April 1999, Volume 41 Issue 4


          Research Articles
Acceptance and Analysis of Plant Science Projects Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China in 1998
Author: Zhu Da-Bao and LI Xue-Zhen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(4)
Abstract (Browse 2095)  |  Full Text PDF       
Aleading and Couragious Scientific Inference-
Author: JING Yu-Xiang and ZHANG Wei-Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(4)
    Professor and Dr. WU Su-Xuan ( 1909 - 1979) did an experiment using bulb-scales of garlic ( Allium sativum L. ) after their dormancies as material which was f'Lxed, sectioned and stained with Feulgen reaction and light green, and observed under the light microscope. She found that the cell nuclei released into cytoplasm a substance which gathered near the nucleus and stained first as blue colour, then, gradually changed into red colour in different cells, resulting in forming new nuclei. Simultaneously, the original nuclei deformed and disappeared. This phenomenon was called cell nucleus renewal. She proposed the hypothesis that (1) the substance released from the nuclei contained RNA which could be transformed into DNA through a certain mechanism in the cells; and (2) the cell nucleus renewal would be relative to cell physiology, such as material transfer among the cells etc. This scientific inference could not be recognized and further confirmed at that time. With the development of molecular biology, a part of the inference "RNADNA'' has been already confirmed by reverse transcriptase mechanism in 1970 from the experiments by using viruses and in 1981 from the evidences that there are a lot of retrotransposons containing reverse transcriptase genes in eukaryotic cells, and telomerase which functions like reverse transcriptase. Certainly, the inference proposed by WU Su-Xuan in 1956 has its great significance in science. Professor and Dr. WU Su-Xuan was a well known plant cytologist in China. 1999 is the 90th anniversary of her birth and the day of April 16 this year is the 20th memorial of her death in 1979. The paper is to show our commemoration for her contributions to science.
Abstract (Browse 1740)  |  Full Text PDF       
Mininucleolus: An Intranuclear Body Enriched with the Splicing Factor SC35
Author: WANG Hua-Chun, XING Miao and ZHANG Chuan-Shan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(4)
    The mininucleolus (MN) is a distinct intranuclear body often observed in cells of higher plants. Previous studies indicated MN as a non-chromatin structure composed of RNA and proteins, and suggested that it may be involved in the transportation and storage of ribosomal RNA. However, its characteristic protein component and functional significance remain to be clarified. The authors investigated the characteristic protein component of MNs in the nuclei of the meristematic cells of root in Vicia faba L. approaching with an anti- SC35 monoclonal antibody and immunoelectron microscopic observation. A large number of gold particles were observed over the MNs of the specimens labelled with the antibody and protein A-gold, while only a few gold particles were found in the MNs of the control specimens in which labelling of the antibody was omitted. The density of gold particles in MNs of the labelled specimens (300/m2) was much higher than that of the control specimens (3.76/m2), demonstrating that SC35 is a constituent of the MN. The identification of the MN highly enriched with the splicing factor will help us understanding the function of this structure.
