February 2000, Volume 42 Issue 2

 

          Research Articles
Adaptive Changes and Genotypic Variation for Root Architecture of Common Bean in Response to Phosphorus Deficiency
Author: LIAO Hong, YAN Xiao-Long
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(2): 158-163
      
    

Root architectural responses to phosphorus (p) availability may be an important trait for P acquisition efficiency. In the present study, The authors examined the effects of P availability on root architectural responses of different common bean genotypes. Five common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes representing different origins and ecotypic races were compared both in a specially designed paper pouch system and a stratified P buffer sand culture system with computer image analysis. The results showed that root architecture was regulated by P availability. P deficiency led to form a shallower root system, as indicated by increased relative distribution of basal root length in the upper layers and decreased the growth angle of basal roots. There was significant genetic variation in root architecture in response to P deficiency both in the paper pouch system and the stratified sand culture system. Under low P conditions some genotypes were more gravitropically sensitive to low P availability, resulting in producing a shallower root system and enhanced root exploration into the surface soil, where soil available P is more concentrated. G19833 and DOR364, which were most contrasting in P efficiency, were also very different in root architectural response to P availability. The results from this study suggest that P availability regulates root architecture and P deficiency leads to shallower root architecture in beans. The genetic potential of root architecture provides the possibility of selecting this trait for improving P acquisition efficiency in common bean.

菜豆根构型对低磷胁迫的适应性变化及基因型差异
廖红  严小龙
(华南农业大学植物营养遗传研究室,广州510642)


摘要: 利用特殊设计的营养袋纸培和分层式磷控释砂培等根系生长系统结合计算机图像分析技术,以基根根长在生长介质各层的相对分布和基根平均生长角度为指标,定量测定菜豆(Phaseolus vulgaris l.)根构型在低磷胁迫下的适应性变化及其与磷效率的关系。结果表明,菜豆根构型对低磷胁迫具有适应性反应,在缺磷条件下基根向地性减弱,基根在生长介质表层相对分布增多、基根平均生长角度(与水平线夹角)变小,从而导致整个根系较浅。供试菜豆根构型对低磷胁迫的适应性反应具有显著基因型差异,缺磷时G19833 等基因型向地性明显减弱,基根向高磷剖面趋向生长的能力较强,因而具有较高的磷吸收效率。研究结果表明根构型变化是菜豆适应低磷胁迫的可能机理之一,为通过改变植物根构型来提高磷吸收效率提供了依据。
关键词: 菜豆;根构型;根向地性;磷效率

Abstract (Browse 2352)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Nomenclature of Pigment-Protein Complexes from the Brown Alga (Undaria pinnatifida Harv.)
Author: LI Ai-Fen, CHEN Min, ZHOU Bai-Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(2): 153-157
      
    

Eight kinds of pigment-protein complexes were resolved from the thylakoid membrane of the brown alga (Undaria pinnatifida Harv.) by using non-ionic detergent decanoyl-N-methylglucamide and PAGE technique. According to the apparent molecular weights, spectra characteristics, polypeptide compositions and referring to the higher plant spinach, eight pigment-protein complexes were named under Anderson′s terminology system as CPⅠa, CPⅠ, CPa, LHC1, LHC2, LHC3, LHC4, LHC5.

褐藻裙带菜色素-蛋白质复合物的分离与命名
李爱芬 陈 敏2  周百成1

(1.  中国科学院海洋研究所,青岛266071;2. 烟台大学生物化学系,烟台264005)


摘要:以非离子去污剂癸基-N-甲基葡萄糖胺为增溶剂 ,采用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳技术从褐藻裙带菜 (Undariapin natifidaHarv.)的类囊体膜上分离到 8种色素_蛋白质复合物。根据其表观分子量、光谱特性和多肽分析结果 ,并以高等植物菠菜 (Spinaciaoleracea L .)为对照 ,按照Anderson命名系统 ,8种色素_蛋白质复合物分别命名为CPⅠa、CPⅠ、CPa、LHC1、LHC2 、LHC3 、LHC4 和LHC5。

关键词: 裙带菜;色素)蛋白质复合物;命名

Abstract (Browse 2119)  |  Full Text PDF       
Generation of Activated Oxygen and Change of Cell Defense Enzyme Activity in Leaves of Korean Pine Seedling Under Low Temperature
Author: LI Jing, YAN Xiu-Feng, ZU Yuan-Gang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(2): 148-152
      
    

Changes of activated oxygen O2 and H2O2, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and activity of enzymes involving cell defense in leaves of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et. Zucc) seedling under different time of low temperature stress were studied. With the increase of stress time,the rate of O2 generation and H2O 2 content increased to a certain degree and then decreased. The increase of MDA content fluctuated as well as its decrease after the low-temperature stress was removed. The activity of cell defense enzymes, viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascrobate peroxidase (ASP) were gradually decreased. However, after cold pre-treatment of the seedlings all these indexes showed marked changes and different ways of adaptivity to cold stress; thus enhanced the cold tolerance of the plant.

