July 1999, Volume 41 Issue 7

 

          Research Articles
Measuring Pollen Flow in Entomophilous Plants by Pollen Grain Dyeing
Author: HUANG Shuang-Quan and GUO You-Hao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(7)
      
    Various methods have been trim to estimate directly the transferring of pollen grains among flowers by pollinators. Though the approach to search marker gene specific in the parental population is popular today, using fluorescent dyes as pollen surrogates is also charming for its simplicity and inexpensiveness in nature. However, another decoration method of staining pollen wall with dyes though seldom used will be described. Pollen grains in dehisced anthers were stained with safranine or methyl green in five entomophilous plants, including Sagittaria trifolia L. , Hibiscus mutabilis L. , Zephyranthes candida Herb., Salvia splendens Ker. Gawl., Tagetes patula L. The results indicated that pollen grain dyeing, an easily operated decoration method, could be used in various taxa with diversity floral traits, especially facilitates the work in field populations. It could also be used directly to observe pollen carryover and mixed pollen loads on stigmas.
Abstract (Browse 1959)  |  Full Text PDF       
Purification and Antibody Preparation of Choline Monooxygenase in Spinach Leaves
Author: LIU Jia-Yao, YI Yan-Jun, LUO Ai-Ling, MA De-Qin, WANG Xue-Chen and LIANG Zheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(7)
      
    A protein from spinach (Spinacia deracea Mill. ) leaves was isolated and purified by fractional precipitation and hydroxyapatite column chromatography, and in combination with electrophoresis and electroelution. The protein had a light red-brown color and an absorption peak at 455 nm. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the protein subunit molecular weight was 45 kD. These characterizations indicates that the isolated protein was choline monooxygenase (CMO), and antisem of the CMO protein from rabbit was obtained. The antisera could cross-react with antibodies of choline oxidase that was isolated from bacteria (Alcaligenes species), but could not be recognized by antibodies of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from higher plants.
Abstract (Browse 1849)  |  Full Text PDF       
Partitioning the Spatial and Environmental Variations of Plant Community Structure of Alkaline Grassland on Songnen Plain
Author: XIN Xiao-Ping, GAO Qiong, LI Zhen-Qing and YANG Zheng-Yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(7)
      
    Changes of community structure of Songnen grassland and its relation to soil factors were analyzed based on field experiment in 1996. Variation of species abundance within an alkaline grassland in Northeast China plant community was partitioned into four portions: 40% of environmental variation, 3% of spatial variation, 35% environmental-cross-spatial variation, and 20% of undetennined variation due to biological factors and random factors. A canonical ordination analysis on the species abundance data constrained by environmental variables revealed that alkali and salinity are the determinant factors of ecological processes for the whole growth season. However, the relative importance of nitrogen and soil water varies with time, so that effect of nitrogen is less evident than soil water in dry seasons, but vice verse in wet seasons.
Abstract (Browse 1753)  |  Full Text PDF       
Distribution Patterns of Chinese Beech (Fagus L.) Species in Relation to Topography
Author: FANG Jing-Yun, GUO Qing-Hua and LIU Guo-Hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(7)
      
    Distribution pattern and its correlation with macro-topography of four widely distributed Chinese beech (Fagus L. ) species, F. longipetiolata Seem. et Diels, F. lucida Rehd. et Wils., F. engleriana Seem. and F. baslumica Yang, were studied using their literature-reviewed geographic distribution data and computer-digitized topographical map of China with a scale of 1: 1 000 000. As a result, distribution patterns of Chinese beech species are characterized by an unclear south-to-north change, a remarkable east-to-west difference, and an "island distribution phenomenon in some regions where a higher or lower distribution occurs than in their neighbering areas. This is closely coupled with macro-topography in China. Along the longitudinal directions, altitude at the upper limits of the four species increases with increasing mean topographic altitude in accordance with a logarithmic or linear fimction, but various species show different responses to the relationship between the species distribution altitude and the topographic altitude. These findings identify "massenerhebung" in Chinese beech distributions, and clarify their differences among the species. The differences may be related to ecological adaptability and ecological range of the species.
Abstract (Browse 1888)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Sucrose Regulation Culture on Endogenous ABA Levels of Carrot Somatic Embryo
Author: CHENG Yu-Lan, DIAO Feng-Qiu, WU Nai-Hu and HUANG Mei-Juan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(7)
      
