August 1998, Volume 40 Issue 8

 

          Research Articles
Water Absorbency and Water Retention of the Natural Seed Coat of Seriphidium transiliense
Author: ZHANG Lian-Yi, YANG Shi-Zhong, Abdureyim HADIR and LI Wei-Jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(8)
      
    The natural seed coat of Seriphidium transiliense Poljak could indirectly absorb water to almost saturation in 1 to 3 h at different temperatures and different relative humidities (RH). At lower humidifies, temperature almost did not affect the water absorbing rate, but at higher humidities, water absorbency escalated with temperature rise. In drought condition with a RH of 21%, it could still retain 10% of water. The direct water absorbing rate of the natural seed was about 1 500%, while that of the seed without film was only 170%. The natural seed coat made up 11% of the total seed weight. The direct absorbing rate was 12 400%. The water absorbency belonged to monomolecular layer absorption at RH < 70%. The ability of water absorbency was stronger at RH > 70%, and the water absorbency belonged to multimolecular layer absorption. There was a linear correlation between the reciprocal of the water absorbing rate and that of the water absorbing time. According to the classifying analysis and the determination of the seed coat substances using IR, it was initially maintained that the main composition of the seed coat of Seriphidium transiliense Poljak was neither protein, pectine, cellulose, nor starch, but some other polysaccharide composed of aldoses. It also contained a kind of acid-base indicating substance.
Abstract (Browse 2004)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Annalepis from Middle Triassic Along the Yangtze River and Its Bearing on the Origin of Iso?tes
Author: MENG Fan-Song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(8)
      
    Specimens of Annalepis have been found from the Middle Triassic Series in the Yangtze River valley and described, including a new species. Annalepis is similar to the living plant, Isoëtes , in many aspects, such as the herb with a corm, more or less clustering sporophylls, presence of a ligule, monolete suture microspores of Aratrisporites -type and trilete megaspores, etc. The similarities of features between the two plants indicate their close affmities and that A. brevicystis might be the ancestry of Isoëtes . Since there is a ligule on the sporophyll of Pleuromeia, the Pleuromeiaceae represented by Pleuromeia could be allied to the Isoëtaceae, and both families should belong to Isoëtales. Isëtales represents a distinct evolutionary sequence and is inferred as being evolved probably from Palaeozoic SigiUaria . In Mesozoic age, two evolutionary lines are proposed: one as a line from Pleuromeia to Nathorstiana in relation to wood-monopolar rhizophore; the other as a line from Annalenis to lsoOtes related to herb-bipolar corm. Annalepis appeared almost simultaneously in the Yangtze River valley in early Middle Triassic, but the distribution of Annalepis was concentrated from east to west during middle-late Middle Triassic, in relation to the marine regression which occurred cyclically from east to west on the Yangtze Platform during that time.
Abstract (Browse 1909)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Variation of Genetic Diversity of Quercus aquifolioides in Different Elevations
Author: LI Jin, CHEN Ke-Yong and LI Bo-Sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(8)
      
    Samples of 8 populations representing Quercus aquifolioides Rehd. et Wils. were collected. Isozymic electrophoresis was used to analyze the genetic variability and it was found that the level of genetic variability varied regularly with different altitudes: the level of genetic variability between the altitudes of 2 400 to 3 300 metres was high, and it became low at the altitudes of 3 800 and 2 200 metres. It was also found that the factors, such as human interference and sunlight, had strong effects on the level of genetic variability.
Abstract (Browse 1832)  |  Full Text PDF       
Declining Causes of Pinus massoniana in the Processes of Succession of Evergreen Broadleaved Forest
Author: DING Sheng-Yan and SONG Yong-Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(8)
      
    Through the synecological investigation in different corranunity successional stages of erergreen broad-leaved forest of Tiantong National Forest Park in Zhejiang, the authors found that Pinas massoniana Lamb. is the dec]ming species iff the successional course of evergreen broad-leaved forest. For revealing the declining causes of P. massoniana, through measuring the habitat, especially the sun-light intensity, the authors have gained the knowledge that the low sun-light intensity in seral often made the seedlings and young trees of P. massoniana live in a condition below the compensation point of light; and the interference of other shade-tolerant evergreen broad-leaved species gradually impeded the growth of the adult trees of P. massoniana by weakening the ability of its material synthesis and intensifying the ability of material decomposition along with the community succession, and withered away gradually.
Abstract (Browse 2029)  |  Full Text PDF       
Simulation of the Physiological Responses of C3 Plant Leaves to Environmental Factors by a Model Which Combines Stomatal Conductance, Photosynthesis and Transpiration
Author: YU Qiang and WANG Tian-Duo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(8)
      