低温胁迫下红松幼苗活性氧的产生及保护酶的变化
李晶 阎秀峰 祖元刚*

(东北林业大学森林植物生态学开放研究实验室, 哈尔滨150040)

摘要:在不同低温胁迫时间下 ,对红松 (Pinuskoraiensis Sieb .et.Zucc)幼苗针叶中H2 O2 、O-·2 、膜脂过氧化产物丙二醛 (MDA)、组织自动氧化速率及保护酶超氧化物歧化酶 (SOD)、过氧化物酶 (POD)、过氧化氢酶 (CAT)和抗坏血酸过氧化物酶 (ASP)的动态变化过程进行了测定。结果表明 ,随着低温胁迫时间的延长 ,O-·2 产生速率和H2 O2 含量先上升后下降 ;MDA的含量呈波动性增加 ,解除低温胁迫后的组织自动氧化速率波动性下降 ;保护酶SOD、POD、CAT及ASP酶活性均逐渐下降。经过低温锻炼 ,植株上述各项指标均发生明显变化 ,并以各自不同的方式增加对低温的适应性 ,抗寒能力明显提高。

关键词: 红松幼苗;低温胁迫;活性氧;保护酶;丙二醛;组织自动氧化速率

Abstract (Browse 2375)  |  Full Text PDF       
Characterization of Aquaporins at the Plasma Membrane of Leaf Callus Protoplasts from Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward
Author: QIU Quan-Sheng, WANG Ze-Zhou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(2): 143-147
      
    

The water transport activity of protoplasts from Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward was determined using a cell image system. The results showed that the protoplast volume increased swiftly when the protoplasts were placed in a hypotonic medium, and the volume increased with the increasing osmotic gradients. The P f values were 0.118×10-3, 0.121×10-3, and 0.133×10-3cm/s under the outward osmotic gradients of 75, 100, and 125 mmol/kg, respectively. The results also showed that the water transport activity of protoplasts could be inhibited by HgCl 2 and stimulated by amphotericin B. Moreover, it was found that ZnCl2 and ZnSO4 had a significant inhibitory effect on the water transport activity of the protoplasts from A. deliciosa var. deliciosa cv. Hayward. The results indicated that the protoplasts of A. deliciosa var. deliciosa cv. Hayward possessed the typical property of aquaporins, suggesting the presence of aquaporins at its plasma membranes.

猕猴桃原生质体质膜水通道蛋白特性
邱全胜! 王泽宙
(北京师范大学生命科学学院, 北京100875)
蔡起贵 姜荣锡
(中国科学院植物研究所, 北京100093)

摘要:采用细胞影像系统,测定了猕猴桃(Actinidia deliciosa cv.Hayward)原生质体转运水分活力。结果表明,猕猴桃原生质体在低渗介质中体积迅速增大,且随着渗透梯差的加大而显著增大;在渗透梯差为75、100、125mmol/kg下,Pf值分别为0.118×10-3、0.121×10-3、0.133×10-3cm/s。同时发现猕猴桃原生质体转运水分活力可以被HgCl2抑制;并且发现人工通道形成剂两性霉素= 能够促进猕猴桃原生质体水分转运,表明所测水分转运是通过膜脂双层进行的。实验还发现,ZnC12和ZnSO4可以显著抑制猕猴桃原生质体水分转运活力。以上可见,猕猴桃原生质体转运水分活力表现出典型的水通道蛋白的特征,暗示猕猴桃原生质体质膜上存在水通道蛋白。

关键词: 猕猴桃;原生质体;质膜;水通道蛋白;细胞影像系统

 

Abstract (Browse 2046)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structural Characters of Leaf Epidermis in Hyoscyameae (Solanaceae) and Their Systematic Significance
Author: YANG Dong-Zhi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(2): 173-178
      
    

nifH-gfp 表达载体的构建及其在Enterobacter gergoviae 57-7中的表达

王伟* 董越梅 安千里 刘祥林*  李久蒂**

(中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093)