    Endogenous ABA levels of carrot (Daucas carrota L. ) somatic embryos and their organs were assayed under different sucrose concentration in MS media using ELISA. The results show that endogenous ABA level increases during the development of somatic embryo and reaches the highest at cotyledonary stage. ABA levels of somatic embryo vary little among different treatments at the early developing stage and more significantly when cotyledonary embryos grow bigger. ABA level decreases obviously once the regulated embryos is de-regulated in culture. The content of ABA in the regulated embryos and their organs maintain relatively unchanged in two months. These results imply that sucrose concentration in media induces the changes of ABA levels in the somatic embryo, and these changes are dependent to the different developing stages. High level of ABA in medium can maintain the embryo quiescence. Some difference still exist between the effects of exogenous ABA and those of high sucrose concentration on carrot somatic embryos. By and large, ABA probably acts as an important signal-mediated factor during the signal transduction of sucrose regulation on the development of somatic embryos in carrot.
Abstract (Browse 1876)  |  Full Text PDF       
Damage Responses to Salt Stress in Salt tolerant Cell Line of Wheat
Author: TANG Xue-Xi, JIA Jing-Fen and ZHENG Guo-Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(7)
      
    A salt-tolerant cell line of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. ) that could grow well under 1.5% NaC1 stress was obtained by gradual increase of NaC1 concentration. Under NaC1 stress, the water content in the salt-tolerant cell line decreased less than that in the salt sensitive cell line served as control, while the I-I202 content and O2- production rate in the control cell line increased more obviously than those in the salt-tolerant cell line. Meanwhile, the membrane relative permeability, membrane lipid peroxidation and deesterification increased more significantly than those in the salt-tolerant cell line. These results indicated that the damage of wheat cell lines caused by NaCI stress had close relationship with active oxygen-mediated membrane lipid peroxidation and deesterification, and the resistance to the active oxygen mediated damage in the salt-tolerant cell line was remarkably higher than that in the control cell line.
Abstract (Browse 1744)  |  Full Text PDF       
Immunological Analysis of Arabidopsis Indole-3-Glycerol Phosphate Synthase
Author: LIU Xin-Fang,OUYANG Jian, HE Yi-Kun and LI Jia-Yang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(7)
      
    Indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase (IGS, EC 4.1.1.48), one of the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway enzymes, catalyzes the conversion of 1-(O-carboxyphenoylamino)-l-deoxyribulose-5-phosphate (CDRP) into indole-3-glycerol phosphate, a precursor of indole ring-containing compounds including tryptophan, indole-3-acetic acid, phytoalexins and alkaloids. In order to study its gene expression, regulation and localization, an IGS cDNA isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. cDNA library was constructed into an expression vector fused with glutathione S-transferase (GST). After transfomdng into E. coli strain trpC9800KC, the GST-IGS fusion protein was induced to overexpress by IPTG and purified with glutathioneagarose affinity chromatography and preparative SDS-PAGE. The purified GST-IGS fusion protein was used to immunize rabbit to raise polyclonal antisera. Western analysis of four Arabidopsis ecotypes, Columbia (Col-0), Iandsberg erecta (ler), Wassilewskija (Ws) and C24, identified a single polypeptide of approximate 40 kD. Accumulation of IGS was induced by stress treatments, indicating that IGS might play a role in plant defense system.
Abstract (Browse 1748)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ethylene Induction of Apoptosis in Carrot Protoplasts
Author: ZHOU Jun, ZHU Hai-Zhen, JIANG Xiao-Fang and DAI Yao-Ren
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(7)
      
    Ethylene is an important plant hormone involving in various physiological processes. Ethrel which releases ethylene in a solution of pH higher than 4.1, was used to treat the carrot protoplasts. It was found that percentage of cell death kept rising with the increase of ethrel concentration. Characteristics of apoptotic cells, such as nuclear condensation and DNA laddering were observed. Neutral comet assay which detects nuclear DNA fragmentation provided evidence that ethylene induced apoptosis in carrot protoplasts.
Abstract (Browse 1802)  |  Full Text PDF       
Autotriploid Plants Obtained from Heteroploid Rice Crosses
Author: HUANG Qun-Ce and SUN Jing-San
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(7)
      
