October 2000, Volume 42 Issue 10


          Research Articles
Immunohistochemical Analysis of IAA in Anthers of the Photoperiod-sensitive Genic Male-sterile Rice
Author: LI Nian-Hua, TONG Zhe, LU Shan-Fa
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(10)
    The immunohistochemical localization of IAA and the comparison of their relative levels were carried out for the first time in the anthers of Nongken 58S and its wild type Nongken 58 (Oryza sativa subsp. japonica) after long-day and short-day treatments. The distribution of free-IAA in anthers and its dynamic variation could be reflected by this method. The results showed that the IAA level in the anthers of Nongken 58S after long-day treatment was much lower than that in short-day-treated Nongken 58S and those in wild type Nongken 58 in five stages from pistil and stamen primordia formation to late uninucleate stage. The possible reasons for IAA deficiency in Nongken 58S-LD anthers and its relationship with fertility alteration were also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1996)  |  Full Text PDF       
Identification of Molecular Markers for the Thinopyrum intermedium Chromosome 2Ai-2 with Resistance to Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus
Author: ZHANG Zeng-Yan, XIN Zhi-Yong, LIN Zhi-Shan, CHEN Xiao, WANG Xiao-Ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(10): 1051-1056

The wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium addition lines Z1,Z2 contain a pair of Th. intermedium chromosomes 2Ai-2 carrying the gene with resistance to barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used to analyze the chromosome constitution of Z1,Z2 by using genomic DNA probes from Th. intermedium and Pseudoroegneria strigosa. The results showed that the chromosome constitution of either Z1 or Z2 composes of 42 wheat chromosomes and two Th. intermedium chromosomes (2Ai-2). The 2Ai-2 chromosome is St-E intercalary translocation, in which the E genomic chromosome segment translocated into the middle region of the long arm of chromosome belonging to St genome. With the genomic DNA probe of Ps. strigosa, the GISH pattern specific to the 2Ai-2 chromosome may be used as a molecular cytogenetic marker. A detailed RFLP analysis on Z1, Z2 and their parents was carried out by using 12 probes on the wheat group 2 chromosomes. Twenty RFLP markers specific to the 2Ai-2 chromosome were identified. Two RAPD markers of OPR16 –350 and OPH09 -1580, specific to the 2Ai-2 chromosome, were identified from 280 RAPD primers. These molecular markers could be used to assisted-select translocation lines with small segment of the 2Ai-2 chromosome and provide tools to localize the BYDV resistance.

张增艳 辛志勇 林志珊 陈孝 王晓萍

摘要:小麦_中间偃麦草二体异附加系Z1、Z2具有一对携带抗黄矮病基因的中间偃麦草染色体 2Ai-2。利用中间偃麦草 (Thinopyrumintermedium (Host)BarkwothandDewey)和拟鹅冠草 (Pseudoroegneriastrigosa)基因组DNA作探针 ,对Z1、Z2进行基因组原位杂交分析。结果表明 ,Z1、Z2附加的一对中间偃麦草染色体 2Ai-2为St_E染色体 ,E组染色体片段中间插入易位到St组染色体长臂中间区域。特异的基因组原位杂交 (GISH)图谱可作为 2Ai-2染色体特异的分子细胞学标记。利用小麦 (TriticumaestivumL .)第二部分同源群染色体长臂和短臂上的 12个探针 ,对Z1、Z2及其亲本进行较详细的RFLP分析 ,鉴定出 2 0个 2Ai-2染色体特异的RFLP标记。从 2 80个随机引物中 ,筛选出 2个2Ai-2染色体特异的RAPD标记OPR16 -350 和OPH0 9-1580

关键词: 大麦黄矮病毒;中间偃麦草;附加系;基因组原位杂交RFLP;RAPD

Abstract (Browse 2316)  |  Full Text PDF       
Development and Ultrastructure of the Phloem Ganglion in Bamboo Node
Author: DING Yu-Long, FAN Ru-Wen, HUANG Jin-Sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(10): 1009-1013

The development, cytological characters and ultrastructure of phloem ganglion in the nodal region of Phyllostachys edulis (Carr.) H. de Lehaie, a most economically important bamboo, were investigated and the possible physiological function of this special structure was proposed. The phloem ganglion derived directly from procambium is situated at the sites where the vascular bundle forks and is present in pairs. The phloem ganglion is spindle-like in appearance and usually consists of 4 to 6 layers. Two kinds of cells in the ganglion could be distinguished. In the middle, there are two layers of filiform cells with pointed ends so that there are no normal sieve plates. Nevertheless, there are many pits on the lateral wall of the filiform cells. The other type of cells located at both ends of the spindle which possess an intermediate form between the filiform cell and the normal sieve tube. The walls of these cells towards the filiform cells are strongly convex forming a special sieve plate. Ultrastructure study showed that cells in the ganglion are connected by enriched plasmodesma. During early differentiation, the paramural body and the ingrowth of cell wall could be observed. It indicates that the cells of phloem ganglion have the character of transfer cells. The organelles in the mature cells are mainly plastids with abundant accumulation of proteins of crystalline structure. The above-mentioned results suggest that the physiological function of the phloem ganglion is closely related with substance transport. 

