July 1998, Volume 40 Issue 7


          Research Articles
Immunoblots of Integrin-like Proteins in Pollen Tube Membrane of Hemerocallis citrina
Author: SUN Ying, XU Xiao-Dong and SUN Da-Ye
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(7)
    Antiserum against human VnR integrin, and ay, 3 integrin subunit cytoplasmic domain in Western blots were applied to determine if integrin-like proteins be present in the pollen tube membrane of Hemerocallis citrina Baroni. The results showed that anti-3 integrin subunit serum could recognize 140 kD and 97 kD bands in SDS-PAGE gels under the reducing conditions, while antiserum against VnR and ay integrin could recognize 160 kD and 155 kD bands respectively under the reducing conditions, and also two small bands of higher molecular weight under the non-reducing conditions. Non-immune semm control could not cross react with any protein bands. The present study suggest that the integTin-like protein, the receptor of vitronecttn could exist in the form of av and 3 subunits in the pollen tube membrane, with its molecular mass quite similar to that of the integrin reported in animal.
Abstract (Browse 1908)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Fossil Woods Found in Zigong, Sichuan, China
Author: DUAN Shu-Ying and PENG Guang-Zhao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(7)
    This paper describes three fossil woods, which were firstly found in Zigong city, Sichuan Province, China. The localities of the fossil woods are close to the locality of the famous Dashanpu dinosaur quarry of Zigong. The strata of the fossil woods beating are Xiashaximiao Formation and Xintiangou Formation of the Middle Jurassic, approximately match the strata of the Dashanpu dinosaurs. According to the structures of the secondary xylem, the fossil woods belonged to the primitive conifer genus-Araucarioxylon. Because it was comparatively and obviously different from the other species in this genus, it is assigned as a new species: A. zigongensis. As there was neither fossil leaf nor fossil pollen or spore found in the dinosaur bearing strata before, the discovery of these fossil woods might bear some important significance in the dinosaur research.
Abstract (Browse 2082)  |  Full Text PDF       
Experimental Measurement of the Water Relations Parameters of Nine Shrubs and Some Ecological Interpretations
Author: DONG Xue-Jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(7)
    Determination of some water relations parameters of 9 shrubs with the Pressure-volume technique has shown that there were considerable variations in the water relations parameters of different shrubs and that some parameters were indicative for their adaptations to the ecological conditions. It has been found that two desert shrubs, Tetraena mongolica Maxim. and Zygophyllum xanthoxylon (Bge.) Maxim., exhibited strong ability of drought tolerance, whereas the typical sandy shrubs were quite diverse in adaptation strategy. Salix psammophila C. Wang et Ch. Y. Yang, Artemis& ordosica Krasch., Caragana intermedia Kuang et H. C. Fu and Ammopiptanthus mongolicus (Maxim.) were more or less close to each other in water relations parameters. Their , p ranged from - 1.4 MPa to -2.4MPa, and Vp/Vo lay between 62% and 76%. However, some special features of adaptation were found in the other three species, e.g., Sabina vulgaris Ant., Hedysarum mongolicum Turcz. and Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch.
Abstract (Browse 2102)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Discussion on the Relationship Between Penman's Indices and Distribution of Some Tree Species of Subtropical Evergreen Broadleaved Forest in China
Author: NI Jian and SONG Yong-Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(7)
    Based on the materials of plant geographical distribution and records of 342 meteorological stations, Penman's potential evapotranspimtion (PE) and aridity (A) of dominants and main companions of the subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest in China have been calculated. The groups of Penman' s water-temperature have been classified into five types. They are G1 (microthermai humid type), G2(micmthermal semihumid type), G3(mesothennai humid type), G4(mesothermal semihumid type), and G5 ( megathermal humid type). The ecoclimatic characteristics of these groups have been analyzed from which the results indicated a rather good setup of the distribution of tree species along with the water and thermal gradients. The calculation of Penman' s indices is relatively more complicated, but has been very widely used because of its reasonable and substantial physical basis. Penman' s indices are validated for studies of the relationship between tree species and climate of evergreen broadleaved forest in China.