    Transpiration element is included in the integrated stomatal conductance-photosynthesis model by considering gaseous transfer processes, so the present model is capable to simulate the influence of boundary layer conductance. Leuning in his revised Ball' s model replaced relative humidity with VPDs(the vapor pressure deficit from stomatal pore to leaf surface) and thereby made the relation with transpiration more straightforward, and made it possible for the regulation of transpiration and the influence of boundary layer conductance to be integrated into the combined model. If the differences in water vapor and CO2 concentration between leaf and ambient air are considered, VPDs, the evaporative demand, is influenced by stomatal and boundary layer conductance. The physiological responses of photosynthesis, transpiration, and stomatal function, and the changes of intercellular CO2 and water use efficiency to environmental factors, such as wind speed, photon flux density, leaf temperature and ambient CO2, are analyzed. It is shown that ff the boundary layer conductance drops to a level comparable with stomatal conductance, the results of simulation by the model presented here differ significantly from those by the previous model, and, in some cases, are more realistic than the latter.
Abstract (Browse 2122)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Screening Freezing-resistant Regenerated Plants from X-ray Irradiated Citrus Protoplasts
Author: LI Wei, SUN Zhong-Hai, ZHANG Wen-Cai and LIU Dao-Hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(8)
      
    The response of cell division in the "Page" ( Citrus reticulata Blanco Ï C. grandis Osb. er. Page) protoplasts from embryonic callus to radiation challenge varied with the intensity of the X-ray dose charged. When the protoplasts were irradiated with a dose of 4128 C/kg failure of cell division was completely irreversible, those after 2064 C/kg treatment revealed low frequenee of cell division. Those after treatment with 1161 C/kg of X-ray and kept at - 11 ¡æ gave off a 10.2% ~16.9% frequence of division. Some of those viable protoplasm developed into embryoids from which plantlets were regenerated. The LT50 of the leaf protoplasts in 2 of the regenerated plants was markedly lower than that in the controls.
Abstract (Browse 1998)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Study of the Photooxidative Response in Leaf Discs from Plants with Different Photosynthetic Pathways
Author: LIN Zhi-Fang, PENG Chang-Lian and LIN Gui-Zhu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(8)
      
    The effect of strong light in the presence of methyl viologen (MV) on the contents of souble protein and its free carbonyl, photosynthetic pigments, malondialdehyde (MDA), and ch]orophyil fluorescence parameters were investigated in the leaf discs from plants with different photosyn, thetic pathways. The photooxidafive degradation of soluble protein and ch]orophyll occurred after 1 h of treatment, and was accompanied by the increase of malondialdehyde content, and oxygen uptake in the light and dark, as well as the inactivation of PS ¢̣ in all test plants. Unlike the maize ( Zea mays ) and sugarcane ( Saccharum sinense Roxb. ) ( C4 plant ) or pineapple (Ananas comosus ( L. ) Mere. ) (CAM plant), a marked increase of carotenoid and non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching(qN) was observed in peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L. ) leaves ( C3 plant), as the photochemical fluorescence quenching (qp) declined and Fo raised. It is suggested that photooxidafive stress induced the active dissipation of excessive excite energy by antenna quenching in C4 plant. The response of increasing 02 uptake in the dark was also found in C4 plants during photooxidation. However, the extents of protein and lipid destruction were larger in leaves of maize and sugarcane than in peanut leaves. Fo went up significantly as the C3 plant did, but qN dropped down to the lowest value (10% of control), which may regard as an obvious change of photooxidative damage in C4 plants. Among the three types of plants, the CAM plant, pineapple showed stronger antioxidative feature due to the relative small range of changes in the estimated items as compared with the control.
Abstract (Browse 2076)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Kinetic Properties of Photosystem ¢̣ Primary Reaction Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy with 470 fs Time Resolution
Author: HOU Jian-Min,KUANG Ting-Yun, CHEN Yao-Dong, YE Tong, YANG Kun-Yun, CUI Yan, TANG Chong-Qin, WANG Shui-Cai, HOU Xun and TANG Pei-Song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(8)
      
