May 1999, Volume 41 Issue 5

 

          Research Articles
Methyl Jasmonate Induces the Opening of Spikelets in Rice
Author: ZENG Xiao-Chun and ZHOU Xie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(5)
Abstract (Browse 1645)  |  Full Text PDF       
Involvement of Calcium-dependent Protein Kinases in ABA regulation of Stomatal Movement
Author: WANG Xi-Qing and WU Wei-Hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(5)
      
    Patch-clamp techniques were employed to investigate if calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) be involved in the signal transduction pathways of stomatal movement regulation by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) in Vicia faba. Stomatal opening was completely inhibited by external application of 1 mol/L ABA, and such ABA inhibition was significantly reversed by the addition of CDPK inhibitor trifluoper- azine (TFP). The inward whole-cell K+-currents were inhibited by 60% in the presence of 1 moL/L intracellular ABA, and this inhibition was completely abolished by the addition of CDPK competitive substrate histone -S. The results suggest that CDPKs may be involved in the signal transduction cascades of ABA-regulated stomatal movements.
Abstract (Browse 1774)  |  Full Text PDF       
Transcriptive Sites of RNA Polymerasein the Nucleolus of Triticum aestivum Revealed by BrUTP Labelling and Immunoelectron Microscopy
Author: WANG Hua-Chun and XING Miao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(5)
      
    The intact meristematic cells of Triticum aestivum L. were labelled with BrUTP and then detected with an anti-BrdU antibody and protein A-gold, and a large number of gold particles representing newly syn- thesized RP I transcripts were observed over the nucleolus of the cells. Most of the gold particles were located in the electron-dense area, which corresponds to DFC (dense fibrillar component), and the periphery of FC (fibrillar center), while the centre of FC and condensed chromatin showed few gold particles, suggesting that sites of RP I transcription are mainly located in DFC and the periphery of FC. Gold particles in DFC were frequently clustered and lined. The nucleolus-associated body (NAB) was often observed in the nucleus. It was a fibrillo-granular body closely associated with the nucleolus, and in which were concentrated gold particles representing the newly synthesized RNA.
Abstract (Browse 1652)  |  Full Text PDF       
Perspective of the Vegetation Zonation of Forest Region in Eastern China
Author: SONG Yong-Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(5)
      
    The paper includes 4 parts: 1. A short review of the history of studies on the distribution of forestvegetation in Eastern China, and highlighting the problems about the vegetation zonation of this region; 2. Expounding the principle and criterion of vegetation zonation: the vegetation features, especially the biocoenosis assemblage of each region should be taking as the main basis, and the floristic characteristics as well as the climate indices taking as the important factors of references of vegetation zonation; 3. According to this principle, the forest vegetation of Eastern China was divided into 6 zones: boreal needle-leaved forest zone, cooltemperate mixed needle broad-leaved forest zone, temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest zone, warmtemperate mixed evergreen deciduous broad-leaved forest zone, subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest zone, tropical rain forest and monsoon forest zone; 4. Final explanation of the reason for changing the term and boundary of some vegetation zones; especially discussing which bioclimatic zone should be the mixed evergreen-deciduous-broad leaved forest and evergreen broad-leaved forest belong to. In the author's opinion, it is appropriate, that the former belongs to warm-temperate vegetation and the latter still belongs to subtropical vegetation.
Abstract (Browse 1674)  |  Full Text PDF       
Allozyme Variance and Clonal Diversity in the Rhizomatous Grass Psammochloa villosa(Gramineae)
Author: WANG Ke-Qing, GE Song and DONG Ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(5)
      
