1" was grown in an indoor environment and treated with 13.0 kJ' m-1. d-1 of ultraviolet-B (UV-B 280 to 320 nm) to study the effect of UV-B irradiation on flavonoids and lipid peroxidation in spinach leaves. The results showed that enhanced UV-B irradiation decreased the leaf fresh weight and the content of soluble protein and chlorophyll, and induced large accumulation of UV-absorbing flavonoids in the leaves. UV-B irradiation also promoted the production of superoxide radicals (O2-) and malondialdehyde in spinach leaves. However, the ascorbic acid (ASA) level was decreased under UV-B treatment. It was interesting that high peroxidase (POX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in spinach leaves were induced by UV-B irradiation, the former two being more sensitive. It was suggested that UV-B induced the accumulation of O2- resulting in the lipid peroxidation and in mm inhibiting the growth of spinach. However, the increase of UV-absorbing flavonoids and anti-oxidative enzymes induced by high accumulation of 02- could not reverse the process of UV-B damage.
Abstract (Browse 1819)  |  Full Text PDF       
One and Two- dimensional Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoretic Analysis of Seed Polypeptide Composition of Peanut Cultivars
Author: LI Yin, HUANG Shang-Zhi and FU Jia-Rui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(6)
    Seed polypeptides from 46 cultivars of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. ) were compared by SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional pelyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Arachin, the major seed storage protein of peanut, showed polymorphism. There were four types of arachin pelypeptide pattems. Type consisted of only four major subunits:41 kD,38.5 kD and two of the 18 kD subunits. Type had six major subunits:41 kD,38.5 kD,37.5 kD and three of the 18 kD subunits. Type consisted of 41 kD, 38.5 kD,36.5 kD and three of the 18 kD subunits. And Type consisted of seven major subunits:41 kD,38.5 kD,37.5 kD,36.5 kD and three of the 18 kD subunits. The compositions of conarachin in different cultivars were similar. Amino acid composition analysis of seed protein in 8 peanut cuhivars showed that Type was rich in methionine and cystine.
Abstract (Browse 1967)  |  Full Text PDF       
Immunochemical Assay for Quality and Immunological Homology of Storage Proteins in Different Closely Related Genera and Species of Wheat
Author: SONG Xi-Yun, CAI Qiu-Fang,GAO Wen-Shu, LIU Guang-Tian and HUANG Tie-Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(6)
    An immunochemical assay using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) in Triticum aestivum L. was carried out to determine the quality of wheat and to investigate the immunological homology of the storage proteins in cereal endosperms in different closely related wheat genera and species. The results showed that correlation between the antigen-antibody reaction and the wheat quality varied with the type of antibodies used and the quality. The correlation coeffecient was slightly higher when the polyclonal antibodies were used than monoclonal antibodies were used. The correlation coeffecient was high between the antibody binding and the protein content, and wet/dry gluten coment, with Zeleny sedimentation value, while that between antibody binding and bread characters was lower. The highest correlation coeffecient between the polyclonal antibody binding and the protein content in grains, wet and dry gluten contents, bread volume and bread ratio volume was 0. 762 0, 0. 894 2, 0. 887 3, 0.610 3, 0.459 8 and 0.474 4 respectively, while the highest correlation coeffecient between the monoclonal antibody binding and the above parameters was 0. 783 7, 0. 774 5, 0.782 2, 0. 684 1, 0. 687 3 and 0. 598 2 respectively. The immunological homologies between I-IMW-GS 1Dyl0 in common wheat and endosperm storage protein in wheat grains of different genera and species were noticed. The cross-reac-tion among Triticum aestivum L., Secale cereale, T. spelta L., Aegilops squearrosa L. and T. Turgidtan L. was stronger than that among other cereals.