摘要:采用PCR技术 ,从GFPmut2中扩增得到三位点突变的报告基因gfpS65T、V68L、S72A片段 ,并将它和肺炎克氏杆菌(Klebsiellapneumoniae (Schr eter)Trevisan)M5a1的固氮酶结构基因nifH的启动子和其起始密码子相融合 ,获得nifH-gfp表达载体pMGFP2 ;再在pMGFP2上插入卡那霉素抗性基因 ,获得可在日勾维肠杆菌 (Enterobactergergoviae)5 7-7表达nifH-gfp的表达载体pMGFP2 .1。研究了此表达载体经转化E .gergoviae 5 7-7后 ,NH+ 4和氧对E .gergoviae5 7-7中nifH-gfp表达的影响。

关键词: nifH  启动子;绿色荧光蛋白;gfp 表达载体

Abstract (Browse 2022)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ovule Development, Formation of Pollination Drop and Pollination Process in Taxus chinensis (Taxaceae)
Author: XING Shu-Ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(2)
Abstract (Browse 1968)  |  Full Text PDF       
Identification of the Mutant of Split Rice Spikelet (SRS)
Author: BAI Su-Lan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(2)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1807)  |  Full Text PDF       
Photoreceptors and Light-regulated Development in Plants
Author: TONG Zhe
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(2)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1845)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Construction of nifH-gfp Expression Vector and Its Expression in Enterobacter gergoviae 57-7
Author: WANG Wei, DONG Yue-Mei, AN Qian-Li, LIU Xiang-Lin, LI Jiu-Di
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(2)
      
    A nifH-gfp expression vector pMGFP2 was constructed by fusing the 725 bp PCR amplified triple mutated green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene (gfpS65T,V68L,S72A) fragment to the nifH promoter and its start codon which was from Klebsiella pneumoniae (Schr eter) Trevisan M5a1. A kanamycin cassette was inserted into PstⅠ site of pMGFP2, obtaining the expressing vector pMGFP2.1 which can be used for the studying of nifH-gfp expression in Enterobacter gergoviae 57-7. It was then transformed into E.gergoviae 57-7 and the effects of NH+4 and oxygen on the expression of nifH-gfp in E. gergoviae 57-7 were studied.
Abstract (Browse 2350)  |  Full Text PDF       
RAPD Analysis and the Probable Evolutionary Route of Wild Relatives of Barley from China
Author: CHEN Xin-Ping, YAN Ling, DING Yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(2): 179-183
      
    

he genetic relationships among 12 wild relatives and cultivar of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) as well as 1 perennial wild barley grass (H. brevisubulatum (Trin.) Link) from China were investigated by RAPD analysis. 36 out of 63 arbitrary primers produced 285 distinctive bands in total, 219 of which were polymorphic. Clearly resolved bands were treated as independent characters and scored for their presence or absence in a binary data matrix. Simple matching coefficients and Nei's similarity coefficients were calculated respectively. Dendrograms were generated by using the PHYLIP 3.5c software. The results revealed that the cultivated barley and their wild relatives from China were clustered into one group, among which, the two-rowed wild relatives of barley ( H. vulgare L. ssp. spontaneum (Koch) Hsü) and the six-rowed wild forms (H. vulgare L. ssp. agriocrithon (Aberg) Hsü) were respectively clustered into different subgroups. It was considered that wild relatives of barley from China were subspecies of H.vulgare. And it was proposed that the cultivated barley was originally evolved from the two-rowed wild barley. The retrogressive two-rowed wild barley and the bottle-shaped wild forms (H. vulgare L. ssp. agriocrithon var. lagunculiforme Bakht Hsü) were the intermediate types in the evolutionary route from the two-rowed wild barley to the six-rowed wild forms and eventually evolved to the cultivated barley.

中国近缘野生大麦的RAPD分析与进化途径探讨
陈新平 闫玲 丁毅*

(武汉大学生命科学学院武汉430072)

摘要:采用RAPD技术对 12份中国近缘野生大麦和栽培大麦 (Hordeumvulgare L .)、1份多年生短芒大麦草 (H .brevisubulatum (Trin .)Link)进行了分析。 6 3个随机引物中有 36个能产生 2 85个稳定的扩增产物 ,其中 2 19个产物具多态性。将每个扩增产物看作一个独立的性状 ,按其有无列出二元数据矩阵 ,计算单匹配系数 (M) ,Nei氏相似性系数 (S)。PHYLIP 3.5c软件包聚类分析的结果表明中国栽培大麦与近缘野生大麦聚为一类 ;近缘野生大麦中 ,野生二棱大麦 (H .vulgareL .ssp .spontaneum (Koch)Hs櫣)与短芒六棱野大麦 (H .vulgareL .ssp .agriocrithon (Aberg)Hs櫣)各聚为一亚类。认为中国近缘野生大麦属于栽培大麦种内的不同亚种 ;推测中国栽培大麦可能是由野生二棱大麦起始 ,经过了退化型野生二棱大麦、六棱瓶形野大麦 (H .vulgareL .ssp .agriocrithonvar.lagunculiforme BakhtHs櫣)等中间类型 ,进化到野生六棱大麦 ,最终进化到栽培大麦的。