    Psammochloa villosa (Trin.) Bor (Gramineae) is a rhizomatous grass with characteristic sand fixation. Ten enzymes encoded with 15 allozymic loci were used to examine the genetic structures of four natural populations in Inner Mongolia from different habitats. Electrophoretie data indicated that P. viUosa had lower genetic variation (He = 0.104) and lower clonal diversity (D = 0.764) than other similar plants. Genetic compositions of the 4 populations were different. In Shilongmiao mobile dune and Shihuimiao fixed dune there were more genotypes and higher levels of variation than in Shilongndao fixed dune and Shihuimiao semi-mobile dune. Just hke other clonal plants, most genetic variation of P. villosa resided among populations ( Gst = 62,16% ). Most genotypes were local, and there were no spread genotypes. Factors contributed to the genetic structure are herein discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1832)  |  Full Text PDF       
New Anthraquinones from the Sprout of Crocus sativus
Author: GAO Wen-Yun, LI Yi-Ming and Zhu Da-Yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(5)
      
    Two novel anthraquinones ( , ) and two known anthraquinones ( , ) were isolated from the sprout of Crocus sativus L. Compounds and were characterized as 1-methyl-3-methoxy-8-hydroxyan- thraquinone-2-carboxylic acid and 1-methyl-3-methoxy-6,8-dihydroxyantlwaquinone-2-carboxylic acid, respec- tively. Two known compounds were emodin ( ) and 2-hydroxyemodin ( ). All structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence.
Abstract (Browse 1763)  |  Full Text PDF       
Antitumor Diterpenoids from Hedychium yunnanense and Their Photosensitized Oxidation
Author: ZHAO Qing, HAO Xiao-Jiang, CHEN Yao-Zu, ZOU Cheng and HONG Xin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(5)
      
    Two antitumor active diterpenoids, yunnancoronarin C and yunnancoronarin A, were isolated from the rhyzome of Hedychium yunnanense Gagnep. The former is a new compound, whose structure was deter- mined by spectra and chemical methods. Yunnancoronarin C could also be obtained from photosensitized oxidation of yunnancoronarin A as a minor product.
Abstract (Browse 1596)  |  Full Text PDF       
Artemisinin Production by Adventitious Shoots of Artemisia annua in a Novel Mist Bioreactor
Author: LIU Chun-Zhao, WANG Yu-Chun, KANG Xue-Zhen, OUYANG Fan, YE He-Chun and LI Guo-Feng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(5)
      
    A novel ultrasonic inner-loop bioreactor was used for artemisinin production by adventitious shoots in a multiplate culture of Artemisia annua L. The bioreactor was designed to allow the nutrient mist to uprise along a concentric draught-cylinder until it overflows from the top opening and the side-holes of the central tube downward and out of the annulus, so that the nutrient mist can be fulfilled in the bioreactor within 2 ~ 3 minutes. Under the misting cycles of every 3-minute misting in every 90 minute interval, artemisinin production reached totally 46.9 mg DW/L of culture medium at an airflow rate of 0.5 L/min for 25 d of culture in batches. The product amounted 2.9 and 3.2 folds of those obtained from culturing in solid medium and in shaking flasks respectively.
Abstract (Browse 1874)  |  Full Text PDF       
Alteration of Whole Leaf Protein of a Temperature sensitive Chlorophyll Deficient Rice Mutant During the Bleaching Process
Author: WANG Yu-Zhong, SHAO Ji-Rong, LIU Yong-Sheng, YU Jin-Hong, XIE Rong and SUN Jing-San
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(5)
      
    l103s was a rice ( Oryza sativa L. ) mutant whose leaves would mm into chimerical chlorophylldeficient when treated with varied temperature (high - low - high). The alteration of whole leaf protein was studied with two-dimensional electrophoresis during the bleaching process. No changes of large subunit and small subunit of Rubisco had been detected in the bleached tissues of 1103s, but a 51 kD (PI =-4.5) special polypeptide-P1 disappeared in the white area during the bleaching process. P1 polypeptide was also detected in those tissues which remained green on the chlorophyll deficient leaves, although its amount apparenfiy decreased. In the tissue of low-temperature treated 1103s and l103s 8902s, the normal expression of P1 polypeptide had been detected. The data suggest that P1 is an important chlorophyll-synthesis related down stream functional protein. In 1103s, it is regulated by some yet-tmknown temperature-sensitive mechanisms.
Abstract (Browse 1620)  |  Full Text PDF       
Difference in Na+,K+ Accumulation in the Salttolerant Mutant and the Wild Type of Wheat During Exposure to NaCl Stress
Author: GUO Fang-Qing and TANG Zhang-Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(5)
      