    The primary reaction kinetics of the isolated photosystem ¢̣ particles and photosystem ¢̣ core complexes from spinach ( Spinacia deracea Mill. ) was investigated using the time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy with 470 fs time resolution. 2 to 4 lifetime components were detected by the multi-exponential curve fining method. These components were analyzed and discussed in terms of different kinetic processes. It is suggested that 3 ps component is attributed to the charge separation and 0.8 ps, 12 ps, 25 ps and 100 ps components are related to the energy transfer processes. A possible kinetic scheme in photosystem ¢̣ reaction center was proposed based upon the reported previously result.
Abstract (Browse 1860)  |  Full Text PDF       
Culture of Transgenic Artemisia annua Hairy Root with Cotton Cadinene Synthase Gen
Author: CHEN Da-Hua, MENG Yu-Ling, YE He-Chun, LI Guo-Feng and CHEN Xiao-Ya
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(8)
      
    A cotton cadinene synthase gene was transferred into Artemisia annua L. via Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The cotton cDNA cad-C14 was placed in binary vector under the 35S promoter. Leaf explants were infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834 containing binary vector to induce the hairy roots. 121 hairy root lines with rapid growth were established. A concentration of 20 mg/ L kanamycin was added in order to select the transformed hairy roots. 12 hairy root lines were selected, which were resistant to kanamycin. Polymerase chain reactions and Southern blotting revealed that 3 % of the hairy roots (four hairy root lines ) contained the foreign gene. The results of RT-PCR suggested that the foreign CAD gene of the transgenic hairy root had expressed at the transcriptional level. An efficient Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation system of Artem/s/a annua was established.
Abstract (Browse 2010)  |  Full Text PDF       
Abruquinone A,B,D,E,F and G from the Root of Abrus precatorius
Author: SONG Chun-Qing and HU Zhi-Bi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(8)
      
    Eight flavonoids have been isolated from the root of Abrus precatorius L. Among them, six isoflavanquinones, designated (3R)-abruquinone A, B, D and E, (3S)-abruquinone F and G, are characterized by chemical and spectral means including 1H-1H COSY, 1H-13C COSY and CD methods.
Abstract (Browse 2144)  |  Full Text PDF       
Early Development and Ultrastructure of the Major Veins and Their Sheath Tissues in the Maize Leaves
Author: OUYANG Xue-Zhi and XIE Shao-Ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(8)
      
    The report described the ultrastructural changes that occurred in the major veins and their associated bundle sheaths (BS) of the maize ( Zea mays L. ) leaf blade in the process of their differentiation from three adjacent cells in the middle layer of the ground meristem, the minimal number of cells involved with the initiation of a procambial strand and the associated BS. The inner cell underwent two successive unequal periclinal divisions: a smaller cell that later differentiated into the adaxial BS cell precursor, and a larger one that divided once again periclinally yielding an abaxial BS cell precursor and a centrally located procambial initial cell. One of the two lateral cells immediately adjacent to either side of the inner cell also divided periclinally; these derivatives, along with another lateral cell of the original three-celled unit formed the precursor cells of the lateral BS. Prior to the initiation of protophlcem differentiation, all of the procambial cells showed ultrastructural characteristics basically similar to the procambial initial. They possessed a prominent nucleus with electron-dense aggregates of heterochromatin, a dense cytoplasm rich in ribosomes, proplastids and mitochondria; also a thin wall containing numerous plasmodesmata. In many cases, only short pieces of rough endoplasmic reticulum cistemae and a few small sized vacuoles were present. In adclifton, evidence of cytoplasmic disintegration leading to new vacuole formation was noted in the process of proeambium development. It was observed that certain endoplasmic reticulum was engaged in the sequestration and lysis of cytoplasm. No apparent uhrastmctuml difference was found between the BS cell precursors and the procambial initials, that was, the distinction between the procambium and the surrounding BS cells occurred gradually after vein initiation, The major ultrastmctural changes which occurred during the differentiation of the meristematic BS cells into the vacuolated cells were (1) a proplastid to chloroplast transformation going through a prolamellar body stage, and (2) the appearance of the multi-concentric membrane complex which might play a role in the degradation of some ribosomes and other cytoplasmic components during the differentiation of BS cells.
Abstract (Browse 1995)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cloning and Sequencing of a cDNA Encoding Farnesyl Pyrophosphate Synthase from Gossypium arboreum and Its Expression Pattern in the Developing Seeds of Gossypium hirsutum cv.
Author: LIU Chang-Jun, MENG Yu-Ling, HOU Song-Sheng and CHEN Xiao-Ya
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(8)
      