Abstract (Browse 1713)  |  Full Text PDF       
Unexpected Ploidy Variation of the Somatic Hybrid Plants Between Citrus sinensis and Clausena lansium
Author: GUO Wen-Wu and DENG Xiu-Xin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(4)
    Wide somatic hybridization was conducted between diploids of embryogenic protoplasts isolated from elite "Bonanza" navel orange ( Citrus sinertsis (L.) Osbeck) and leaf protoplasts from edible "Chicken Heart" Chinese wampee ( Clausena lansiurn (Lour.) Skeels). Fusion products regenerated into shoots after 8 months of culture. Most shoots unexpectedly rooted well. The hybrid shoots were initially unifoliate, then bifoliate and/or trifoliate leaves appeared probably inheriting from the compound leaf character of Cl. lansium. More than ten randomly selected shoot- and root-tips were not 2n = 4x = 36 as expected, but 2n = 6x = 54 as identified by chromosome counting, suggesting that chromosome doubling occurred rather than chromosome elimination in this remote fusion combination. The hybridity of embryoids, unrooted and rooted shoots was revealed by RAPD analysis. This is the first report on hexaploid somatic hybrid plants regenerated from fusion between diploids in Aurantioideae. The possible reason for the unexpected ploidy variation was also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1952)  |  Full Text PDF       
Anatomy of a New Species of Scolecopteris (Marattiales) from Early Stage of Early Permian in China
Author: WANG Shi-Jun, LI Cheng-Sen and TIAN Bao-Lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(4)
    Scolecopteris Zenker, a kind of anatomically-preserved fertile foliage of Late Paleozoic Marattiales, has been well studied in Euramerican Flora. It is composed of 28 species which can be divided into four forms (groups) mainly based on modified or umodified pinnules, the variation of the outer facing sporangial walls, and with or without a prominent central parenchyma area. In contrast, Scolecopteris Zenker in Cathaysian Flora has been poorly studied so far, and only one species S. sinensis Zhao, was reported in 1991 which was considered as a member of Minor Group. The paper reports a second species of Scolecopteris, i.e.S, shanxiensis sp. nov., which differs from the above four groups in that its outer facing wall of the sporangia is thick at the base and top (2 ~ 3 layers of cells), and a little thinner ( 1~2 layers of cells) at the midlevel of the synangia. So a new group, Shanxiensis group, is set for the new species. The other characteristics of Shanxiensis group is comparable with Minor group. The new species comes from the coal balls in Coal Seam No. 7 in the upper part of Taiyuan Formation (early Early Permian) from Taiyuan, Shanxi, China. The identification of Scolecopteris shanxiensis sp. nov. :The fertile pinnule probably peeopterids, 5.5 ~ 6.0 mm in length and 2.0 ~ 2.2 mm in width. The lateral extensions of the lamina of the pinnule bend abaxially and above the synangia. The synangia arrange along the sides of the midrib of the pinnnle and there are about 10 synangia in each row. The synangium is elliptical in longitudinal section and radial in cross section, 0.7 ~ 0.8 mm in height and 0.6 ~ 0.7 mm in diameter. Each synangium has 5-7 (mostly 6) fusiform sporangia fused at the base and attached to the top of the synangial pedicel. The outer facing wall of the sporangia consists of 2~3 layers of cells at the base and becomes thinner at the midlevel (1~2 layers of cells), and at the top of the synangia the wall become thicker again. The cells of the outer facing wall of the sporangia are elongate in the longitudinal sections. The lateral and inner facing walls of the sporangia are one cell thick. The synangial pedicel is small. Spores in situ are small, generally 11~14 µm in diameter, spherical or rounded-triangular, trilete and smooth-walled.
Abstract (Browse 2070)  |  Full Text PDF       
Population Structure and Dynamics of Quercus liaotungensis in Two Broadleaved Deciduous Forests in Dongling Mountain, Northern China
Author: WANG Wei, LIU Can-Ran, MA Ke-Ping and YU Shun-Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(4)
    The spatial distribution and size class of Quercus liaotungensis, a deciduous canopy species, was studied in two warm temperate deciduous forests (ca. 50 and 30-year-old) in Northern China. Pattern of spatial dispersion varied with size class and the scale of observation. In the 50-year-old forest, the most clumped distribution appears in the tall saplings (1 to < 2 m in height) and in the order of short saplings (0.4 to < 1 m in height), seedlings( 0.4 m in height and adults (2 m in height). The class distribution of Q. liaotungensis was nearly a reverse-J shape for the 50-year-old forest, suggesting that the population regenerates continuously. In the 30-year-old forest, as for the class from seedlings to saplings, the most clumped distribution appear in the seedlings, followed by the short saplings and tall saplings. The class distribution indicates that the population does not regenerates continuously, probably due to the high tree density. These results suggest that managing forest with some disturbance (e. g. selective cutting) is more beneficial for forest regeneration than protecting without any human activities.