    The difference in Na+, K+ accumulation between the mutant and the wild type of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. ) has been investigated. The authors report here that the mutant accumulated less Na + in the root and leaf than the wild type in response to NaCI stress. This difference in Na + accumulation in leaf was more significant than that in the root. The mutant kept a lower net accumulation rate of Na + than that in the wild type during the stress. K+ content in the leaves and roots of beth species reduced severely when exposed to NaC1, but the contents in the leaf and root of the mutant was higher than those of the wild type. The Na + dis- tribution in the seedlings of the mutant and the wild type was significantly different. When exposed to salt stress for 96 h, the quantity of the accumulated Na + in root was 44.3 % of the total Na + per seedling of the mutant, whereas it was 24.3% in the wild type, which was likely resulted from the reduction of Na+ transfer from roots to shoots in the mutant.
Abstract (Browse 1717)  |  Full Text PDF       
Photochemical Efficiency of PS and Characteristics of Photosynthetic CO2 Exchange in Indica and Japonica Subspecies of Rice and Their Reciprocal Cross F1 Hybrids Under Photoinhibitory Conditions
Author: JI Ben-Hua and JIAO De-Mao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(5)
      
    To elucidate photoinhibitory characteristics and their genetic background in rice (Oryza sativa L. ), PS electron transport activities, D1 protein contents, chlorophyll a fluorecence parameters, net photosynthetic rates (PN), photorespiratory rates (PR) and RuBPCase/Oase activities were measured, and kinetic analysis of RuBPCase was carried out in indica and japonica subspecies of rice and their reciprocal cross Fl hybrids after photoinhibitory treatment in 21% O2 and CO2-free gases under a PFD of 1 000/anol photons'm-2 s-l for 3 h. The results are as follows: Japonica rice, keeping less net degradation of D1 protein and maintaining higher PS electron transport activities and photo chemical efficiency of PS (FV/Fm), was more tolerant to photo inhibition as compared with indica rice. However, the D1 protein contents, PS electron transport activities and Fv/Fm in their reciprocal cross F1 hybrids, though lying between the values of their parents, were closer to those in their maternal lines rather to their paternal lines. Characteristics of photosynthetic CO2 exchange were further observed. The Pa was relatively stable, yet the PN decreased obviously and, as a results, the PR/PN increased in all genotypes. There were more decrease in PN and more increase in PR/PN in photoinhibition-sensitive indica than in the photoinhibition-tolerant japonica. However, the PR/PN in the reciprocal cross Fl hybrids, though lying between the values of their parents, was closer to that in their maternal lines than to paternal lines. No obvious changes were observed in the activities of RuBPCase/Oase, Km (CO2) and Vmax (CO2) of RuBPCase in indica and japonica rice and their reciprocal cross F1 hybrids before and after photoinhibitory treatment. Furthermore, markedly positive correlation between D1 protein contents and Fv/Fm(r = -0.950 1), and negative correlation between D1 protein contents and PR/PN(r = 0.976 8) were demons trated. These results infer that the D1 protein encoded by the plastid gene from maternal line was the molecular basis of photoinhibitory characteristics and their physiological inheritance.
Abstract (Browse 1797)  |  Full Text PDF       
Primary Study of Rice AFLP Analysis-Optimization of Reaction Conditions and Analysis of Thermo sensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice Allelic Mutant Lines
Author: WANG Bin, LI Chuan-You, ZHENG Hong-Gang, FU Jian-Min, YANG Ren-Cui and Henry T. NGUYEN
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(5)
      