Abstract (Browse 1939)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Exogenous Hormones on Endogenous ABA Level with Its Relation to Assimilate Accumulation in Soybean Seeds
Author: ZHANG Shu-Qiu, DAI Yu-Ling and YANG Shi-Jie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(7)
    Injecting IAA, GA3, and KT into soybean ( Gtycine max L. ) seeds in vivo on intact plant of 30 d after anthesis, the ABA content, invertase and ATPase activity in seed coat and cotyledons were tested respectively. It was revealed that the content of endogenous ABA was correlated with the invertase and ATPase activity. The ABA level increased was 24% and 65 % in seed coat by using 10-6 mol/L LAA and 10-6 moL/L KT and decreased 19% and 41% in cotyledons, respectively. Correlatively, ABA stimulated invert&se activity and inhibited ATPase activity in seed coat, but the reverse effect of ABA was seen in cotyledons. Treated with 10-6 mol/L GA3, ABA level droped by 42% in seed coat and by 22% in cotyledons. Activities of invertase and ATPase were inhibited in seed coat but stimulated in cotyledons. In studying the changes of sugar and protein in the cotyledons, it was shown that ABA was involved in the assimilate accumulation in soybean seeds. The effects of exogenous hormones on endogenous ABA level and ABA in relation to assimilate accumulation in the cotyledons were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1916)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Existence of Expansin and Its Properties in the Hypocotyls of Soybean Seedlings
Author: LI Lian-Chao, WANG Xue-Chen and JING Jia-Hai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(7)
    Expansins, a newly discovered class of cell wall proteins, were the only proteins that, to date, have been shown to have the ability to restore the "acid growth" response of the heat-inactivated cell wall in an in vitro assay. In order to characterize these proteins, an automatic extensometer had been previously constructed by modification of an equal-arm mechanical balance with a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) and with some easily available laboratory equipment. The objective of this study was to confirm and complement the work on expansin in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L. ) seedlings carried out in the expansin-discoverers' laboratory and in addition, to further examination of the extensometer built in the authors' laboratory. It was reported that, firstly, expansin activity was maximal in cell wall from the growing region of soybean (Glycine max L. ) hypocotyls but was negligible or lacking in that from mature, basal regions and cotyledons. Corre- spondingly, walls from the growing tissue had a strong susceptibility to the action of expansin, whereas the nongrowing tissues became insensitive to the expansin action. It was concluded that the growth of soybean hypocotyl was associated with an increase in both expansin activity and wall susceptibility to the expansin action. Secondly, the heat-inactivated wall extension could be induced by cross reconstitution with crude expansin extract between soybean and cucumber species. Thirdly, once the heat-inactivated wall has been pretreated with the exogenous expansin, the reconstituted wall required no further expansin for extension indicating that exogenous expansin could specifically bind to cell wall and be enough to repeatedly exert its action without releasing from the cell wall into the external solution, i.e., a single expansin molecule could gradually break a series of load-bearing bonds one by one while moving along the cell wall, and thereby permitting the wall to extend. Fourthly, reconstitution of the wall extension activity was evidently dependent on the expansin concentration and the pH of the bathing solution, which was consistent with the catalytic characteristics of classical enzymes. Finally, endogenous and reconstituted wall extension could be significantly induced in 50 mmoL/L sodium acetate at pH 4.5 and completely inhibited in 50 mmol/L Hepes at pH 6.8, especially these phenomena could continuously be caused by switching incubation buffer from one to the other alternately, suggesting that change in pH of bathing solution could only affect the conformation of expansin (thus leading to denaturation or renaturation of it) but not the affinity of it for cell wall. In summary, these observations lend further support to the fact that expansin could mediate the acid-induced extension of the isolated wall, probably through a biochemical or enzymatic process exerting directly to the cell wall. This protein may play an essential role in the control of plant cell growth in vivo.
Abstract (Browse 1939)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of MGBG on Growth of the Callus Tissue, Induction of Somatic Embryogenesis of Alfalfa and Their Ethylene Biosynthesis
Author: HUANG Xue-Lin, XU Jiu-Long, GAO Dong-Wei, YE Wen-Hong and LI Xiao-Ju
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(7)
    MGBG [methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone)], when added to the initial of callus subculture, promoted ethylene production in callus grawn in Bsh medium, and enhanced the ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid) level and the ACC synthase activity both in the callus grown in Bsh medimn, and in the suspension cultures in Bsg liquid medium for induction of somatic embryogenesis. However, MGBG reduced the malonyl-ACC (MACC) level of the suspension tissues. The treatments of MGBG caused growth of the cultured tissues and induction efficiency of somatic embryogenesis to reduce. Moreover, the effects of MGBG was enhanced when it was added at induction medium of somatic embryogenesis. It could be concluded that this inhibitory effect of MGBG could be due to its promotion of ethylene, ACC levels and ACC synthase activity which has shown to inhibit somatic embryogenesis. The reduction of MACC level could be also involved in the MGBG effect on induction of the embryogenesis.