Abstract (Browse 1998)  |  Full Text PDF       
The C4 Plants in Inner Mongolia and Their Eco-geographical Characteristics
Author: TANG Hai-Ping, LIU Shu-Run and ZHANG Xin-Shi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(4)
    Identification of C4-photosynthetic pathway and their florology and eco-geography were studied in Inner Mongolia of China according to the stable carbon isotope ( 13C) contents and some related literatures. The total number of C4 plants in the region was 125 species, belonging to 12 families and 57 genera which reached to 5.4%, 9%, and 8.4% of total species, families and genera respectively in Inner Mongolia area. Most of the C4 plants (82.4%) came from Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Cyperaceae families. Based on the above features, the authors have analysed the characteristics, such as life form, water ecotype and distribution, of C4 species in Inner Mongolia. Finally, the relationship between distribution of C4-photosynthesis and some environmental factors in determining C4 plant distribution were also discussed. Most of the C4 species were highly concentrated to a few families and genera, which could be contributed to their own hereditary features. The life form of most C4 species was found to be annual herbs, possibly owing to their narrow origin fam ilies or genera. The water ecotypes of C4 plants in this area was shown to be drought, indicating that such species preferred to heat and could resist drought habitat well.
Abstract (Browse 2103)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Fatty Acids on Lipid Composition and Function of Tonoplast Vesicles in Barley Seedlings Under Salt Stress
Author: GONG Hong-Mei, YU Bing-Jun and LIU You-Liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(4)
    When barley ( Hordeum vulgare L. ) seedlings were treated with 100 mmol/L NaC1 for 2 d, the index of unsaturated fatty acid (IUFA) increased in the tonoplast vesicles that were isolated from the seedlings mots of two barley cultivars with different salt tolerance, whereas no change were observed when the seedlings were treated with exogenous fatty acids with different satumbility. Exogenous stearic acid and linoleic acid decreased Na + absorption and transportation to the shoots, increased K + absorption and transportation, decreased the leakage of electrolytes, and increased the phospholipid and galactose contents of lipids in tonoplast, enhanced the activities of tonoplast H+ -ATPase and H+ -PPase. This is consistent with the results that the two fatty acids, linoleic acid and stearic acid, regulate ion absorption and distribution, mitigate salt stress to some extent, the effects of linoleic acid being more the latter.
Abstract (Browse 1879)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparison of Photoperiodic Effects of Panicle Development After Panicle Initiation Between Late Japonica and Early Indica Photoperiod sensitive Genic Malesterile Rice (PGMR) Lines
Author: HE Chao-Xing, BAI Shu-Nong and TAN Ke-Hui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(4)
    For understanding the mechanism of photoperiodic-sensitive male sterility in rice ( Oryza sativa L. ). The authors have studied the day-length effects on the rice panicle development after the initiation of the secondary branch primordia (SBP). It was found that the long-day illumination after the initiation of SBP not only delayed heading, but also affected the panicle morphology of late japonica rice lines. These effects were not seen in the early indica dee lines. The similarity of the day-length effects after SBP and before the panicle initiation, as well as the synchronization between the above-mentioned effects and the one caused male sterility of PGMR, supported the hypothesis that the photoperiodic-sensitive male sterility in PGMR is consequent upon the failure of male organ development response to the long-day stress by the mutation.