    AFLP analysis was performed between a pair of thermo-sensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) rice allelic mutant lines (5460S and 5460F). The reaction conditions for rice AFLP assay were optimized. The relative efficiencies for polymorphism detection of RFLP, RAPD and AFLP were compared. The results indicated that the efficiency for polymorphism detection in rice was in the order of AFLP > RAPD > RFLP, and also indicated that AFLP was a powerful DNA molecular marker technique for polymorphism detection, especially in the case of extremely low polymorphism, such as isogenic lines and allehc mutant hnes. Some of the AFLP products between the TGMS rice allehc mutant lines were cloned. Three of them were used as mixed probes to screen BAC library of rice line 5460S. 12 positive clones were screened out. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of these three molecular marker systems were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1824)  |  Full Text PDF       
Purification and Amino-terminal Sequencing of a 68 kD Glycopolypeptide of the Plasma Membrane from Maize Sperm Cells
Author: XU Heng-Ping, JIN Cheng, YANG Shou-Jun, CAO Zong-Xun (TSAO T H) and ZHANG Shu-Zheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(5)
      
    Based on author's previous work on detection and immunolocalization of glycoproteins of the plasma membrane of maize ( Zea mays L. ) sperm cells, a 68 kD peripheral specific glycopolypeptide of the plasma membrane from maize sperm cells was purified by IEF-SDS two-dimensional electrophoresis. It presents specif- ically positive reaction in Con A-HRP (concanavalin A-horseradish peroxidase) staining, and its pi value is 5.5. The search in protein sequence database reveals that the amino-terminal sequence of this glycopolypeptide is identical with that of Con A. But its difference from Con A in molecular weight and pi value indicates that it could be related to a Con A receptor on the plasma membranes of maize sperm cells instead of being Con A itself. It is fascinating to study further the function of the above glycopolypeptide in gametic recognition, adhesion and fusion of the double fertilization in maize.
Abstract (Browse 1908)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cloning of Promoters from Brassica napus in Escherichia coli
Author: WANG Hai-Yan and ZHANG Yi-Zheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(5)
Abstract (Browse 1565)  |  Full Text PDF       
Expression of Green Fluorescent Protein Gene in Transgenic Shoots of Artemisia annua
Author: CHEN Da-Hua, YE He-Chun, LI Guo-Feng and LIU Ben-Ye
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(5)
Abstract (Browse 1709)  |  Full Text PDF       
Construction of a New Bacterial Cloning Vector Using a Mutant Green Fluorescent Protein as an Indicator
Author: DONG Yue-Mei, LI Jiu-Di and ZHU Zhi-Qing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(5)
      
    A new bacterial cloning vector, pGreenLD, derived from the triple substitution mutated Aequorea v/ctor/a green fluorescent protein(GFP-S65A, V68L, S72A), when expressed in E. coli produced colonies which showed yellow-green colour under daylight and strong green fluorescence under long-wave ultraviolet light. It can be a useful vector for selecting foreign DNA fragment which was inserted into multiple cloning site based on the loss of the yellow-green color/green fluorescence of E. coli cells attributable to the insertional inactivation of GFP production.
Abstract (Browse 1760)  |  Full Text PDF       
Discovery and Significance of the Genus Caulopteris from the Wuda Area of Inner Mongolia
Author: SUN Ke-Qin and DENG Sheng-Hui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(5)
      
    Caulopteris wudaensis sp. nov. was collected from the Shanxi Formation of the early Early Permian in the Wuda area of Inner Mongolia, China. The genus Caulopteris is considered as the impression fossils of the tree fern stems. Most of the species under the genus Caulopteris are mainly distributed in the Eurameriean Province, whereas they are very rare in the Cathaysian Province. The discovery of the new species will provide some important evidences for the geographical distribution, ecology and evolution of the genus Caulopteris.
Abstract (Browse 1727)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Tridimensional Morphology of Rice Embryo Development with Special Reference to the Scutellum and the Coleoptile
Author: XU Xue-Bin, HAN Hui-Zhen, LIU Xiang-Dong, XU Shi-Xiong (S.Y.Zee), YANG Jian-Fen and Edward YEUNG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(5)
      