    The erossability of 30 hybridized and 6 selfcrossed combinations from the reciprocal crossing of 3 diploid rice ( Oryza sativa L. ) (2n = 2x = 24) and 3 autotetraploid rice (2n = 4x = 48) was investigated. The lower seed-sets (10.01%~21.78 % ) of the autotetraploidy combinations may be attributed to the presence of more abnormal pollen in the anthers. The seed-sets of the heteroploidy cross combinations were even lower (0.20% ~ 1.64%), but there was obvious different seed-settings between the two mating methods. If the autotetraploid rice was used as the female parents and the diploids as the male parents, higher seed-sets (0.42%- 1.64%) were found in the hybridized combination. However, the seed-sets in the combinations were lower (0.20% ~ 0.85% ) if the diploid rice was used as the female parents and the autotetraploids used as the male parents. The seed-sets of the autoheteroploidy combinations could be outstandingly improved by repeating the pollination twice. Besides, the results from the embryological examination of AP (4) x AP (2) cross showed that the total rate of fertilizations, including single fertilizations of an egg with a sperm (25. 0% ), two polar nuclei with a sperm (3.3%), and double fertilization of an egg and two polar nuclei with two sperms (5.9%), was lower(34.2% ). The survival rate of the autotriploid plants obtained by the conventional cross method was very low ( 0. 07% ), but that obtained by ovary culture method was higher (0.78%). Which surpassed 11.14 times than that of the former.
Abstract (Browse 1901)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Characterization of a Lipid Transfer Protein Gene from Rice
Author: LIU Xiao-Fei, XU Jiu-Zhen, HOU Yu-Qing, ZHAN Shu-Xuan, GE Xiao-Chun and CAO Kai-Ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(7)
      
    A lipid transfer protein gene, LTPll0, was isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. ind/ia) genomic DNA library using a LTP cDNA(pFDRSCll0) as probe. Sequence analysis indicated that it was 1.8 kb in length and encoded a peptide of 121 amino acids. The coding region was interrupted by an intron of 90 bp. There were two canonical TATA boxes, several inverted and repeated elements and palindromic sequences at the 5' upstream and a polyadenylation signal at the 3' downstream. A signal peptide of 28 amino acids was found at its N-terminus. Homology comparison revealed that it possessed the typical features of plant LTPs.
Abstract (Browse 1722)  |  Full Text PDF       
Tagging of a Photoperiod-Sensitive Genic Male Sterile Gene in Nongken 58S via Molecular Markers
Author: LI Zi-Yin, LIN Xing-Hua, XIE Yue-Feng and ZHANG Duan-Pin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(7)
      
    Bulked segregant analysis method was conducted to identify RFLP, RAPD and two-primer RAPD markers hnked to the gene for photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterility (PSGMS) in Nongken 58S (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica). A total of 52 RFLP clones, 1040 arbitrary 10-mer oligonucleotide primers and 190 two- primer combinations were screened for their ability to detect polymorphisms between the fertile and the sterile bulks. As a result, RFLP locus G2140 on chromosome 12, a single copy marker, was found to be linked to the PSGMS gene at a distance of 14.1 cM (centimorgan). For RAPD analysis, primer OPAU10 generated a polymorphic product between the two bulks. The polymorphic amplification product was designated as, according to its size (base pairs), OPAU101500. The 1.5 kb fragment was then cloned into plasmid vector and successfully converted to a codominant RFLP marker. Southern hybridization revealed that this clone was a single copy sequence in rice genome and linkage analysis established a close linkageship with RFLP locus G2140 on chromosome 12.
Abstract (Browse 1996)  |  Full Text PDF       
X990006(PS2).pdf
Author: HUANG Shuang-Quan, JIN Bao-Feng, WANG Qing-Feng and GUO You-Hao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(7)
      
    The relationships between sex expression, pollinators response and pollen flow in a field population of Sagittaria trifolia L. were examined. These plants were monoecious with the number of male flowers 3.6 times of female flowers. The anthesis of two sexes was only one day, but the floral display was different. The female flowers opened firstly and bloomed more flowers in one day in a raceme; however, the male flowers opened few flowers in one day and lasted longer time in bloom. The floral display thus appeared large fluctuation at the daily ratio of two sexual flowers in the population. In 2 612 pollination activities, the pollinators tended to visit female flowers. The mean number of visits received per female flower was 1.4 fold than that of per male flower. To test effect of the different floral display on pollen flow, the authors estimated pollen dispersion by labeling the anthers of male flowers with safranine dye in two experiments. When the male flowers were more abundant, most dyed pollen dispersed close to the labeled plant. As the female flowers having relatively high proportion in the population, the labeled pollen grains moved in far distance.
Abstract (Browse 1881)  |  Full Text PDF       
Detection of the Rye Chromatin in Multispikelet Wheat Germplasm 10-A Background Using Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) and RFLP Markers
Author: WEI Yu-Ming, ZHENG You-Liang, ZHOU Rong-Hua and JIA Ji-Zeng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(7)
      