Abstract (Browse 1786)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study of Gliadin and High Molecular Weight Glutenin in Octoploid Wheat-Wheatgrass and Its Wheat Parents
Author: JIAO Ming-Da, HAN Fang-Pu, HE Meng-Yuan, HAO Shui, ZHANG Yan-Bin and QI Shi-Yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(4)
    The electrophoretograms of ghadin and high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin in the five octoploid amphiploids of wheat-wheatgrass were analyzed. The results indicated that the octoploid amphiploids of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. )-wheatgrass( Agropyron intermedium (Host) P.B. = Elytrigia intermedia (Host) Nevski = Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkwarth and Dewey) Zhong 1 and Zhong 2 had the same band patterns, and then the octoploid amphiploids of wheat-wheatgrass Zhong 3, Zbong 4 and Zhong 5 had the same band patterns which were different from Zhong 1 and Zhong 2. One band pattern of HMW glutenin which lack in wheat parents were occurred in Zbong 1, Zhong 2 and wheatgrass. New band patterns which were different from both of wheat and wheatgrass may also occur in Zhong 1 and Zhong 2. The authors found that the genome X of wheatgrass expressed one specific band pattern occurred in Zhong 3, Zhong 4 and Zhong 5. Authors analyzed the genomic constitution and wheat parents of the five octoploid amphiploids of wheat-wheatgrass by their band patterns of gliadin and HMW glutenin. Furthermore, the potential significance of the octoploid amphiploids of wheat-wheatgrass for wheat breeding was discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1886)  |  Full Text PDF       
Photoinhibition and Photoprotection in Ginkgo biloba leaves: Influence of Temperature, CO2 and O2
Author: MENG Qing-Wei, Engelbert Weis, ZOU Qi and ZHAO Shi-Jie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(4)
    In midday ginkgo ( Ginkgo biloba L. ) leaves have to bear photon flux density over 1 400 molm-2s-l in combination with high temperatures around 35 at natural habitat. They show typical midday depression of stomatal conductance and of CO2 assimilation rate. The zeaxanthin changes with light intensity during the day. The influence of the combination of strong light and temperature on photoinhibition was also examined in the laboratory. A low CO2 internal conductance (31 mmol m- 2s- 1 ) was found in ginkgo leaves, which had been exposed to excessive light at temperature between 15 and 35 with reduced CO2 (80 LL-l) or oxygen (2%) for 2 h, causing a low CO2 concentration at the carboxylation site and a high proportion of photorespimtion. The ratio of electron transport to CO2 fixation was rather high in ginkgo ( 16 e- /CO2 at 25 ) as compared with other plants. It increased with temperature also in 2% 02 which could not be explained solely as due to change of photorespimtion. The reduction of oxygen in 340 or 80 LL- 1 CO2 had no effect on the extent of photoinhibition at all temperatures, which indicated that eleetron flow caused by photorespiration in excess light was negligible in protective effect in ginkgo leaves. However, a decreased CO2 coneentration increased photoinhibition, especially at high temperature. It is concluded that the dissipation of excessive excitation energy in the PS II antennae through the xanthophyll cycle may be the major protective mechanism to preventing from the deteriorated effects of strong light in ginkgo leaves.
Abstract (Browse 1914)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cloning of the Gene Encoding FNR Domain of FNR of Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and its Overexpression in Escherichia coli
Author: LI Rong-Gui, ZHAO Jin-Dong, WU Guang-Yao and WU Xiang-Yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(4)
    The petHL of Synechnococcus sp. PCC 7002 encoding FNR domain (FNRD) of FNR was amplified by PCR, and cloned into expressing vector pET-3a. Ovemxpression of petHL was achieved with E. coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant FNRD was purified to homogeneity by DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. N-terminal amino acid sequencing showed that rFNRD was encoded by petHL and initial Met was not posttranslationally removed, rFNRD had the same absorption spectrum, optimal pH and optimal temperature as those of rFNR. rFNRD could catalyze photosynthetic electron transport from PT00 to NADP+ in vitro.
