March 2000, Volume 42 Issue 3


          Research Articles
Advances in Study of Polar Auxin Transport
Author: NI Wei-Min, CHEN Xiao-Ya, XU Zhi-Hong, XUE Hong-Wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(3): 221-228

Recent advances in dissecting polar auxin transport, i.e., the physiological characteristics and regulation of polar auxin transport, the chemiosmotic hypothesis for polar auxin transport, and the role of polar auxin transport in plant growth and development were reviewed. The authors here focus on the progress of new supports—isolation and function analysis of the genes encoding putative auxin carriers, for the old model of polar auxin transport.

倪为民 陈晓亚 许智宏 薛红卫*

关键词: 生长素;极性运输;植物生长发育

Abstract (Browse 2051)  |  Full Text PDF       
Expression Behavior of Bt Toxin Gene in Transgenic Tobaccos
Author: SHI Chun-Lin, ZHU Zhen, XU Hong-Lin, XIAO Gui-Fang, FENG Ping-Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(3): 269-273

Bt toxin genes were the insecticidal genes most widely used in genetic engineering of pest resistant plant, were of important significance to study their expression behavior in transgenic plants. In this work, a plant expression vector, pBinMoBc, was constructed. It contained the Cry IA(c) gene under control of chimeric OM promoter and the Ω factor. The vector was transferred into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plant via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. ELISA assay showed that the expression levels of the Cry IA(c) gene in transgenic tobacco plants were significantly higher than that in wild-type tobacco plants. The highest could be up to 0.255% of total soluble proteins; the expression level of CryIA(c) gene in transgenic tobacco plant was changeable during the development stages of tobacco plant. Bioassay showed that pBinMoBc transgenic tobacco plants had more notable insecticidal activity than the wild-type tobacco plants. The above results indicated that pBinMoBc was an effective pest-resistent plant expression vector. This study would be very helpful in screening transgenic cotton with high resistance to cotton bollworm (Heliothis armigeva Hubner).

转基因烟草中Bt 毒蛋白基因的表达行为
石春林 朱祯* 徐鸿林 肖桂芳 冯平章**


摘要:构建了高效植物表达载体pBinMoBc ,该载体携带超强表达复合启动子OM及Ω因子控制下的CryIA(c)基因。采用根癌土壤杆菌 (Agrobacteriumtumefaciens (SmithetTownsend)Conn)介导的方法转化烟草 (Nicotianatabacum L .) ,ELISA检测表明 ,大多数转基因烟草中CryIA(c)基因表达量均超过 0 .1% ,最高可达 0 .2 5 5 % ;转基因烟草中CryIA(c)基因表达水平与植株发育的时间和空间有关。抗虫检测结果表明 ,转基因烟草具有很强的抗棉铃虫 (He liothisarmigevaHubner)效果。上述结果表明 ,pBinMoBc是一个高效抗虫植物表达载体。

关键词: 转基因植物;Bt 毒蛋白基因;高效启动子;ELISA检测;抗虫检测

Abstract (Browse 2213)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies of Transgenic Hybrid Poplar 741 Carrying Two Insect-resistant Genes
Author: TIAN Ying-Chuan, ZHENG Jun-Bao, YU Hong-Mei, LIANG Hai-Yong, LI Chang-Qing, WANG Jin-Mao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(3): 263-268

Partially modified Bt Cry1Ac gene and the arrowhead proteinase inhibitor (API) gene were used to construct a plant transformation vector pBtiA and this construct was transferred into the genome of the hybrid poplar 741 [Populus alba L.×(P. davidiana Dode+P. simonii Carr.)×P. tomentosa Carr.]by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Ten kanamycin resistant plants have been regenerated. Upon insect bioassay using Clostera anachoreta (Fabricius), three of the examined plants were demonstrated to be highly resistant to the testing insects. The mortality of insect larvae on one plant was higher than 90% in 6 days after infestation and the growth of the survival larvae were seriously inhibited. Results of PCR and Southern blot analysis indicated that both Bt Cry1Ac gene and API gene were integrated as a single copy into the genomes of these three plants when Cry1Ac gene fragment was used as the probe. Protein dot blot immunoassay and ELISA analysis revealed that at least the Cry1Ac protein was produced in these three transgenic plants and the expression levels were estimated to be approximately 0.015% of the leaf total soluble protein. This is the first report on insectresistant transgenic hybrid poplar 741 that expresses two insecticidal protein genes.