关键词: 中国近缘野生大麦;RAPD;聚类分析;进化途径

Abstract (Browse 2215)  |  Full Text PDF       
Selection and Ultrastructural Observation of a High-CO2-requiring Mutant of Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7942
Author: WU Tian-Fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(2)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1855)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects on Fertility in Transgenic Tobacco by Localized Expression of ipt Gene
Author: GENG Sa, MA Mi,LI Guo-Feng, YE He-Chun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(2)
      
    The isopenteryl transferase (ipt) gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith et Townsend) Conn was driven under the tobacco TA29 promoter and introduced into tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants by A. tumefaciens mediated transformation. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed that the ipt gene has integrated into the genomes of tobacco plants. The expression pattern of this chimeric TA29-ipt gene in the transgenic plants was studied, and the endogenous cytokinin level in different organs was assayed by ELISA method. The results showed that the cytokinin content in the androecium of transgenic plants increased 3-4 times as compared with the control, and some changes of the fertility of the TA29-ipt transgenic plants have been observed.
Abstract (Browse 1979)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Physiological-ecological Simulation Model of Maize Growth
Author: SHANG Zong-Bo, YANG Ji-Wu, YIN Hong, LUO Xin-Lan, ZHAO Shi-Yong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(2)
      
    ased on some of the best models over the world, after several years' simulation experimentation and research, a maize (Zea mays L.) physiological-ecological simulation model (MPESM) was built successfully. MPESM consists of five submodels: viz. generation of meteorological data, water effects, nitrogen effects, maize development, and maize growth. Each submodel consists of some specific mathematic models. MPESM is a computerized simulation model bearing five main functions: (1) simulation on the effects of environment (meteorologial factors, soil moisture and nitrogen supply) on maize growth and development; (2) simulation of maize development; (3) simulation of maize growth; (4) simulation of yield formation; (5) decision of optimum maize cultivation management. The major structure, hypothesis, handing procedures and mathematic equations of MPESM are described here. The simulation of soil moisture, nitrogen assimilation, the development, growth and yield of maize were verified to be effective in terms of many years' experimental data.
Abstract (Browse 2107)  |  Full Text PDF       
Seed Shadow of Quercus liaotungensis in a Broad-leaved Forest in Dongling Mountain
Author: WANG Wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(2): 173-178
      
    

nifH-gfp 表达载体的构建及其在Enterobacter gergoviae 57-7中的表达

王伟* 董越梅 安千里 刘祥林*  李久蒂**

(中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093)


摘要:采用PCR技术 ,从GFPmut2中扩增得到三位点突变的报告基因gfpS65T、V68L、S72A片段 ,并将它和肺炎克氏杆菌(Klebsiellapneumoniae (Schr eter)Trevisan)M5a1的固氮酶结构基因nifH的启动子和其起始密码子相融合 ,获得nifH-gfp表达载体pMGFP2 ;再在pMGFP2上插入卡那霉素抗性基因 ,获得可在日勾维肠杆菌 (Enterobactergergoviae)5 7-7表达nifH-gfp的表达载体pMGFP2 .1。研究了此表达载体经转化E .gergoviae 5 7-7后 ,NH+ 4和氧对E .gergoviae5 7-7中nifH-gfp表达的影响。

关键词: nifH  启动子;绿色荧光蛋白;gfp 表达载体

Abstract (Browse 2079)  |  Full Text PDF       
Applicability of Some Stomatal Models to Natural Conditions
Author: YU Qiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(2)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1884)  |  Full Text PDF       
Several Fossil Woods from Mesozoic of Western Liaoning Province, Northeast, China
Author: DUAN Shu-Ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(2)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1938)  |  Full Text PDF       
Construction and Analysis of cDNA Libraries from Proembryos and just Differentiating Young Embryos in Rice
Author: CHEN Shao-Rong, LI Shi-Tao, Lü Ying-Tang, YANG Hong-Yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(2): 214-216
      
    

Two cDNA libraries were constructed from microdissected 214 rice proembryos (2-3 d after pollination) and 121 just differentiating young embryos (3-5 d after pollination) respectively through RT-PCR technique. The primary libraries had a total of 3.7×10 phages for the proembryos and a total of 2.5×10 phages for the just differentiating young embryos, in which 96% of the phages were recombinants. Insert sizes ranging from 400 bp to 3?500 bp were obtained. All of theabove mentioned accorded with the general requirements of cDNA library construction.