Abstract (Browse 1841)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytochrome c Can Induce Programmed Cell Death in Plant Cells
Author: SUN Ying-Li, ZHAO Yun, LIU Chun-Xiang and ZHAI Zhong-He
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(4)
    The study revealed the detection of stereotypic hallmarks of the apeptosis during cell death induced by cytochrome c in carrot ( Daucus carota L. ) and tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L. ) protoplasts. The progressive delineation of fragmented DNA into distinct bodies, coincident with the appearance of DNA ladders, was also observed during death of the cytochrome c-treated carrot and tobacco protoplasts. TUNEL analysis of cells revealed DNA fragmentation localized in the dying cells as well as the additional formation of apoptotic-like bodies. These results suggest that cytochrome c can induce programmed cell death (PCD) in plant cells; also indicate that PCD in plants involves some of the characteristics of animal apeptosis among which DNA cleavage is a potential indicator of PCD in plants.
Abstract (Browse 1874)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytological Evidences of a Possible Mode of Nurture Absorption of the Differentiating Embryo in Triticum aestivum
Author: ZHANG Wei-Cheng, YAN Wen-Mei and GAO Xiao-Yan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(4)
    Coleorhiza covered the radicle of differentiating wheat embryo and morphologically appeared as tapered tissue with an attached globular protrusion. In the early phase of differentiation a series of structural changes occurred at some local areas of the coleorhiza. By light and electron microscopic inspections combined with fluorescence labelling it was uncovered that cells of the peripheral layers of the globular protrusion and the neck region underneath gradually exhibited degeneration and disintegration while a lot of broken plasmodesmata still remained at the boundary wall of the inner surviving cells. Impermeable fluorescence probe 4.3 kD FITC- dextran could enter these living cells and continuously diffuse to their neighborhood. All these showed that a direct communication was estabhshed between the symplasm of coleorhiza and the external medium and the remaining plasmodesmata, though broken in one end, might function as symplasmic pathway for external material incorporation. Analyzing the above described results a possible mode of nurture absorption of differentiating embryo then could bo recognized; particularly, comparing with the globular pretmsion the limited area of the neck region towards dorsal side might play a more important role in nurture absorption of the young embryo. Temporal and partial disintegration of the neck region and consequential regeneration in situ and increase of plasmodesmatal conductivity in the surrounding surviving cell group were most favourable to the incorporation and intercellular translocation of the external material for the coleorhiza. A large quantity of nutrients intruding into the coleorhiza at proper instant through the transiently opened route would effectively coordinate with the need of embryo differentiation without leaving apparent destruction to the coleorhiza.
Abstract (Browse 1815)  |  Full Text PDF       
Obtaining a Transgenic Upland Cotton Harboring Two Insecticidal Genes
Author: WANG Wei, ZHU Zhen, GAO Yue-Feng, SHI Chun-Lin, CHEN Wan-Xin, GUO Zhong-Chen and LI Xiang-Hui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(4)
    pBinLK carried two insecticidal genes, pea lectin (P-Lec)gene and soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SKTI) gene, were successfully transferred into 4 upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) cultivars, "Xinluzao-1 ", "Xinluzhong-2", "Jihe-321" and "Liao-9" via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Hypocotyl segments from aseptic seedlings were used as receipient. After co-cultivation of hypocotyl segments with A. tumefac/ens (Smith et Townsend) Conn, kanamycin-resistant calli were screened, and somatic embryos and regenerated plants were obtained through various media. Transgenic cotton plants harboring two insecticidal genes were confirmed by NPT- ELISA, PCR and PCR Southern. rllae results of bioassay demonstrated that the transgenic plants showed significant resistance to the larvae of cotton bollwonn (Heliothis armigera Hubner).