丁雨龙* 樊汝汶 黄金生

摘要:研究了中国最为重要的经济竹种毛竹 (Phyllostachysedulis (Carr.)H .deLehaie)节部“韧皮部结”的个体发育、构成该结构细胞的形态学特征及其超微结构 ,探讨了该结构可能的生理功能。“韧皮部结”的发育直接来源于原形成层 ,发生在维管束分叉处 ,一般成对出现。“韧皮部结”外形呈纺锤体状 ,一般由 4~ 6层细胞形成叠生构造。构成“韧皮部结”的细胞可以区分为两类 ,一类是位于纺锤体中部的两层细胞 ,呈线条形 ,两端尾尖 ,因而无筛板 ,但在侧壁上有大量的纹孔 ;另一类是位于纺锤体两端、形态介于线条形细胞和正常筛管分子之间的细胞 ,此类细胞两端的端壁形态不同。与线条形细胞相连接的一端明显隆起 ,形成特殊形态的筛板。超微结构研究表明 ,构成“韧皮部结”的细胞之间胞间连丝十分丰富 ,细胞壁具有内突 ,因而具有传递细胞的特征。成熟细胞内的细胞器以富含蛋白质的质体为主。“韧皮部结”的功能 ,根据其发生的部位 ,显然与物质的分流密切相关。

关键词: 韧皮部结;个体发育;超微结构;生理功能

Abstract (Browse 2495)  |  Full Text PDF       
Quantitative Determination of Glycinebetaine in Plant Tissues by Reverse Phase Ion-pair HPLC
Author: CHEN Shao-Liang, BI Wang-Fu, LI Jin-Ke, WANG Sha-Sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(10): 1014-1018

A reverse phase ion-pair HPLC assay has been developed for screening glycinebetaine content in plant tissues in studies of its relation to salinity tolerance. Separation was performed on a 250 mm×4.6 mm stainless steel column (packed with 10 μm irregular-H) eluted with 50 mmol/L KH 2PO4 (pH 4.45) containing ion-pair agent 0.1% PIC B-8 (1-octane sulfonic acid, Waters). Detection was performed by UV absorbance at 192 nm. The recovery rate of glycinebetaine in tissue extracts ranged from 85% to 96%. Glycinebetaine concentrations in leaf and root of Populus euphratica and P.`popularis 35-44' varied between 0.06 and 0.75 μg/g fresh weight (FW) with higher values in leaf tissue. Glycinebetaine level in suspension cells of P. euphratica increased from 0.45 to 0.77 μg/g FW following NaCl stress. The main assay procedure described here offers a number of advantages over other methods of estimating betaines: a) It increases precision and accuracy as compared with the periodide. b) Using a reverse HPLC column thus it decreases the expense for purchasing special equipment (such as strong cation-exchange columns). c) It avoids the need to generate derivatives thus allows rapid assay for betaines. This technique is not, however, suitable for use on crude, unpurified extracts and an ion-exchange clean up procedure is required. In the author's experiment, the extracts were passed through a 5 mL column of Dowex 1×8 (100-200 mesh, OH- form, Sigma) in series with a second column of a 5 mL Dowex 50W×2 (50-100 mesh, H+ form, Serva). Bound betaine was recovered from Dowex 50W×2 with 10mL of 2mol/L NH4OH and the eluate was evaporated to dryness at 65℃ in vacuum. 1 mL solution for the HPLC elution was used for dissolving betaine samples before separation on column. 

陈少良* 毕望富 李金克 王沙生

摘要:开发了一种用反相HPLC离子对色谱法测定植物组织中甜菜碱的方法。此法的特点是准确、灵敏、简便、费用低。实验分别以胡杨 (PopuluseuphraticaOliv .)悬浮细胞 ,胡杨和群众杨 (P .‘popularis 35 44’)苗木的叶、根组织为材料。样品提取液经浓缩后依次通过Dowex 1× 8阴离子交换树脂柱和Dowex 5 0W× 2阳离子交换树脂柱进行纯化。最后用NH4 OH洗脱阳离子交换树脂柱 ,洗脱液浓缩干后用流动相溶解。样品用C18反相色谱柱进行分离。流动相为 5 0mmol/LKH2 PO4 (pH 4.45 )和 0 .1%PICB_8(辛烷磺酸 ) ,流速 0 .7mL/min ,192nm波长测定。此色谱条件能使甜菜碱与其他组分很好地分离 ,甜菜碱的保留时间为 6 .3min。甜菜碱的加样回收率达到 85 %~ 96 %。经测定 ,杨树根、叶组织中甜菜碱含量为 0 .0 6~ 0 .75 μg/g鲜重 ,叶中甜菜碱浓度高于根。胡杨悬浮细胞经盐处理后甜菜碱浓度有所增加 ,从 0 .45提高到 0 .77μg/g鲜重。