田颖川1  郑均宝2  虞红梅1  梁海永 李常青1  王进茂2

(1中国科学院微生物研究所,北京100080;2.  河北农业大学,保定071000)

摘要:用部分改造后的苏云金芽孢杆菌 (Bt)杀虫蛋白基因和慈菇蛋白酶抑制剂 (API)基因A构建了植物表达载体。然后通过根癌土壤杆菌 (Agrobacteriumtumefaciens (SmithetTownsend)Conn .)介导将此表达载体上的双抗虫基因转入杂种 741毛白杨 [Populusalba L .× (P .davidiana Dode +P .simoniiCarr.)×P .tomentosaCarr.]获得了一批抗卡那霉素的转化再生植株。用杨扇舟蛾 (Closteraanachoreta (Fabricius) )进行虫试的结果表明有 3株抗虫杨树 ,其中有1株杨树的叶片可使试虫在 6天内的死亡率达 90 %以上 ,而且存活幼虫的生长发育受到了明显的抑制。PCR检测及基因组DNASouthern杂交分析的结果都表明Bt杀虫蛋白基因和API基因已整合到以上 3株抗虫杨树的基因组中 ,而且表现为单拷贝整合。用Bt毒蛋白抗血清进行滤膜免疫反应及ELISA检测结果表明 3株转基因杨树都有Bt杀虫蛋白的表达 ,表达量约占叶总可溶性蛋白的 0 .0 15 %。这是国内外首次报道用双抗虫基因获得的抗虫 741毛白杨植株。

关键词: 741 毛白杨;双抗虫基因;转化

Abstract (Browse 2274)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Light and Temperature on the Expression of the Lhcb 2 Gene in Pea
Author: SUN Qin-Miao, LI Liang-Bi, YAN Jiu-Sheng, MAO Da-Zhang, KUANG Ting-Yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(3): 258-262

An approximately 800 bp cDNA (Lhcb 2) encoding light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein complex (type Ⅱ) was cloned from the seedling of pea (Pisum sativum L.) with RT-PCR method. Southern blotting using special probe demonstrated that there existed one copy of Lhcb 2 in pea genome. RT-PCR and Northern blotting revealed the expression of Lhcb 2 which was regulated by light in a time-dependent expression manner. The Lhcb 2 gene didn't express untill 2 h after irradiated with white light. Low temperature (4℃) also affected the Lhcb2 gene by decreasing half of its expression under 25 ℃.

孙钦秒 李良璧*  阎久 胜毛大璋 匡廷云

摘要:采用RT-PCR技术 ,从豌豆 (Pisumsativum L .)幼叶中克隆了 1个约 80 0bp的Lhcb2cDNA。以特异探针进行的Southern杂交结果表明 ,Lhcb2基因以单拷贝形式存在于豌豆基因组中。不同光照时间和温度对豌豆幼苗进行处理的RT_PCR和Northernblotting分析表明 ,Lhcb2基因转录水平上的表达受光照的控制 ,且明显地表现出对光照时间的依赖性。光照 0~ 1.5hLhcb2基因未见表达 ,而光照 2h以上该基因才大量表达 ;温度对Lhcb2基因的表达亦有显著的影响 ,相同的光照处理 ,4℃下Lhcb2基因的表达量比 2 5℃下的表达量低 1倍左右。

关键词: 豌豆;Lhcb2 基因;光照和温度;转录表达

Abstract (Browse 2045)  |  Full Text PDF       
Synthesis of Heat Shock Protein in Maize Seed Embryo with Different Vigor During Germination
Author: LIU Jun, HUANG Shang-Zhi, FU Jia-Rui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(3): 258-262