    A cDNA encoding farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) synthase was isolated from Gossypium arboreum L. cDNA library by using nest PCR and PCR-96 well plate screening methods. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that it is a full-length cDNA of 1.28 kb, and the deduced peptide contained 342 amino acids, the putative amino acid sequence exhibited 80.7%, 78.9% and 71.6% identities with the FPP synthases of Artemisia annua, Arabidopsis thaliana and Zea mays, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analyzed the steady-state level of fpsl mRNA in the developing seeds of G. hirsutum L. cv. "Surnian-6", the results revealed that the mRNA level was relatively stable in the early stages of the developing seeds, however, from 27 days post anthesis (DPA) to 40 DPA, transcription of fpsl mRNA was profoundly upregulated, the increment of the fpsl mRNA relative content was in combination with a concomitant accumulation of sesquiterpene aldehydes in the developing seed at this stage.
Abstract (Browse 1896)  |  Full Text PDF       
Pollination Biology in Cimicifuga nanchuanensis, an Endangered Species (Ranunculaceae)
Author: QI Wen-Qing,YOU Rui-Lin and CHEN Xiao-Lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(8)
      
    The pollination biology of Cimicifuga nanchuanensis Hsiso, an endangered species and C. siraplex Wormsk, a widespread species as a control, has been studied. Protandry occurs in both species, the former goes further than the latter. The breeding system of C. nanchuanensis is dominantly xenogamous. The average visitation rate of flies as the main pollinators is 1.1 and 0.6 per flower per day at anthesis and after stamen shedding respectively. C. simplex is mainly an entomophilous plant. However, wind pollination could occur within a short distance. Moreover, a certain ratio of self pollination exists also in this species. The mean visitation rates of flies and bees, the main pollinators of C. simplex, are 1.4 and 1.2 respectively at anthesis. The pollinating insects of both plant species are attracted by their big inflorescences and the fragrant odor. Nectar, the reward for pollinators, produces in the secretory cells at the base of the spoonform staminode. In natural conditions, an average of 17 pollen grains are found on the surface of a stigma resulting in a mean seed set rate of 45.9 %. Pollination limitation (very few pollinators and their low efficiency of pollination) in C. nanchuanensis is one of the weak links in its life cycle and one of the reasons for the endangerment of this species.
Abstract (Browse 2021)  |  Full Text PDF       
Immuno-localization of Calmodulin in Unfertilized and Fertilized Embryo Sacs in Nicotiana tabacumª« var.macrophylla
Author: FU Ying, CHEN Yi-Feng, LIANG Shi-Ping, YANG Hong-Yuan and ZHOU Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(8)
      
    Light microscopic immunohistochemical techniques with horse radish peroxidase(HRP)-conjugated second antibody and protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopic techniques were used to study the distribution of calmodulin (CaM) in unfertilized and fertilized embryo sacs in Nicotiana tabacum var. mocrophylla. Before fertilization, CaM was richer in the egg apparatus cells and antipodal cells than in the central cell. During the course from pollination to fertilization, the persistent synergid contained more CaM than the degenerated synergid. Meanwhile, two distinct bands rich in CaM were observed between the egg apparatus and the central cell, and gradually fused with each other appearing arc shape. When the two polar nuclei had fused, this CaM-rich band began to disappear. After fertilization, CaM level was still high in the zygote and the persistent synergid but low in the endosperm cells. Although there was no evidence about the polar distribution of CaM in the zygote, distinguishable difference, however, existed between the apical cell and the basal cell of a proembryo, being higher in the former than in the latter. The function of CaM during double fertilization and early embryogenesis as well as the temopral relationship between the CaM-rich band and the actin corona reported by other investigators are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1852)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genome Fingerprinting Analysis in Populus deltoides
Author: YIN Tong-Ming, SUN Ye, YI Neng-Jun, HUANG Min-Ren and WANG Ming-Xiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1998 40(8)
      
    The appraisal of cultivar authenticity is a problem that needs to be settled in agricultural and forestry activities. AFLP is a novel, reliable and effective technique in DNA fingerprint. 42 clones of Populus deltoides Mash. were fingerprinted with the technique. AFLP technique can be widely used in the practical cultivar identification.
Abstract (Browse 1786)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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