关键词: 甜菜碱;反相%&’( 离子对色谱;回收率;胡杨;群众杨

Abstract (Browse 2626)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Study of Secondary Wall Formation in the Stem Fiber of Phyllostachys pubescens
Author: HE Xin-Qiang, WANG You-Qun, HU Yu-Xi, LIN Jin-Xing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(10)
    Ultrastructural changes in secondary wall formation of Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel fiber were investigated with transmission electron microscopy. Fiber developed initially with the elongation of cells containing ribosomes, mitochondria and Golgi bodies in the dense cytoplasm. During the wall thickening, the number of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi bodies increased apparently. There were two kinds of Golgi vesicles, together with the ones from endoplasmic reticulum formed transport vesicles. Many microtubules were arranged parallel to the long axis of the cell adjacent to the plasmalemma. Along with the further development of fiber, polylamellate structure of the secondary wall appeared, with concurrent agglutination of chromatin in the nucleus, swelling and disintegration of organelles, while cortical microtubules were still arranged neatly against the inner side of plasmalemma. Lomasomes could be observed between the wall and plasmalemma. The results indicated that the organelles, such as Golgi bodies together with small vesicles, rough endoplasmic reticulum and lomasomes, played the key role in the thickening and lignification of the secondary wall of bamboo fiber, though cortical microtubules were correlative with the process as well.
Abstract (Browse 2111)  |  Full Text PDF       
Characteristics and Comparative Study of Chlorophyll-protein Complexes from Siphonous Green Algae
Author: CHEN Min, LI Ai-Fen, ZHOU Bai-Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(10): 1019-1025

By mild PAGE method, 11, 11, 7 and 9 chlorophyll-protein complexes were isolated from two species of siphonous green algae (Codium fragile (Sur.) Hariot and Bryopsis corticulans Setch.), green alga (Ulothrix flacca (Dillw.) Thur.), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea Mill.), respectively. Apparent molecular weights, Chl a/b ratios, distribution of chlorophyll, absorption spectra, low temperature fluorescence spectra of these complexes were determined, and compared with one another. PSⅠ complexes of two siphonous green algae are larger in apparent molecular weight because of the attachment of relative highly aggregated LHCⅠ. Four isolated light-harvesting complexes of PSⅡ are all siphonaxanthin-Chl a/b-protein complexes, and they are not monomers and oligomers like those in higher plants. Especially, the absence of 730 nm fluorescence in PSⅠ complexes indicates a distinct structure and energy transfer pattern.

陈敏1* 李爱芬1 周百成2

(1. 烟台大学生物化学系,烟台264005;2. 中国科学院海洋研究所,青岛266071)

摘要:采用温和的PAGE法从管藻目刺松藻 (Codiumfragile (Sur.)Hariot)和假根羽藻 (Bryopsiscorticulans Setch .) ,丝藻目绿藻软丝藻 (Ulothrixflacca (Dillw .)Thur.) ,及菠菜 (SpinaciaoleraceaMill.)中分别得到 11、11、7和 9种色素蛋白复合物 ,对复合物的多种特性 ,包括分子量、Chla/b比值、叶绿素的相对分布、吸收光谱、77K低温荧光光谱等进行了系统的测定和比较。管藻目绿藻的PSⅠ含有聚集程度更大的LHCⅠ ,因而分子量较大 ;分离出的 4种主要的PSⅡ捕光复合物都是管藻黄素_Chla/b_蛋白复合物 ,并且相互之间不像高等植物那样为单体和寡聚体的关系 ;特别是其PSⅠ复合物的低温光谱中缺少 730nm特征峰。表明这类藻的光系统在结构及能量传递方式方面都具有特殊性 .