The synthetic rate of proteins was lower at high temperature stress (42 ℃)than that at normal condition(25 ℃). Seeds with high vigor synthesized more heat shock proteins (HSPs) during germination. Five kinds of HSPs were found at 42 ℃ in maize (Zea mays L.) seeds, and their molecular weight was 73 kD, 65 kD, 62 kD, 54 kD and 18 kD respectively. Quantitative difference was found between seeds with high and low vigor. Seeds with high vigor had a special HSP of 56 kD, this might be used as an index of seed vigor. 2D-PAGE showed more qualitative difference between seeds with high and low vigor for the synthesis of HSPs.

光照和温度对豌豆Lhcb2 基因表达的影响
孙钦秒 李良璧* 阎久胜 毛大璋 匡廷云

摘要:采用RT-PCR技术 ,从豌豆 (Pisumsativum L .)幼叶中克隆了 1个约 80 0bp的Lhcb2cDNA。以特异探针进行的Southern杂交结果表明 ,Lhcb2基因以单拷贝形式存在于豌豆基因组中。不同光照时间和温度对豌豆幼苗进行处理的RT_PCR和Northernblotting分析表明 ,Lhcb2基因转录水平上的表达受光照的控制 ,且明显地表现出对光照时间的依赖性。光照 0~ 1.5hLhcb2基因未见表达 ,而光照 2h以上该基因才大量表达 ;温度对Lhcb2基因的表达亦有显著的影响 ,相同的光照处理 ,4℃下Lhcb2基因的表达量比 2 5℃下的表达量低 1倍左右。

关键词: 豌豆;Lhcb2基因;光照和温度;转录表达

Abstract (Browse 2171)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Phosphatidylglycerol on Oxygen Evolution in Photosystem II
Author: YANG Zhen-Le, LI Liang-Bi, XU Yi-Nong, KUANG Ting-Yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(3): 249-252

The dependence of oxygen evolution in PS Ⅱ from spinach Spinacia oleracea L. on the content of exogenous anionic phosphatidylglycerol (PG) at pH 6.0 was investigated through reconstitution experiment. It was found that there was a steady increase in oxygen evolution. With increasing PG/PS Ⅱ ratio up to a maximum at concentrations ranging from 10-22 mg PG/mg chlorophyll (Chl). Then, further addition of PG resulted in the inhibitions of oxygen evolution. With a PG/PS Ⅱ ratio of 40 mg PG/mg Chl, the oxygen-evolving activity of PS Ⅱ decreased to 40% of the untreated PS Ⅱ. It is suggested that a stimulation of oxygen evolution at a low PG/Chl ratio was resulted from the structural optimization of PS Ⅱ by PG while an inhibitory effect on oxygen evolution at higher values of this ratio was ascribed to the structural changes of extrinsic proteins of PS Ⅱ owing to osmotic pressure.

阳振乐 李良壁 许亦农 匡廷云*

(中国科学院植物研究所光合作用研究中心, 北京100093)

摘要:通过重组试验表明 ,磷脂酰甘油 (PG)对菠菜 (Spinaciaoleracea L .)光系统Ⅱ (PSⅡ )的放氧活性产生显著影响 ,具有明显的浓度效应。随PG浓度的增加 ,PSⅡ的放氧能力逐渐增强 ,到 10mgPG /mgChl时PSⅡ活性达到最大。此后在 10~ 2 2mgPG/mgChl浓度范围内 ,PSⅡ放氧活性变化不大。而当PG浓度继续增大时 ,PSⅡ放氧活性迅速降低 ,40mgPG/mgChl时的PSⅡ活性已降至未处理PSⅡ的 40 %。放氧活性的增强是由于PG维持了色素蛋白的适宜结构 ,而放氧活性的降低可归之于渗透效应而致的外周蛋白结构的改变。