Abstract (Browse 2068)  |  Full Text PDF       
Energy Transfer from Cyanobacterial Phycobilisomes to Spinach Photosystem Particles
Author: RONG Shou-Yu, YU Guo-Qiang, SHAN Xiao-Liang and MA Jian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(7)
    The phycobilisomes (PBS) from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Myxosarcina concinna Printz and the PS particles from Spinacia oleracea Mill. were isolated. Their spectral characteristics were defined and the light energy transfer from PBS to PS was studied. As the ion intensity (KH2PO4) of the buffer system increased from 0.1 mol/L to 0.5 mol/L, the efficiency of the energy transfer also increased. The PS particles had a higher water splitting activity. When excited with light at 558 nm, there was a significant rise of the activity of O2 evolution which further indicated that the excitation energy harvested by PBS could transfer to the PS particle from spinach.
Abstract (Browse 1774)  |  Full Text PDF       
phbB, phbC Gene Expression in E. coli and Their Transformation and Identification in Potato
Author: YONG Wei-Dong, LIANG Tie-Bing, XIE An-Yong, LI Cong and SONG Yan-Ru
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(7)
    Using NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-CoA reductase gene (phbB) and poly--hydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthase gene (phbC) cloned from Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 and expression vector pKK223-3, the authors constructed an E. coli expression vector pKCB containing independent phbB and phbC operators, respectively, and transfered it into E. coli JM109. The microscopy and GC analysis indicated that E. coli JM109 (containing pKCB) induced by IPTG could synthesize poly-- hydroxybutyrate (PHB). By DNA processing, three tuber-specific plant expression vectors, pP- SAGB (containing phbB), pBIBGC ( containing phbC) and pPSAGCB ( containing both phbB and phbC), were successfully constructed. In 5 transformed potato cuhivars, the authors screened 20 positive lines.
Abstract (Browse 1936)  |  Full Text PDF       
Distribution of Simple Sequence Repeat and AFLP Markers in Molecular Linkage Map of Rice
Author: XIONG Li-Zhong, WANG Shi-Ping, LIU Ke-De, DAI Xian-Kai, M.A.SAGHAI MAROOF,HU Jin-Guo and ZHANG Qi-Fa
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(7)
    SSR (simple sequence repeat) and AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) are PCR-based molecular markers developed in recent years. In this study, the authors analyzed the polymorphisms, inheritance and distribution of SSR and AFLP markers using an F2 population from a cross between cultivar "Aijiao Nante" ( Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) and an accession of the common wild rice ( O. rufipogon Griff). A total of 200 new markers were obtained including 28 SSR and 172 AFLP markers. Six of the 28 SSR markers were developed by National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement (NKLCGI) using DNA sequences from GenBank and the other 22 were from data published previously. The 172 AFLP markers were from a total 228 polymorphic bands amplified using 25 selected primer combinations. Mapping of the 200 new markers using NKLCGI' S previously developed RFLP map based on the same F2 population resolved these markers to all 12 rice chromosomes. Integration of the SSR and AFLP markers into the RFLP map resulted in a high density molecular linkage map containing 612 polymorphic loci.