    Using scanning electron microscopy and semi-thin plastic sections, the pattern of development of the rice ( Oryza sativa L. ) embryo from 2 days after pollination (DAP) to maturity was followed. ( 1 ) At 2 DAP, the young embryo was observed to consist of an embryo proper, a hypoblast and a suspensor. The trum-pet-shaped hypoblast was a transitional region situated between the suspensor and the embryo proper. To label the hypoblast as suspensor is incorrect. During this time, dorsiventrality was established, but a radicle was not yet differentiated. Therefore it is still referred to as a proembryo. (2) 3 ~ 5 DAP, the embryo underwent definite morphological and anatomical changes. In the young embryo at 3 DAP the scutellum and colcoptile appeared simultaneously directly from the proembryo. The coleoptile did not originate from the scutellmn. During these foremost 3 days, the coleoptile primordium underwent a special kind of morphological change and formed a young coleeptile having the shape of an inverted hollow cone. This process revealed the true mechanism of c61eeptile formation. Anatomical observation indicated that the embryo at 3 DAP began to differentiate procambium, ground meristem and root cap. At 4 DAP a dome-like growth cone and protoderm of radicle appeared. Then the shoot-root axis became established. At 5 DAP the plumule, hypocotyl and radicle were formed. (3) It was shown that the embryo of rice actually has two cotyledons: the scutellum (a part of the embryonic envelope) and the coleeptile (The scutellum being the lateral cotyledon, a part of outside cotyledon, and the coleoptile the apical cotyledon--the coleoptile may be considered to be a modified form of a cotyledon). This kind of structural arrangemem can be referred to as dimorphic cotyledon.
Abstract (Browse 2068)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cell Divisions During Microsporogenesis and Development of the Male Gametophyte in Ginkgo biloba
Author: ZHANG Zhong-Ming, JI Cheng-Jun, YANG Xiong and LI Zheng-Li (Lee C L)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(5)
      
    During meiosis of the microsporocyte of Ginkgo biloba L., the nucleoids, after going through a serios of regular dynamic changes, had primarily established an axial polarity from the proximal face to the distal face of the cell. In the consequent germination, the microspore went through three consecutive polar periclinal mitotic divisions, which may be considered as further intensifying the primary polarity. In terms of structural change, lacking of plasmodesmas in the walls between the daughter cells, may set forth in isolating all the daughter cells in which fine differentiation took place. The anticlinal ring-like division observed in the generative cell might play an important role in polarity regulation in the male gametophyte, eventually leading to the anticlinal division in the spennatogenous cell to produce two back-to-back positioned spermatozoids.
Abstract (Browse 1800)  |  Full Text PDF       
Expression of Ethylene Biosynthetic Genes Regulated by Pollination associated Factors in Doritaenopsis hybrida Flowers
Author: ZHANG Xian-Sheng, ZHENG Cheng-Chao and S D O NEILL
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(5)
      
    Pollination of flowers initiates postpollination development in orchid ( Doritaenopsis hybrida Hort. ) flowers, including perianth senescence, stigma closure, and ovary development. Because ethylene is thought to play a key role in coordinating these developmental changes, the authors studied the temporal and spatial patterns of expression of genes encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase following pollination-associated factor treatments in orchid flowers. Both ACC synthase and ACC oxidase mRNA accumulation in the various parts of the flowers is induced by auxin, and ethylene, but not by emasculation. The patterns of both ACC synthase and ACC oxidase mRNA accumulation are similar in all floral organs following auxin and ethylene treatments. Further, in situ hybridization analysis indicates that the ACC oxidase mRNA is localized in epidermal and parenchyma cells of the stigma after auxin and ethylene treatments. The putative roles of auxin, ethylene and emasculation are discussed in terms of the regulation of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase gene expression in flowers.
Abstract (Browse 1672)  |  Full Text PDF       
Development of Triticum aestivumLeymus racemosus Translocation Lines by Irradiating Adult Plants at Meiosis
Author: LIU Wen-Xuan, CHEN Pei-Du and LIU Da-Jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(5)
      