    The multispikelet genes of rye ( Secale cereale L. ) in common wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. ) line 10-A were detected by APAGE, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and RFLP markers. APAGE analysis indicated that the 10-A possesed the gliadin marker GldlB3 of 1RS. Using fluorescence labeled total genomic DNA of rye as probes and common wheat genomie DNA for blocking, in sim hybridization showed that 1RS of rye was transferred to multispikelet wheat line 10-A. The restriction fragments located on the short ann of chromosome lB were missing and the restriction fragments of IRS were present when the probes, which have been identified on the short ann of the homologous group 1, were used in RFLP analysis. These results suggested that the multispikelet wheat line 10-A carried the 1RS/1BL wheat-rye translocation chromosome. The utilization of 10-A in wheat improvement was discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1788)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chromosome Painting in Secale cereale with PCR Products from Microdissected Chromosome 1R
Author: ZHOU Yi-Hua, WANG Huai, DANG Ben-Yuan, DENG Xiang-Dong, HU Zan-Min and CHEN Zheng-Hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(7)
      
    Microdissected iR chromosomes of rye ( Secale cereale L. ) were amplified by Sau3A linker adaptor mediated PCR (LA-PCR) for two rounds. After demonstration by Southem hybridization, that their PCR products were originated from the genome of rye, the second round PCR products of the chromosome IR, rye genomic DNA and rDNA were used as probes to hybridize in situ with metaphase chromosomes of mot-tip cells. It was found that the PCR products from microdissected 1R chromosomes included a large amount of IR chromosome-nonspecific repetitive sequences. However, its information capacity was fewer than the total rye genome. While blocking with proper amount of genomic DNA, the second round PCR products from the microdissected iR chromosomes were successfully relocated to the pair of 1R chromosomes in mitotic metaphase, indicating that the PCR products certainly contained iR chromosome specific fragments. In addition, a highly repetitive sequence and a low/single copy sequence selected from the microclone library of chromosome 1R were used as probes. Chromosome in situ hybridization inspected that the repetitive sequence probably was a telomeric relative sequence. But no signal was detected with the low/single copy probe. These data suggest that chromosome painting is a useful way to confirm the origination of microdissected chromosomes and to screen chromosome-specific probes. This research has established a consulted experimental system for plant chromosome painting, which could provide convenience for further apphcations of chromosome microcloning techniques in plants.
Abstract (Browse 1810)  |  Full Text PDF       
Microspectrofluorometric Analysis of Autofluorescence in the Cell Walls of Phyllostachys pubescens Culm
Author: HE Xin-Qiang, LI Su-Wen, HU Yu-Xi, LIN Jin-Xing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(7)
      
    Autofluorescence in the cell walls of Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel culms was analyzed by ultraviolet fluorescence microscopy, mierospectrofluorometer and histoebemical staining before and after respective treatment with ammonia, NaOH and H202/HAC. All tissues of the bamboo eulm showed blue autofluorescence under ultraviolet irradiation. With the treatment of ammonia, the tissues increased their fluorescence intensity, among which those rich in ferulie acid changed their color into green, the peak of fluorescence emission spectra shifted from 470 nm to 510 nm. Nevertheless, the fluorescence intensity of all tissues decreased dramatically after the treatment of NaOH. With H202/HAC treatment, the lignified tissues remained strong blue autofiuorescence, while the fluorescence from unlignified tissues disappeared. The results indicated that protoxylem vessels had already showed lignification before phloem and metaxylem formed in the tissues; femlic acid was widely distributed in the young tissues of bamboo shoot, the content of which decreased with the progress of the lignitieation. It is further confirmed that H202/HAC treatment is an effective method to discriminate the phenolic acids bound to hemicelluloses from the phenolies existed in the lignin molecules.
Abstract (Browse 1834)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genetic Transformation of Protoplasts from Peucedanum terebinthaceum and Regeneration of Herbicide resistant Plantlets
Author: WANG Xiu-Feng, YANG Ai-Fang and ZHANG Ju-Ren
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(7)
      