水稻原胚和刚启动分化的幼胚cDNA文库的构建与分析
陈绍荣 李师弢 吕应堂 杨弘远*

(武汉大学生命科学学院发育生物学研究中心,武汉430072)
关键词: 水稻;原胚;分化胚;cDNA文库

Abstract (Browse 1960)  |  Full Text PDF       
P61 Protein from a Male Sterile Mutant of Rice is an Isoform of the Chloroplast ATPase β Subunit
Author: WANG Tai, ZHAO Yu-Jin, KUANG Ting-Yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(2): 169-172
      
    

P61 was a protein identified from chloroplasts of Nongken 58S, a male sterile mutant of rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica). Microsequence analysis has revealed that its N-terminal sequence was identical to N-termini of ATPase β subunits of chloroplasts from rice and barley. The antiserum produced using ATPase β subunit from maize specifically recognized P61. P61 had the same molecular weight as the chloroplast ATPase β subunit of wild-type rice “Nongken 58”, but had different isoelectric point (pI) from this β subunit. P61 was more basic than this β subunit. Thus, P61 would be identified as an isoform of the chloroplast ATPase β subunit of rice, named β1. Genetic analysis with a F2 population of Nongken 58SדNongken 58” showed that a single recessive genic gene regulated the formation of β1.

雄性不育水稻农垦58S的P61 蛋白质是叶绿体
ATP酶B亚基的同工型
王台* 赵玉锦 匡廷云
(中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093)

Abstract (Browse 2037)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on a Gynoecious-specific ACC Synthase Gene in Different Sexual Phenotypes of Cucumber Genome
Author: YE Bo-Ping, JI Chen-Jun, YANG Ling-Ling, YANG Zhong-Han
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(2): 164-168
      
    

Using a pair of primers (Primer Ⅰ and Primer Ⅱ), the authors have amplified a fragment of ACC synthase gene about 1025 bp from four varieties of gynoecious species of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) viz.:“CORONA”,“DALEVE”,“Zhongnong No.5”,and “Ouzhou No.8”. Sequence analysis revealed that this fragment of ACC synthase gene was more than 99% homologous with the gene reported by Trebitsh et al (1997). The authors regard them as the same gene, but it exhibited less homology with this ACC synthase gene when expressed by other induction. Southern blot analysis showed that this fragment of ACC synthase gene is associated with the sexual phenotype of cucumber,and it is the specific gene of gynoecium. However, the number of its copies has no direct correlation with the degree of female expression; this seems to indicate that there might be other genes associated with the degree of feminization.

不同性别表型黄瓜基因组中雌性系特异的ACC合酶基因
叶波平1  吉成均1 杨玲玲 杨中汉1 王永建2 曹宗巽1*

(1.  北京大学生命科学学院,北京100871;2.  北京市农林科学院,北京100082;
3. 清华大学生物科学与技术系,北京1000084)

摘要:利用一对引物 (引物 1和引物 2 )分别从雌性系黄瓜 (Cucumissativus L .)品种“CORONA”、“DALEVE”和强雌性黄瓜品种“中农五号”、“欧洲八号”的基因组DNA中扩增到一长约 10 2 5bp的ACC合酶基因片段。序列分析表明 :该基因片段与Trebitsh等 1997年发表的ACC合酶基因片段的同源性大于 99% ,认为这两个基因片段应该是同一个基因 ,不同品种来源的该基因的相同性说明了其高度的保守性 ,并暗示了该基因在黄瓜性别决定中的重要作用。此基因片段与其他在不同诱导条件下表达的ACC合酶基因的同源性较低 (小于 70 % )。Southern分析表明此基因片段与黄瓜的性别表型有关 ,是雌性系黄瓜特有的。此基因的存在与黄瓜的雌性表达为“有”和“无”的关系 ,其拷贝数的多少与雌性表达强弱并无直接相关性 ,暗示在黄瓜中另有与雌性表达强弱有关的基因。

关键词: 黄瓜;雌性系;性别表达;ACC合酶基因

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