Abstract (Browse 1819)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Secretory Structure of Hypericum perforatum and Its Relation to Hypericin Accumulation
Author: LIU Wen-Zhe and HU Zheng-Hai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(4)
    Three different kinds of internal secretory structures, secretory cell globules (black dots), secretory cavities (translucent dots) and secretory ducts (translucent streaks) were observed in Hypericum perforatum L. The secretory cell globule, which occurred in flower, leaf and stem, consisted of a core of large secretory cells surrounded by two layers of flattened sheath cells. The secretory cavities were present throughout the lamina and the secretory ducts throughout the flower, both consisted of one or two layers of flattened cells walling an oil chamber or duct. Histochemical and fluorescence microscopy revealed that hypericin was accumulated in the secretory cell globules. Microscopic and ultrastmctural observation further demonstrated that hypericin was accumulated in the large central vacuole of the mature secretory cells. Numerous dictyosome, endoplasmic reticulum and small vacuoles were observed in the dense cytoplasm surrounded the large central vacuole. The process of hypericin accumulation in the secretory cells was preliminarily discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1999)  |  Full Text PDF       
Extensive Distribution of Acetylcholinesterase in Guard Cells of Vicia faba
Author: WANG Heng-Bin, WANG Xue-Chen, ZHANG Shu-Qiu and LOU Cheng-Hou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(4)
    Acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme responsible for hydrolyzing of acetylcholine to choline and acetic acid residues, is detected in the guard cell protoplasts. Extensive acetylcholinesterase activity has been found in the guard cell protoplasts as compared with the mesophyll cell protoplasts. Moreover, light could stimulate the enzyme activity. Localization of acetylcholinesterase in the stomata of Vicia faba L. was undertaken using Karnovsky and Roots cytochemical method. It was found that in the stomata of this plant products of acetylcholinesterase enzymatic reaction mainly appeared in the outer side of the guard cell ventral wall and inner wall. When the staining time was prolonged, products of acetylcholinesterase enzymatic reaction could also be found in the ventral and inner wall of the guard cells. In addition, more extensive product of enzymatic reaction was observed in the opened stomata than in the closed stomata. It was assumed that acetylcholineaterase may participate in the regulation of stomatal movement by hydrolyzing acetylcholine around the stomata.
Abstract (Browse 1989)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fluorescence in situ Hybridization and Southern Blot Analyses on Leymus racemosus and Related Species
Author: WANG Su-Ling, QI Li-Li, CHEN Pei-Du and LIU Da-Jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(4)
    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was carried out in somatic cells of racemosus (lam.) Tzvel. and Thinopyrum junceum ( Savul. & Rayss) A. Love using Th. bessarabicum ( Savul. & Rayss) A. Love genomic DNA as probe. Fourteen pairs of chromosomes in L. racemosus gave positive signal, and only seven of fourteen pairs of chromosomes in Th. junceum showed signal. In FISH probed with PHv62, the chromosomes in Th. bessarabicum and L. racemosus hybridized with PHv62, whereas Th. Bessarabicum showed positive signal in four pairs of chromosomes, and the latter in thirteen pairs of chromosomes. No positive signal was observed in chromosomes of Psathyrostachys juncea (Fisch.) Nevski and Th. junceum. The results of Southern hybridization probed with PHv62 were similar to those of in situ hybridization. Twelve alien chromosome lines of T. aestivum-L, racemosus were detected by PHv62 probing. In most of the alien chromosome lines, PHv62 hybridized in fragment of Leymus chromosomes, except for the line containing chromosomes 5Lr # 1 and 1 1Lr # 1. It is inferred that Th. bessarabicum may involve in the formation of species. Non the less, significant changes have occurred during the evolution of Leymus genomes.
Abstract (Browse 2559)  |  Full Text PDF       
Subcellular Localization of ABA Binding Sites in Tissues of Apple
Author: CHEN Shang-Wu and ZHANG Da-Peng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(4)
    The different subeellular fractions of apple ( Malus pumila Mill) fruit were separated with differential centrifugation, and the distribution of ABA-binding activities in the subcellular fractions was determined. Both the in vivo and in vitro ABA binding assayed indicated that the ABA binding sites which were detectable only in the subcellular fractions obtained from the fruit tissues fed with 3H-ABA, were situated in the soluble fractions of the fruit cells. These sites could form a stable complex with ABA. The lucifer yellow CH linked ABA (ABA- LYCH) which was shown to inhibit the germination of red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L. ) seeds as effectively as ABA, also inhibited the in vivo ABA binding in tissues of apple fruit. ABA-LYCH could specifically stain the out sphere of the cells in tissue or that of the macerated cells of unripe apple fruit. With the presence of BSA, the ABA-linkage complex could be transported into the cells across the plasma membrane and intensively aggregated in the places of cell contact. The results suggest that there exists a carrier of ABA localized on plasmalemma, which transports ABA across the plasma membranes before the ABA is bound at the ABA-binding sites situated in the cytoplasm.