    Calli produced from the segments of young petioles of Peucedanum terebinthaceum Fisch. ex Turcz. were transfered into liquid medium for suspension culture. The protoplasts were isolated from cells of clusters by enzymes digestion. The mutant als ( acetolactate synthase) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana ( L. ) Heynh. Was transferred into protoplasts of P. terebinthaceum with PEG method. A transformation medium containing 40 - 50 g/mL DNA and 10% PEG and an incubation condition of 26 for 25 minutes in dark revealed the best result. Supplementation with 0~60g/mL ctDNA into the medium gave no remarkable effect on transformation frequency. After cell clumps formed from the treated protoplasts in liquid medium, they were transferred onto proliferation medium containing 0.01 mg/L chlorsulfuron. The resistant clones grew 20 days later, and were transferred onto differentiation medium containing 0.03 mg/L chlorsulfuron. Plantlets regenerated via embryoid pathway. Southern blot hybridization with the 32p labeled 2.5 kb fragments of p35s- als demonstrated that the mutant als gene had inserted into P. terebinthaceum genome. Chlorsulfuron-resistant calli which grew normally were produced when segments of tmnsgenic plantlets were cultured on the proliferation medium containing 0.01 mg/L chlorsulfuron, whereas the growth of untransgenic explants were inhibited. Meanwhile, the transgenic plants could stand high density of chlorsulfuron up to 0.06 mg/L, but not the wild plants. These results indicated that the exogenous als gene had integrated into P. terebinthaceum genome and could transcript and translate stably.
Abstract (Browse 1815)  |  Full Text PDF       
Dynamic Studies on Primary Reactions of the PS Particles and Core Complexes by Femtosecond Absorption Spectroscopy
Author: CHEN Yao-Dong, CHEN Jian-Xin, HOU Jian-Min,CHEN Hui,ZHANG Xing-Kang, ZHANG Qi-Yuan, LI Liang-Bi and KUANG Ting-Yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(7)
      
    The energy transfer and charge separation in the isolated PS particles and core complexes from spinach were studied with femtosecond absorption spectroscopy by exciting the PS particles and core complexes directly at 400 nm and probing them in the wavelength range of 520 to 700 nm with 200 fs resolution. The results from PS particle excitation showed that the processes of 0.16 ps, 2.8 ps and 20.9 ps components obtained by global analysis of data were the energy transfers occurred in the light-harvesting complexes (LHC ). The process of 8.6 ps component was the energy transfer from LHC to PS core and finally to the reaction center. The other result from PS core comple excitation showed that the 0.35 ps and 11.2 ps components attributed to the energy transfer among the internal antennae. It was concluded that the 2.9 ps and 20.1 ps components could be attributed to the charge separation processes or the energy transfer processes between core antennae and reaction center.
Abstract (Browse 1696)  |  Full Text PDF       
Inheritance if Chloroplast and Mitochondrial DNA in Chinese Fir(Cunninghamia lanceolata)
Author: Qi Wen-Qing, YANG Hui-Jun, XUE Yong-Biao and HU Shi-Yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(7)
      
    The inheritance of mitochondrial (mt) DNA and chloroplast (cp) DNA was investigated in intergeneric hybrids from crossing between Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook. and Cryptomeria fortuaei Hooibrenk. The chloroplast tmL-trnF region and one intra-genic segment of the mitochondrial gene, Cox m, were amplified from those of the parents and hybrids by PCR using gene-specific primers. Cp- and mtDNA polymorphisms of the amplified regions were detected between the parents after restriction digestions. Restriction fragmem length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis revealed that all the Fl individuals possessed Cox restriction fragment patterns (characteristic of the paternal parent Cryptomeria fortunei ) and the tmL-tmF region (identical to the matemal parent Cunninghamia lanceolata ) showing that a different mode of inheritance for organelle DNA has occurred in the hybrids. Furthermore, the maternal inheritance of chloroplast DNA is reported here for the first time in coniferophyta.
Abstract (Browse 2078)  |  Full Text PDF       
Soft X-ray Diagnosis on Seed Development and Observation on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth in Artificial Hybridization in Cunninghamia and Cryptomeria
Author: LI Wen-Dian, QI Wen-Qing, CHENG Xiao-Fei and HU Shi-Yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(7)
      