    Two alien translocation lines referring to chromosome Lr. 7 of Leymus racemosus (lam.) Tzvel. were produced from M2 of Triticum aestivum-L, racemosus Lr. 7 monosomic addition lines irradiated with 60Co- rays of 600-1125R does shortly before meiosis. Among them, T02 was identified to contain largely-alien, partly-wheat translocation chromosomes, T08 contains a centric fusion translocation chromosome of TLr. 7S (L?) 4AL on the basis of Giemasa C-banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).
Abstract (Browse 1715)  |  Full Text PDF       
Asymmetric Somatic Hybridization Between Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Bromus inermis
Author: XIANG Feng-Ning, XIA Guang-Min, ZHOU Ai-Fen, CHEN Hui-Min, HUANG Yue and ZHAI Xiao-Ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(5)
      
    Asymmetric hybridization was conducted between wheat and Brorrats inermis keyss which is a distanfiy related intergeneric plant (belonging to different tribe) of wheat and possesses some favorable traits, such as resistant to cold, drought and disease. Protoplasts isolated from young embryo-derived calli of common wheat ( Triticura aestivum L., tv. 99P, (AABBDD), 2n = 42) were fused with UV-treated protoplasts isolated from young embryo-derived calli of Bromus inermis by PEG method. Three clones (No. 1 ~ No. 3) were regenerated from the fusion products and differentiated into albino seedlings. The clones and the seedlings were all verified as hybrids by chromosome counting, isozyme and RAPD analysis. Their isozyme and RAPD pattern contained the characteristic bands of both parents as well as new band(s). The chromosome numbers of albino were in the range of 42~54 with small chromosomes of Bromus inerm/s and chromosome fragments. The above results confirmed that hybrid albinos were obtained.
Abstract (Browse 1759)  |  Full Text PDF       
Research Advances on the Mechanisms of Heavy Metal Tolerance in Plants
Author: ZHANG Yu-Xiu, CHAI Tuan-Yao and Grard Burkard
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(5)
      
    Heavy metals impact on the cytoplasmic function in a number of different ways, principally by their binding to protein sulflhdryl groups, by producing a deficiency of essential ions and, eventually, by substituting the essemial ions. Other modes of toxicity are possible, including disruption of cell transport processes and oxidative damage by free radicals generated by metal redox cycling. Plants have developed a variety of biochemical defense strategies to prevent heavy metal poisoning. The possible defense mechanism in plant may involve: metal binding to cell walls, avoidance of uptake these toxic metal ions, reduction of heavy metal transport across the cell membrane, active efflux, compartmentalization and metal chelation. Phytochelatins that can tightly bind and sequester metals may play an important role in the accumulation of heavy metals and preventing them from entering the cell metabolic pathway, the rates of high molecular weight (HMW) metal phytochelatin complexes (Cd-Sa-complex) formation may be an important determinant of the plant tolerance. In addition, plants possess several antioxidant defense systems to protect themselves from the oxidative stress by heavy metals.
Abstract (Browse 1854)  |  Full Text PDF       
Saponins from Lysimachia candida
Author: ZHANG Xiao-Rong, PENG Shu-Lin, XIAO Shun-Chang and DING Li-Sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(5)
      
    Three saponins were isolated from Lysimachia candida Lindl. By spectral and chemical analysis, they were identified as primulagenin A-3-O--D-xylopyranosy( 12)--D-glucopyranosyl( 14)-[-D-glu- copyranosyl(12) ] -a-L-arabinopyranoside ( 1 ), protoprimulagenin A-3-O--D-xylopyranosyl( 12)--D-glu- copyranosyl( 14)-[ -D-glucopyranosyl ( 1 2) ]-a-L-arabinopyranoside ( lysikoianoside, 2) and a-spinas- teml-glucopyranoside (3) respectively. 1 is a new compound named candidoside.
Abstract (Browse 1764)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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