Abstract (Browse 1928)  |  Full Text PDF       
Characteristics of Root Plasma Membrane ATPase and H+- extrusion in a K+- deficit Tolerant Rice Variety
Author: LIN Kui, LI Lin, XU Kun, YAN Ji-Qiong and JIAO Xin-Zhi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(6)
    The characteristics of root plasma membrane ATPase (PM-ATPase) of "Weiyou 49", a K+ -deficit tolerant rice (Oryza sativa L. ) variety and of "Yuanyou 1", a K+ -deficit non-tolerant rice variety, had some similarities:Their optimum pH value were both about 6.0; Their activities reached the maximum at ATP concentration of 3 mmol/L; Km was 0.85 mmol/L and external K+ stimulated their activities. However, when [K+ ] was less than or equal to 50 mmol/L in the medium, the increasing of K + stimulated the activity of the PM-ATPase of "Weiyou 49" much more than that of "Yuanyou 1". When [K+ ] was between 100 to 200 mmol/L, the difference of the PM-AT- Pase activities decreased between the two rice varieties caused by K + stimulation. The basic H + extrusion of the two varieties had no apparent difference, but the H + extrusion stimulated by K + was different. The H+ extrusion of "Weiyou 49" was relatively more sensitive to external K+ . The experiment using inhibitors showed that there were close relationship between the PM-ATPase activi- ties stimulated by K+ and K+ uptake in the two varieties. The inhibition of PM-ATPase activity and H+ -extrusion stimulated by K+ reduced the K+ uptake of the root segments in both varieties. So the possible reason for "Weiyou 49" growing well in the low external K+ was that its PM-ATPase and H+ extrusion was more sensitive to external K+ , especially when [K+ ] was low.
Abstract (Browse 1715)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cell Culture and Selection of High Flavonoids- producing Cell Lines in Saussurea medusa
Author: ZHAO De-Xiu, QIAO Chuan-Ling and WANG Yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(6)
    Explants of stems and leaves of Saussurea medusa Maxim. were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BA, 2 mg/L NAA, and from which factors, such as the media, plant hormones and culture temperature, as well as the addition of phenylalanine to the medium, that affect the callus growth, were investigated. The results showed that cells grew appropriately in MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L NAA at 25 . Phenylalanine was not suitable for cell growth in solid culture but it increased flavonoid production. The calli could be distinguished by colour with naked eyes into two cell lines, a faint yellow (A) and a red coloured (B), representing respectively the different colour of metabolite accumulations. A sensitive and rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic as well as a UV spectrophotometric method have been developed for detecting the flavonoids in cultured cells. It revealed that the A line contained 1.9% flavonoids and 0.42% jaceosidin, which was 2.5 times and 3.9 times more than B line; 2.6 and 4.2 times more than the initial callus cells respectively.
Abstract (Browse 1712)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Relationships Between Moricandia and Brassica Species
Author: MENG Jin-Ling and GAN Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(6)
    Moricandia is the only genus with C3-C4 species within the family of Cruciferae. To provide the basic information of transferring C3-C4 and other important characteristics from Moricandia to Brassica crops, the relationships between Moricandia and Brassica species were studied based on crossability and RFLP fingerprinting. The crossability was very low between the two genera in the experiment. There was no hybrid seed obtained between M. arvensis and B. rapa though 8 000 flowers were crossed. 2 989 cross-pollinated ovaries were cultured and also no hybrid embryo was developed. However, four intergeneric hybrid shoots were generated from 105 cultured ovaries in the combination of M. arvensis x B. napus. The nucleus DNA polymorphism of restriction loci was detected with 23 genic DNA clones of B. napus for the samples of B. napus, B. rapa and B. oleracea, M. arvensis and M. nit, ns. A high homology was found between Moricandia and Brassica species. The similarity between M. nitens and B. rapa was even greater than that between B. rapa and B. napus. The close relationships between Moricandia species and Brassica crops, especially European B. rapa, were also detected with 4 beta mitochondria probes. The intensive homology between Moricandia C3-C4 species and Brassica crops evaluated with the RFLP markers revealed the possibility of transferring some important genes from the C3-C4 species to the domesticated species by sexual hybridization or protoplast fusion followed by recombination of homoeologous chromosomes.
Abstract (Browse 1944)  |  Full Text PDF       
Characterization of a Wheat- wheatgrass Translocation Line by FISH
Author: HAN Fang-Pu, HE Meng-Yuan, BU Xiu-Ling,HUANG Bai-Qu,HAO Shui,MA You-Zhi and XIN Zhi-Yong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(6)
    The genomic DNA of wheatgrass (Agropyron intermedium (Host) P.B. = Elytrigia intermedia (Host) Nevski = Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth and Dewey) was labelled with biotin-16-dUTP as a probe, and genomic DNA of common wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. ) "Chinese Spring" was used for blocking. Wheat-wheatgrass line 33 was examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. The terminal regions of a pair of chromosomes showed green fluorescent signals. It has been concluded that chromosome segrnents containing alien genes of wheatgrass are located at the terminal regions of wheat chromosomes in wheat-wheatgrass line 33, and the translocated segments were small. Wheat-wheatgrass line 33 has been proved to be a translocation line with chromosome segments of wheatgrass translocated to the terminal regions of wheat chromoSomes.