关键词: 叶绿素蛋白复合物;PACE;管藻目;绿藻

Abstract (Browse 2457)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes in Levels of Endogenous Plant Hormones During Floret Development in Wheat Genotypes of Different Spike Sizes
Author: CAO Wei-Xing, WANG Zhao-Long, DAI Ting-Bo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(10)
    The levels of endogenous plant hormones regulate floret development and degeneration, and thus grain set in flower crops. This study was undertaken to characterize the changes of endogenous hormone levels during floret development in three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes: “97J1" with the highest grain set and fertile florets per spike, “H8679" with the lowest grain set and fertile florets per spike, and a medium, “YM158". The results showed that the peak level of ABA appeared between stamen and pistil differentiation and antherlobe formation of floret development, and the timing delayed with the size of spike (earliest in “H8679” and latest in “97J1”). From antherlobe formation to meiosis, the levels of ABA and GA1+3decreased sharply in the ears of “97J1”, while in the ears of “H8679” there was only a slight decrease in ABA, and even an increase in GA1+3. The ratio of isopentenyladenosine (iPA)/ABA and IAA/ABA in the ears of “97J1” increased sharply from antherlobe formation to meiosis, but changed only slightly in the ears of “H8679”. At antherlobe formation, IAA and GA1+3 levels were higher in the ears of “97J1”, but lower in the ears of “H8679”than in the leaves. At meiosis, ABA, GA1+3 and IAA levels in the “97J1” ears were much lower than in the leaves, but similar in “H8679”. These results indicated that the sharp decreases of ABA and GA1+3 in ears from antherlobe formation to meiosis and the lowest maintenance at meiosis may be favorable for development of fertile florets and enhancement of grain set in wheat.
Abstract (Browse 2252)  |  Full Text PDF       
Biological Control of Rhizopus Rot of Peach Fruits by Candida guilliermondii
Author: FAN Qing, TIAN Shi-Ping, XU Yong, WANG Yi, JIANG Ai-Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(10): 1033-1038

The biocontrol capability of Candida guilliermondii (Cast) Langeroret Guerra against Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehrenb.ex Fr.) Vuill. postharvest rot of peach fruits was studied in vitro and in vivo under different storage temperatures. C. guilliermondii at 5.0×108 CFU (colony-forming unit)/mL of washed cells provided complete control of 5×104 spores /mL of R. stolonifer during storage at 25 ℃ for 4 d, 15 ℃ for 7 d and 3℃ for 30 d. Temperature had no significant effect on the biocontrol efficacy. Antagonist population increased 45.6, 34.4 and 33.1 times per site at 25℃, 15℃ and 3℃ for 3, 3 and 7 d,respectively, then the population stabilized for the remaining storage period. Cell-free culture filtrate of C. guilliermondii was not effective in preventing decay and resulted in even greater lesion diameter than those of sterile distilled water at 3 ℃.These results showed that competition for nutrient, not antibiotic production, plays a major role in the biocontrol capability of C. guilliermondii against rhizopus rot of peach fruits. As the interval between wounding and inoculation with the pathogen increased from 0 to 72 h, susceptibility of wounds to decay by R. stolonifer decreased from 100% of 0 h to 5% of 4 h and 0% of 24 h, then increased to 10% of 48 h and 40% of 72 h.

范青 田世平* 徐勇 汪沂 姜爱丽

摘要:研究了季也蒙假丝酵母 (Candidaguilliermondii (Cast)LangeroretGuerra)在培养基上和不同贮藏温度下对桃果实软腐病菌 (Rhizopusstolonifer (Ehrenb .exFr.)Vuill.)的抑制效果。结果表明 ,季也蒙假丝酵母的浓度越大 ,抑制效果越好 ;当接种孢子浓度为 5× 10 4 个 /mL时 ,在 2 5℃、15℃和 3℃ 3种贮藏温度下 ,5× 10 8CFU (colony_formingu nit) /mL的酵母悬浮液完全能抑制桃果实软腐病的发生。酵母悬浮液浓度为 1× 10 8CFU/mL时 ,以 2 4h后接种病菌孢子的抑菌效果最佳。季也蒙假丝酵母能在果实伤口处迅速繁殖 ,在 2 5℃、15℃和 3℃下分别培养 3d、3d和 7d时 ,酵母数量可增加 45 .6、34.4、33.1倍 ,并对果实不产生任何伤害。该菌不产生抗菌素 ,其抑菌机理可能与营养竞争等有关。

关键词: 桃;采后生物防治;季也蒙假丝酵母;软腐病

Abstract (Browse 2529)  |  Full Text PDF       
Molecular Engineering on Quality Improvement of Cotton Fiber
Author: LIU Jin-Yuan, ZHAO Guang-Rong, LI Ji
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(10)
    Cotton is the most important economic crop, and its fiber is the major raw material used for textile industry. Cotton fiber with its good properties such as thermal insulation, hygroscopicity, and air-permeability, can not be replaced by other fibers. With rapid development of textile technology and the increasing requirement of consumers for higher quality of textile products, it is urgent to improve cotton fiber quality, especially its strength and color. There is genetically a negative correlation between the yield and the quality of cotton, therefore molecular engineering-breeding could be an access to concordant improvement of both yield and quality of cotton fiber. This paper reviewed the progress of analyzing cotton fiber-related genes and the present status of improving cotton fiber quality by genetic engineering. Some breakthroughs are expected in separating fiber development-related genes with high throughput techniques and in exploring the novel technology to manipulate transgenic cottons.
Abstract (Browse 2144)  |  Full Text PDF       
Seed Dispersal by a Frugivore Pycnonotus sinensis and the Distribution of Sambucus chinensis
Author: HUANG Shuang-Quan, WANG Xiao-Min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(10)