    An intergeneric artificial hybridization was conducted between Cunninghamia R. Br. And Cryptomeria D. Don The results are as follows: 1. A considerable number of hybrid seeds shed from 76 pollinated cones were empty and a total of 628 looks plump. Soft X-ray radiographs showed that, still and all, a majority of the "plump" seeds were embryoless (597, 95.6 % ) whereas some were partially-developed ( 17, 2.7 % ) and only a few were really full ( 14, 2.2 % ). 2. Germination test showed that all of the radiographed hybrid seeds with fully-developed embryos were genninable whereas those with partially-developed embryos were ungenninable. 3. Physiologically, the growth rate of hypocotyl, the date for shedding of seed coat and spreading of cotyledons, the elongation of epicotyl, and the branching of shoot of the 11-month old seedlings showed a tendency to fall behind those of the female parent; morphologically, the l 1-month old hybrid seedlings with linear leaves appeared rather short, slender and weak, whereas the seedlings of the female parents with linear-lanceolate leaves appeared rather tall, stout and strong. 4. It is considered that the hybrid may be true and the crossability reveals a close phylogenetic affinity of Cunninghamia with Cryptomeria.
Abstract (Browse 1772)  |  Full Text PDF       
Using Isolated Embryo Sacs and Early Proembryos for Localization of Calmodulin mRNA Before and After Fertilization in Nicotiana
Author: LI Shi-Tao, CHEN Shao-Rong, L Ying-Tang, YANG Hong-Yuan and ZHOU Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(7)
      
    An in situ hybridization technique for localization of cahnodulin (CaM) mRNA in isolated entire embryo sacs and proembryos in Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. W38 has been developed. This technique can be applied to small amounts of materials in which a whole view of CaM mRNA distribution can be obtained. The authors revealed that CaM mRNA expression changes dramatically before and after fertilization. Especially interesting is that a prominent CaM mRNA band appears between the egg apparatus and polar nuclei temporarily during the period of pollination and fertilization. The band disappears just prior to fertilization and expands to a fan-shaped region that occupies the micropylar portion of the embryo sac. After fertilization, CaM mRNA accumulates in the elongated zygotes with higher concemration in their chalazal portion than in the micropylar portion. Such an asymmetrical pattern continues to manifest in the early proembryos. It is supposed that CaM mRNA may be involved in the early events and signaling steps associated with double fertilization and zygote polarization in higher plants.
Abstract (Browse 1693)  |  Full Text PDF       
Antifreeze Proteins and Their Role in Plant Antifreeze Physiology
Author: JIANG Yong, JIA Shi-Rong, FEI Yun-Biao and TAN Ke-Hui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(7)
      
    In the last 3 decades, antifreeze proteins (AFPs) have been studied in overwintering insects, polar fish, then in plant materials. The studies in fish AFPs were more comprehensive and systematic. Four groups of AFPs are indentified in the polar fish: AFGPs (antifreeze glycoproteins), AFP, AFP and AFP m. Two new AFPs, THP26/27 (in Tenebrio molitor), DAFP-1/-2 (in Dendroides canadensis), are purified from insects. Recently, five AFPs in plants are purified: Sd67 (in Solanum dulcamara ), three antiftmgal proteins ( in Secale cereale ) and afp ( in Ammonpiptanthus mongolicus ). Their THA ( thermal hysteresis activity) is lower than that of fish and insect AFPs. Plant AFPs may have four fimctions in the antifreeze process of plant: ( 1 ) lowering the freezing point; (2) inhibiting ice-recrystallization; ( 3 ) modifying ice morphology; (4) regulating the supercooling state of protoplasm. And it is the last one that may be the key role of AFPs to beneficiate the plant undergoing an antifreeze physiological process.
Abstract (Browse 1834)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Acid-alkali-free Analysis of Quaternary Pollen
Author: LI Xiao-Qiang and DU Nai-Qiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1999 41(7)
      
    The acid-alkali-free analysis is a very useful method for extraction of pollen from Quaternary sediments because of its technical simplicity and easiness in operation. The new method does not need the use of acid and alkali as the conventional methoddoes . It has a special feature of short work cycle, owns the advantages of the low pollen destruction, pollution and cost. It is a very powerful method to be used in the high-resolution Quaternary pollen research.
Abstract (Browse 1842)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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