Abstract (Browse 1802)  |  Full Text PDF       
F-actin is a Nuclear and Chromosomal Component of the Meristematic Cells of Allium sativum
Author: LI Gui-Ying and XING Miao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(6)
    It is known that actin functionates in the form of F-actin. However, the presence of Factin in eukaryotic nuclei and chromosomes has not been well established. The authors labeled meristematic cells of Allium sativum L. with rabbit anti-chicken actin antibody and FITC-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG antibody and observed with fluorescence microscopy. Both the nuclei and chromosomes showed prominent yellow-green fluorescence, indicating the presence of actin in them. Fluorescence examination with TR1TC-conjugated phalloidin demonstrated prominent red fluorescence in the intact interphase cells, cytoplasm-free interphase nuclei, prophase and metaphase chromosomes as well as the daughter nuclei at telophase indicating the presence of F-actin; but the fluorescence was absent or very weak in the cells exposed to cytochalasin D before fixation. When double labeling of the anti-actin antibody and phalloidin was applied, the same nuclei and chromosomes were found to emanate yellow-green fluorescence representing actin at the excitation wavelength of F1TC, and red fluorescence representing F-actin at the excitation wavelength of TRITC, respectively. The FITC fluorescence and TRITC fluorescence shared the same distribution among the nuclei and chromosomes. These results indicate that F-actin is a component of the nuclei and chromosomes of the meristematic cells of A. sativum. It also suggests that F-actin may be the major existing form of actin in them.
Abstract (Browse 1802)  |  Full Text PDF       
Direct Primary Somatic Embryogenesis and Shoot Formation from Immature Leaves of Manihot esculenta
Author: MA Guo-Hua, XU Qiu-Sheng and XIAN Yun-Lan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(6)
    Primary somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis in vitro could be directly induced from immature leaves of cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) with higher concentration ( 10 to 80 mg/L) of NAA. Compared with 4 mg/L 2,4-D on the induction and regeneration system, NAA showed some advantageous characteristics, that is, NAA could direcfiy induce both primary somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis, whereas 2,4-D could only induce somatic embryogenesis. NAA induced somatic embryogenesis much quicker, producing visible somatic embryos within 9 to 13 days and shoot (tips) within 10 to 14 days, than 2,4-D, which would induce visible somatic embryos after 15 days. Plant regeneration from the NAA-induced somatic embryos was as high as 48%, but was only 4.1% from that of 2,4-D. The test also showed that primary somatic embryogenesis or shoot organogenesis could be induced directly from immature leaves in 12 out of 16 cassava varieties.
Abstract (Browse 1992)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructures of the Egg Apparatus and the Central Cell of Calystegia hederacea (Convolvulaceae) Before and After Fertilizati on
Author: HU Zan-min and HU Shi-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(6)
    Ultrastructures of the mature embryo sac of Calystegia hederacea Wall. and its changes after fertilization are described. The positional organization of the egg cell, the two synergids and the central cell, as well as their interrelationships were studied. Some regions of the cell boundaries between the egg cell and the central cell, as well as between the egg cell and the synergids were devoid of typical cell wall before fertilization, displayed a feature quite similar to the characteristic absence of the cell wall in the fertilization target zone occurred in most angiosperms. Besides the genera ultrastructural characteristics of the egg apparatus and the central cell, there were several unusual aspects in C. hederacea, such as the egg nucleus located above the large vacuole near the chalazal end of the cell, many polyribosomes in the cytoplasm of the egg cell and wall ingrowths on both sides of the hooks of the central cell. All these unusual characteristics seemed to be closely associated with the short duration of the fertilization and the absence of antipodal cells in the mature embryo sac. It is concluded that the female germ unit of C. hecleracea is considered to be a topographical and physiological unit to realize their functions for successful double fertilization.
Abstract (Browse 1773)  |  Full Text PDF       


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