Abstract (Browse 1884)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fertile Hybrid Plant Regeneration from Somatic Hybridization Between Triticum aestivum and Agropyron elongatum
Author: XIA Guang-Min, XIANG Feng-Ning, ZHOU Ai-Fen, WANG Huai, HE Shi-Xian and CHEN Hui-Min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(4)
    Hybrid plants were obtained from protoplast fusion between Triticum aestivum L. (2n = 42) and Agropyron elongatum (2n = 70) via PEG method, but they did not produce seeds. The ovaries of hybrid plants were used to induce hybrid calli again from which was followed by plant regeneration. The hybrid characteristics of the calli and plants were determined by chromosome counting and analysis of esterase isozyme. The resuits revealed that both of them still retained the hybrid nature. Two of these hybrid plants survived and produced seeds after they were transported into soil. The analysis of phenotype, chromosome, isozyme and RAPD of Fl plants again proved their hybridity thus indicating that fertile hybrid plants were produced. Chromosome fragments appeared in the root cells of Fl and Fa plants. The analysis of PMCs of F2 plants revealed that the range of chromosomal number were 18 ~ 22 and pairing or segregating chromosomal fragments were observed, confirming that the chromosomal fragments were minichromosomes. The hybrid Fl and F2 plants grew vigorously, the stalks were strong, the ears and grains were bigger than parent wheat ("Jinan 177"). Now a lot of F2 spike lines are growing and further analysis will be underway.
Abstract (Browse 1929)  |  Full Text PDF       
Gene Flow Between Transgenic Crops and Their Wild Related Species
Author: WEI Wei, QIAN Ying-Qian and MA Ke-Ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(4)
    Risk assessment is paid increasing attention along with the more and more releases of transgenic crops. Gene flow between transgenie crops and their wild related species is the main issue in the risk assessment. Transgene may escape spatially by pollination and escape temporally via seed bank as well. The formation of hybrids between transgenic crops and their wild related species is the evidence of spatial escape of transgene, that is the beginning of temporal escape of tmnsgene. Many factors may influence the formation of hybrids between transgenie crops and their wild related species, and the fate of hybrids as well. The dispersion of crop pollens was studied with statistical models 50 years ago, and current mathematical models for describing the transgene escape are greatly improved. Physical isolation and the application of male sterile euhivars may prevent the dispersion of transgenic pollens, but it may not thoroughly cut off the gene flow between transgenie crops and their wild related species. The experience and knowledge obtained from small scale release have to be further deliberated as these will be used for risk assessment on commercialized release.
Abstract (Browse 2039)  |  Full Text PDF       
RAPD Analysis of Phylogeny for Five Basic Genomes in Aegilops
Author: KONG Xiu-Ying, GE Chun-Min, JIA Ji-Zeng, DONG Yu-Shen and Richard R C Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(4)
    Twenty-eight stable RAPD primers were screened out of 140 random primers from the groups of OPE, OPF, OPG, OPU, OPX, OPY and OPZ. Phylogenetic dendrogram was constructed based on 488 RAPD fragments stable amplified in five basic genomes of Aegilops L. and Triticum aestivum L. with the 28 primers. The results showed that genome ABD of wheat and genome S were most consanguineously grouped, genomes C and U had a relatively close relationship, and genome D was distant from all other genomes.
Abstract (Browse 1865)  |  Full Text PDF       
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