Frugivorous birds play an important role in the distribution of those plants on whose fruits they feed and affect species composition of plant communities. The fruiting phenology of Sambucus chinensis Lindl. in Wuhan area ranges from July to November, while abundant fruits are available in July and August. Although other seven species of frugivores were found in the study area, only Pycnonotus sinensis (Gmelin), a resident bird endemic to China, was observed foraging in the fruits of this plant for the field. Pycnonotus sinensis shifts from eating fruits of Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent. to those of S. chinensis from July to August. Identification of seeds in a total of 658 feces disseminated by P. sinensis which were collected in the field showed that most of the seeds came from S. chinensis and B. papyrifera. Seeds in those feces collected at the end of August were all of S. chinensis. Field investigation of the associations of S. chinensis shows that its frequent companion species are B. papyrifera, Cinnamomum camphora, Ligustrum lucidum and Rubus biflorus, whose fruits are also preferred by this frugivore in different seasons. The distribution of Pycnonotus sinensis is limited to the south of Qinling Mountain in China. The distribution of S. chinensis is basically consistent with that of Pycnonotus sinensis. The result indicates that seed dispersal of S. chinensis depends on the foraging of this frugivore. Likewise, the fruits of S. chinensis are the primary food for this frugivore in autumn. As the result suggests, conservationists and restoration biologists should highlight the study of plant-disperser mutualism in the future work.

Abstract (Browse 2318)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Exogenous Hormornal Control of the Development of Regenerated Flower Buds in Hyacinthus orientalis
Author: LU Wen-Liang, BAI Shu-Nong, ZHANG Xian-Sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(10)
    The critical role of exogenous hormone on inducing the initiation of different floral organs in the regenerated flower bud and controlling their numbers was further evidenced. The initiation of the flower buds was first induced from the perianth explants of Hyacinthus orientalis L. cv. White pearl by a combination of 2 mg/L 6-BA and 0.1 mg/L 2,4-D, and then a continuous initiation of over 100 tepals (a flower bud of H. orientalis in situ has only 6 tepals) was successfully controlled by maintenance of such a hormone concentration. However, a change of hormonal concentration (2 mg/L 6-BA and 0-0.000 1 mg/L 2,4-D) caused cessation of continuous initiation of the tepals but gave rise to induction of stamen initiation. Keeping the changed hormone concentrations could successfully control the continuous initiation of over 20 stamens (a flower bud of H. orientalis in situ has only 6 stamens). The experiment showed that the number of identical floral organs in the regenerated flower buds can be controlled by certain defined concentrations of the exogenous hormones, and the amount of the induced identical floral organs has no effect on the differentiation sequence of the different floral organs in the regenerated flower bud. Based on a systematic research on controlling the differentiation of the floral organs from both the perianth explants and the regenerated flower buds by the exogenous hormones in H. orientalis over the past decade, the authors put forward here a new idea on the role of phytohormone in controlling the automatic and sequential differentiation of the different floral organs in flower development. The main points are as follows: 1. the development of flower bud in plant is a process in which all of the floral organs are automatically and sequentially differentiated from the flower meristem. 2. Experiments in vitro showed that the effect of exogenous hormones in controlling the initiation of different floral organs is strictly concentration dependent, i.e., one kind of the floral organ can continuously and repeatedly initiate from the flower meristem as long as it is maintained in that specific concentration of the exogenous hormone which is suitable for the initiation of that particular kind of floral organ. 3. It shows that the flower buds in situ must be automatically able to adjust the endogenous hormonal concentrations just after the completion of the differentiation of one whorl of floral organ to suit the differentiation of the next whorl. Thus, the phytohormone in different concentrations takes after many change-over switches of the organ differentiation and plays a connective and regulatory role between the differentiation of every two whorls of the floral organ. In other words, these change-over switches play the roles of inhibiting the expression of the genes which control the initiation of the floral organs in the first whorl, meanwhile, activating the expression of the genes which control the initiation of the floral organs in the second whorl during the successive initiation of the different floral organs from the flower bud. It results in the automatic and sequential initiation of the various floral organs from the floral meristem. 
Abstract (Browse 2698)  |  Full Text PDF       
Promoter Function of a Rice Repetitive DNA Sequence RRD3 in Transgenic Plants
Author: WANG Jin-Fa, LI Yi-Kun, HE Hai-Qiong, CHEN Zhong-Jian, LIU Liang-Shi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(10)
    A 820 bp rice (Oryza sativa L.) repetitive DNA sequence, the RRD3, was cloned by annealing kinetics. From the sequence analysis, there are several conserved promoter motifs in the sequence such as TATA-box, CAAT-box, etc. In order to detect the promoter function of RRD3, RRD3 was inserted into Ti plasmid pBI121 to replace the CaMV 35S promoter DNA fragment. Both transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) G28 and rice callus showed the β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity by histochemical assays, the GUS activities of the transgenic tobacco were primarily localized at or around the vascular tissue in leaf and stem. These results indicated that RRD3 can exercise promoter function. The core sequence of promoter of RRD3 will be located.
Abstract (Browse 2036)  |  Full Text PDF       
Importance of Epistasis as the Genetic Basis of Sterility Instability for Photoperiod-sensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice
Author: HE Yu-Qing, XU Cai-Guo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(10): 1062-1068