关键词: 光系统II;磷酯酰甘油;放氧活性;浓度效应

Abstract (Browse 2022)  |  Full Text PDF       
Relationship Between Lipoxygenase Activity and ABA Accumulation in Malus hupehensis Roots Under Water Stresses
Author: YANG Hong-Qiang, JIA Wen-Suo, ZHANG Da-Peng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(3): 244-248

The relationship between lipoxygenase (LOX) activity and ABA accumulation was studied in the roots of Malus hupehensis (Pampan. Rehd.) seedling using both intact young roots and cell-free system. The result showed that LOX activity and ABA content increased simultaneously after treatment of 30% PEG 6000, 0.6 mol/L mannitol, and 0.2 mol/L NaCl, respectively. NDGA (nordihydroguaiaretic acid), an inhibitor of LOX, inhibited simultaneously both the activity of LOX and the enhancement of ABA level under the stresses. Likewise adding soybean LOX to root cell-free system led to the increase of ABA content. The results suggested that LOX may be a key enzyme in ABA biosynthesis under water stress.

水分胁迫下湖北海棠根系脂氧合酶活性与ABA 积累的关系
杨洪强 贾文锁 张大鹏*


摘要:采用无细胞体系 (cell-freesystem)及非离体根 ,研究了湖北海棠 (Malushupehensis (Pampan .)Rehd .)实生幼苗根中脂氧合酶 (LOX)活性和脱落酸 (ABA)生物合成及胁迫诱导ABA积累的关系。结果表明 ,水分胁迫 (30 %PEG处理或 0 .6mol/L甘露醇处理 )及盐胁迫 (0 .2mol/LNaCl)诱导ABA积累的同时 ,LOX活性也上升 ,两者呈一致关系。LOX专一抑制剂去甲愈创木酸 (NDGA)在抑制LOX活性的同时也阻断了胁迫诱导的ABA积累。无细胞体系加入LOX可直接引起ABA的积累。以上结果说明LOX很可能是ABA生物合成及调控胁迫诱导ABA积累的一个关键酶。

关键词: 湖北海棠根系;脂氧合酶;ABA;胁迫;无细胞体系

Abstract (Browse 2432)  |  Full Text PDF       
Binding Between Flavin Mononucleotide and Glycollate Oxidase from Higher Plants
Author: WANG Wei-Jun, LIN Jian-Qiao, LI Ming-Qi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(3): 239-243

The binding condition between flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and protein moiety of glycollate oxidase (GO) was investigated in 11 species of higher plants from 7 families. A loose binding of FMN with GO was universally observed in all the plants. According to this character, a new efficient but mild method was established for preparation of FMN-free GO, which could produce 87.5% recovery of activity . FMN-free GO could be reactivated by adding FMN. For half reactivation 8×10 mol/L FMN was needed, and more than 5×10 mol/L for 100%. The result indicates that there exists a reversible dissociation balance between FMN and protein moiety of GO. Therefore, the concentration of FMN may act as a factor to regulate GO activity in higher plants.

王炜军 林健巧 李明启

摘要:普查了 7个科 11种植物的乙醇酸氧化酶 (GO) ,发现其酶蛋白与黄素单核苷酸 (FMN)的结合均是松弛的 ;并据此特征找到了一种温和的制备完全脱FMNGO的新方法 ,酶液总活性回收可达 87.5 % ;外加FMN可使脱辅因子GO不同程度地恢复活性 ,恢复 5 0 %活性所需FMN的浓度为 8× 10 -7mol/L ,而当浓度大于 5× 10 -6mol/L时其复活作用达到 10 0 % ,表明两者间存在一个可逆的解离平衡。推测植物体内的FMN浓度可能是乙醇酸氧化酶活性的一个调节因子。

关键词: 乙醇酸氧化酶;黄素单核苷酸;解离平衡;高等植物

Abstract (Browse 2085)  |  Full Text PDF       
Detection of the Quantitative Trait Loci with AFLP and RFLP Markers for Phosphorus Uptake and Use Efficiency in Rice
Author: WU Ping, NI Jun-Jian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(3): 229-233