Abstract (Browse 2177)  |  Full Text PDF       
Embryological Studies on Apomixis in Pennisetum squamulatum
Author: WEN Xin-Shan, YE Xiu-Lin, LI Yuan-Qing, CHEN Ze-Lian and XU Shi-Xiong(S. Y. ZEE)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(7)
    Studies on the formation and development of the embryo sac of the apomictic material of Pennisetum squamulatum Fresen indicated that normal archesporial cell did form with consequent development of a megaspore mother cell and later meiotic division to give rise to a triad. But invariably the megaspore mother cell and the triad underwent degeneration after formation. During the period of formation or degeneration of the megaspore or the triad a number of nucellar cells around the degenerated sexual cell became much enlarged. Frequently, one of the enlarging nucellar cells near the micropylar end became vacuolated and then developed into an aposporous uninucleate embryo sac, which underwent two further mitotic divisions to form an aposporous four-nucleate embryo sac, where the four nuclei remained in the micropylar end. Thus in the mature aposporous embryo sac there were one egg cell, one synergid and one central cell (containing two polar nuclei). Antipodal cells were completely lacking. The pattern of development of the aposporous embryo sac resembles the panicum type. There were two types of embryo formed during apomictic development namely ( 1 ) The pre-genesis embryo--embryo formed without fertilization, 1 to 2 days before anthesis, and (2) The late-genesis embryo--derived from the unfertilized egg cells, 3 to 4 days after anthesis. In the late-genesis embryo type, the egg cell divided after the secondary nucleus has undergone division to form the endosperm nuclei. All egg cells developed vacuoles before they differentiated into embryos. The development of the aposporous embryo followed the sequence of the formation of globular, pearshaped embryo and full stages of differentiation. The unfertilized secondary nucleus divides to form free endosperm nuclei after being stimulated by pollination. The development of the endosperm belongs to the nuclear-type.
Abstract (Browse 2238)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultracytochemical Localization of Calcium in Micropyle and Embryo Sac of Brassica napus Before and After Pollination
Author: YU Fan-Li, LIANG Shi-Ping, YANG Hong-Yuan and WANG Yan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(7)
    Potassiam antimonate was used to localize Ca2+ in the micropyle and embryo sac of Brassica napus L. before and after pollination. To identify the nature of the pyroantimonate deposits, energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXA) was employed and the deposits were proved to contain calcium pyroantimonate. Image processing system was employed to measure the volume density and the diameter of the deposits. Before and after pollination, calcium was more abundant in the exostome and endostome as compared with the other regions of the integuments, and was concentrated at the apoplast system, i.e. the intercellular matrix of the micropyle canal and the cell wall. Before pollination, each of the two sister synergids accumulated more calcium than the other embryo sac cells. Although the mean diameter of the deposits in the synergid was only two-thirds as that in the egg cell and central cell, the volume density of the deposits in the synergid was about 2.5 times and 1.9 times as that in the egg cell and the central cell respectively. The filiform apparatus and the nucleus had the most abundant calcium within a synergid. After pollination both sister synergids degenerated conspicuously and were characterized by much more deposited calcium (about 2.4 times more than before); and the diameter of the deposits decreased dramatically, which was less than one-third as before. The relationship between calcium distribution and synergid degeneration as well as its functions was discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1903)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes in the Pattern of Organization of Microtubules During Microspore Formation in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Author: XU Shi-Xiong (S. Y. ZEE) and YE Xiu-Lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(7)
    Changes in the pattern of organization of microtubules in the developing microspore of rice ( Oryza sativa L. ) have been followed using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. At the microsporocyte stage of development the cell possessed a network of highly branched and thickened microtubule bundles. In the central cytoplasm numerous bundles mn circumferentially around the nucleus. From the circumferentially distributed microtubule bundle network some microtubule bundles radiated towards the conical region of the cell. The microsporocyte after Meiosis became a dyad. In the dyad cell microtubule bundles emanated radially from the nucleus. In the cortex of the dyad cell some of the microtubule bundles became randomly oriented. The dyad then underwent Meiosis to become tetrad. Microtubule bundles in the tetrad cell radiated from the nucleus. No randomly oriented microtubule bundles were present in the cortical region of the tetrad cell. Mter- wards the four cells that made up the tetrad dissociated from each other and each became a microspore. At the early stage of the microspore development most of the microtubule bundles were randomly distributed. Later, some of the microtubules converged towards a bud-like cytoplasmic protrusion. This bud-like protrusion later developed into a germ pore (or pollen pore). At the late stage of microspore formation, microtubule bundles became thinner and reticulately oriented to form a tightly knitted network.
Abstract (Browse 2060)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preliminary Study on Pollen- based Biomization and Chinese Biome Mapping of 6000 a BP
Author: YU Ge
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(7)
Abstract (Browse 1895)  |  Full Text PDF       
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