In this study the authors selected two indica photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile (PSGMS) rice (Oryza sativa L.), Peiai 64S (the sterility is stable) and 8902S (the sterility is instable), and their F1,F2 populations. The genetic basis for sterile stability of PSGMS lines was studied under long-day low-temperature environments and different ecological conditions, and the genes which affected the sterile stability were mapped using RFLP analysis. The major results are as follows: The sterility instability of PSGMS lines was controlled by minor effective genes. The linkage map of Peiai 64S and 8902S has been constructed. According to Mapmaker/QTL program, seven QTLs were identified that influence the sterile stability for PSGMS lines under the long-day condition, such as L2, L3a, L3b, L5, L6, L7 and L10. They were located on the chromosomes 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, and 10 of the rice linkage map, respectively. The interaction was detected under different long-day conditions and affected the sterility stability of PSGMS. The major interactions were between additive and additive and between additive and dominance. The variances explained of epistasis were between 2.04% and 11.94%. The repeatability of the interaction was very high under different long-day conditions. The implications of these findings in hybrid rice development are also discussed.

何予卿* 徐才国

摘要:以来源于农垦 5 8S的籼型光敏核不育水稻 (Oryzasativa L .)培矮 64S(长日低温下不育性稳定 )和 890 2S(长日低温下不育性不稳定 )及其F1、F2 群体为材料 ,通过长日低温和不同长日生态条件的 7种处理 ,并结合RFLP分子标记 ,研究了影响光敏核不育基因的育性不稳定性的遗传及其基因定位和基因互作对其育性不稳定性的影响。结果表明 :影响光敏核不育基因的育性不稳定性表现为微效基因的作用 ,定位了 7个影响光敏核不育水稻的育性不稳定的数量性状位点 (QTL) ,即L2、L3a、L3b、L5、L6、L7和L10 ,它们分别位于水稻连锁图谱的第 2、3、5、6、7和 10染色体上。证实了上位性真实存在于光敏核不育水稻中并影响其育性稳定性。基因互作类型表现以加性与加性互作和加性与显性互作为主 ,同一互作对表现多种互作类型并存。互作所解释的遗传变异处于 2 .0 4%~ 11.94%之间 ,不同处理之间有较好的重复性。

关键词: 光敏核不育水稻;不育性不稳定性;数量性状位点(OTL);上位性;籼稻

Abstract (Browse 2140)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genetic Diversity Within and Among Populations of Viola tenuicornis with Reference to Sampling Strategies
Author: LI Ang, WANG Ke-Qing, GE Song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(10)
    Genetic diversity and population differentiation of Viola tenuicornis W. Beck. were studied in nine populations in Beijing using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. Allozyme data for 11 loci of 8 enzymes indicated high level of genetic variability in this region with P=72.7%, A=2.4 and H e=0.243. In contrast, the population differentiation was lower than the average of other perennial herb with F st=0.196. It was found that distances among populations had little effect on population differentiation. A sample of 30 individuals could well represent a population, but less than 20 individuals per population might lead to significant bias in the estimation of genetic parameters, in particular the values of A and H e.
Abstract (Browse 2078)  |  Full Text PDF       
Spatial Characteristics and Change for Tree Species (Genera) Along Northeast China Transect (NECT)
Author: CHEN Xiong-Wen, ZHANG Xin-Shi, ZHOU Guang-Sheng, CHEN Jin-Zheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(10): 1075-1081

The 16 tree species on Northeast China Transect (NECT) were analyzed from the change of geographical distribution, frequency and dominance pattern and the spatial correlation at landscape scale in 1986 and 1994. Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc. and Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hemsl. had spread rapidly towards west and east, respectively. The frontier form of species had close relation with its movement. The patch size of Pinus koraiensis, Populus davidiana Dode., Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Juglans mandshurica Maxim., Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr., Betula dahurica Pall., Picea koraiensis Nakai, Abies nephrolepis Maxim. and Larix olgeusis var. koreana Nakai decreased, however, Quercus mongolica Fisch., Betula costata Trautv., Acer mono Maxim., Tilia spp., Ulmus spp., Betula platyphylla Suk. and Fraxinus rhynchophylla increased. The frequency pattern of Populus davidiana, Betula platyphylla, Fraxinus rhynchophylla and Betula dahurica changed significantly. The dominance pattern of Populus davidiana, Tilia spp., Juglans mandshurica, Betula platyphylla, Betula dahurica and Abies nephrolepis changed significantly. The spatial correlation between Quercus mongolica and Betula dahurica, Betula costata and Picea spp., Betula costata and Abies nephrolepis, Picea spp. and Abies nephrolepis declined, however, the spatial correlation between Larix spp. and Betula platyphylla, Acer mono and Ulmus spp. increased.

陈雄文 张新时 周广胜 陈锦正

摘要:对中国东北样带上 16个树种 (属 )在 1986年与 1994年景观水平的地理分布、出现频率、优势度及空间相关性等空间特性的分析得出 ,红松 (PinuskoraiensisSleb .etZucc .)与花曲柳 (FraxinusrhynchophyllaHemsl.)分别是向西和向东扩展最快 ;种群的分布边界形状与该边界的移动有密切关系 ;红松、山杨 (PopulusdavidianaDode .)、黄檗(PhellodendronamurenseRupr.)、胡桃楸 (JuglamsmandshuricaMaxim .)、水曲柳 (FraxinusmandshuricaRupr.)、黑桦 (Betu ladahuricaPall.)、云杉 (PiceakoraiensisNakai.)、臭松 (AbiesnephrolepisMaxim .)、落叶松 (Larixolgensisvar.koreanaNakai)的斑块减小 ,而蒙古栎 (QuercusmongolicaFisch .)、枫桦 (BetulacostataTrautv .)、色木 (AcermonMaxim .)、椴(Tiliaspp .)、榆 (Ulumsspp .)、白桦 (BetulaplatyphyllaSuk .)、花曲柳的斑块增大 ;山杨、白桦、花曲柳、黑桦的频度格局变化显著 ;山杨、椴、胡桃楸、白桦、黑桦、臭松的优势度格局变化显著 ;蒙古栎与黑桦、枫桦与云杉、枫桦与臭松、云杉与臭松的空间相关性减少 ,而落叶松与白桦、色木与榆的空间相关性增加。

关键词: 空间特性;树种(属);中国东北样带;斑块;频度;优势度;空间相关性

Abstract (Browse 2278)  |  Full Text PDF       
Molecular Ecology of Lower Subtropical Species, Schima superba and Castanopsis chinensis in Three Succession Series Communities
Author: WANG Zheng-Feng, WANG Bo-Sun, LI Ming-Guang, ZHANG Jun-Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(10): 1082-1088

Amplified fragment length polymorphism(AFLP)was used to analyze 2 populations: Schima superba Gardn. et Champ. and Castanopsis chinensis Hance. across three different communities representing three succession stages, in Dinghu Mountain, China. These two were middle succession species in the lower subtropical broad-leaved forest. Four AFLP primer combinations using total 48 individuals of S. superba provided 24, 40, 27 and 27 reliable bands, of which 15, 23, 23 and 16 were polymorphic, respectively. Similarly, total 48 individuals of C. chinensis provided 27, 20, 33 and 39 reliable bands, of which 12, 5, 15 and 13 were polymorphic respectively. These bands were used as presence/absence data to assess the levels of genetic variation and population structure of those species. From average heterozygosity, S.superba possessed higher molecular variation than C.chinensis. Analysis of molecular variance(AMOVA)indicated that most of the genetic variation of S.superba was due to the differences within population(95.99%, P<0.001), with 4.01%(P<0.001)genetic variation among population. Similarly, AMOVA indicated the most of the genetic variation of C. chinensis was due to the differences within population(75.36%, P<0.001), with 24.64%(P<0.001)genetic variation among communities(24.64%). DCA(Detrended Correspondence Analysis) analysis showed that the individuals of S.superba from the same community did not cluster together, while the individuals of C.chinensis from the same community roughly cluster together. The above results reflected the biological characteristics of the two different species suggesting the significant effect of microenvironment of different community on population differentiation and its relationship of which to forest succession resulted in genetic divergence.

王峥峰 王伯荪 李鸣光* 张军丽

摘要:用扩增片段长度多态性 (AFLP ,amplifiedfragmentlengthpolymorphism)方法研究了荷木 (SchimasuperbaGardn .etChamp .)和锥栗 (CastanopsischinensisHance .)在 3个演替系列群落中的分子变化。研究地点位于广东省鼎湖山。 3个群落是针叶林群落、针阔叶混交林群落和常绿阔叶林群落。荷木的AFLP分析结果表明 ,4组引物对分别扩增出2 4、40、2 7、2 7条带 ,其中分别有 15、2 3、2 3、16条是多样性带 ;锥栗的AFLP分析结果表明同样的 4组引物对分别扩增出 2 7、2 0、33、39条带 ,其中分别有 12、5、15、13条是多样性带。平均杂合度表明荷木比锥栗有更大的分子变异。用AMOVA(analysisofmolecularvariance)分析表明荷木种群有 95 .99%的分子分化表现在种群内 ,4.0 1%的分子分化表现在种群间 ,表现极显著 (P 0 .0 0 1) ;锥栗种群有 75 .36 %的分子分化表现在种群内 ,2 4.6 4%的分子分化表现在种群间 ,极显著 (P 0 .0 0 1)。除趋势面对应分析表明荷木来自不同群落的个体分布没有规律 ,而锥栗来自不同群落的个体大致分布在一起。上述结果的产生是两个不同种群的生物学特性的反映 ,并提示了不同群落微环境对种群分化的影响 ,以及与森林演替群落的相关性。

关键词: 荷木;锥栗;AFLP;分子生态;群落;种群

Abstract (Browse 2209)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Spatial Pattern and Topographic Interpretation of the Forest Vegetation at Dalaoling Region in the Three Gorges
Author: SHEN Ze-Hao, ZHANG Xin-Shi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(10)

The paper aims to explore the influence of topography on the pattern of vegetation on landscape scale. Based on the investigation of a large number of forest communities at Dalaoling Mountain in the Three Gorges, 7 indexes were used to figure out the topographical characteristics of habitats. The topographical pattern of different communities were analyzed with detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA) ordination, and the influence of topographical factors, spatial factors and their interaction on the total variance of vegetative pattern were quantitatively partitioned. The results suggested that, the contribution of the 3 aspects is 9.50%, 5.94% and 6.81%, respectively. Topography shows dominant controlling effect on the vegetative pattern at Dalaoling. But 77.75% of the variance were not interpreted yet.


Abstract (Browse 2143)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies of Polyamine Metabolism and β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic Acid Accumulation in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus) Under Water Stress
Author: XING Geng-Sheng, ZHOU Gong-Ke, LI Zhi-Xiao, CUI Kai-Rong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(10): 1039-1044

Seedlings of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) were treated with polyethylene glycol (PEG), in addition with putrescine (Put) and α-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) in order to study the relation between polyamine metabolism and accumulation of β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid (ODAP) under water stress. The results indicated that Put, spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) contents of leaves gradually increased along with the extension of PEG-treatment time. Especially, the increase in Spm contents was significant together with a gradual increase of ODAP contents. Put and Spd contents of leaves markedly increased along with the extension of PEG+Put treatment time. There was little effect on Spm contents and ODAP contents in leaves with PEG+Put treatment. The accumulation of Put, Spd, Spm and ODAP in leaves was inhibited by PEG+DFMA treatment. The inhibition of DFMA for Put and Spd biosynthesis was partially overcome by adding exogenous Put, but little effect for the inhibition of DFMA on Spm biosynthesis by adding exogenous Put. The accumulation of ODAP was inhibited with PEG+DFMA+Put treatment in leaves. This indicated that there was a relationship between the increase of Spm contents and the accumulation of ODAP in leaves under water stress.

邢更生 周功克 李志孝 崔凯荣*


摘要:为了研究水分胁迫下山黧豆 (LathyrussativusL .)叶片中多胺代谢与 β_N_草酰_L_α,β_二氨基丙酸 (ODAP)积累的相关关系 ,利用聚乙二醇 (PEG)对山黧豆幼苗进行水分胁迫处理 ,同时加入腐胺 (Put) ,α_二氟甲基精氨酸(DFMA)和Put+DFMA。实验结果表明 ,随PEG处理时间的延长 ,山黧豆幼苗叶片中Put、亚精胺 (Spd)和精胺 (Spm)含量逐渐增加 ,特别是Spm含量增加显著 ,同时ODAP逐渐积累 ;在PEG处理的同时 ,加入Put使得Put、Spd含量显著增加 ,但对Spm影响不大 ,同样对ODAP含量影响也较小 ;加入DFMA可显著抑制Put、Spd、Spm的积累 ,同时也抑制了ODAP的积累 ;加入Put+DFMA ,Put可以部分地减缓DFMA对两种内源多胺 (Put和Spd)合成的抑制作用 ,但对Spm所受DFMA的抑制作用影响不大 ,这时ODAP的积累也受到抑制。由此可见 ,水分胁迫对山黧豆幼苗叶片中多胺特别是Spm含量的增加与ODAP的积累密切相关。

关键词: 山黧豆;多胺;腐胺;精胺;亚精胺;B-N-草酰-a,B-二氨基丙酸

Abstract (Browse 2409)  |  Full Text PDF       
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