To identify genetic factors underlying phosphorus (P) uptake and use efficiency under low-P stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.), 84 selected genotypes (recombinant inbred lines) and their parents (which differed in tolerance for low-P stress) “IR20” and IR55178-3B-9-3, were cultured in liquid medium supplemented with adequate and low P levels in a greenhouse. Plants were sampled after 6 weeks in culture for measurements of plant dry weight, P concentration, P uptake and P use efficiency under both P sufficient and stress conditions. A total of 179 molecular markers, including 26 RFLPs and 153 AFLPs, mapped on all 12 chromosomes of rice based on the 84 selected genotypes were used to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying tolerance for low-P stress. Three QTLs were detected on chromosomes 6, 7 and 12, respectively, for relative plant dry weight (RPDW) and relative P uptake (RPUP). One of the QTLs flanked by RG9 and RG241 on chromosome 12 had a major effect which explained about 50% of the variations in the two parameters across the population. The results coincided with the QTLs for low-P stress based on relative tillering ability from the same population from a cross between Nipponbare and Kasalath under soil condition. The identical major QTL for P uptake and plant growth under low-P stress in both liquid medium and soil strongly suggests that the ability of P uptake mainly controls rice tolerance for low-P stress.

应用AFLP与RFLP 标记研究水稻磷吸收与利用率的数量性状位点
吴平1 倪俊健2

(1. 浙江大学生命科学学院生物科学系,杭州华家池310029;
2. 浙江大学农业与生物技术学院农学系,杭州华家池310029)

摘要:从耐低磷胁迫水稻 (Oryzasativa L .)品种“IR2 0”与低磷敏感品系IR5 5 178_3B_9_3杂交发展的重组自交系群体中选择的 84个系在液体培养条件下 ,测定了相对生物量 ,植株相对磷含量及相对磷利用率 ;在酸性土壤盆栽条件下测定了相对分蘖力与相对地上部生物量。用选择的 84个系构建了包括 2 6个RFLP标记与 15 3个AFLP标记的分子标记图谱用于基因定位分析。溶液培养条件下在第 12 ,6 ,7三条染色体上检测到与相对生物量及相对磷含量变异关联的重要数量性状位点 (QTLs) ,其中第 12条染色体上的QTL分别解释相对生物量与相对磷含量变异的 5 0 %左右。仅在第 9条染色体上检测到一个影响相对磷利用率变异的QTL。研究结果与用相对分蘖力为参数的分析结果一致 ,与已报道的在土壤条件下的研究结果也具一致性。低磷胁迫下水稻磷吸收主效QTL在溶液培养与土壤盆栽条件下的一致性提示 :根系吸收面积与吸收转运效率是水稻耐低磷胁迫的主要机制。

关键词: 水稻;数量性状位点;磷吸收;磷利用率

Abstract (Browse 2276)  |  Full Text PDF       
Differential Display of Rice mtRNA in HL Type Cytoplasm Male Sterility (CMS) Line and Maintainer Line and Analysis of Differential Fragments
Author: LING Xing-Yuan, ZHOU Pei-Jiang, ZHU Ying-Guo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(3): 284-288

A new protocol for the differential display of mtRNA was developed to compare the difference in the mtRNAs of rice (Oryza sativa L.) among cytoplasm male sterility (CMS) line, maintainer line and F1 hybrids. This new procedure was based on the ligation function of T4 RNA ligase and the principle of AFLP technique. By comparing the display patterns of the mtRNAs amplified selectively with four selective primer pairs six differential fragments have been obtained, among which fragment DTA was specific in CMS line, fragment DAB was shared by CMS line and maintainer line, and fragment DBF1,DBF2,DBF3 and DBF4 were shared by maintainer line and F1 hybrid. The results showed the difference of mtRNA between CMS line (Yuetai A) and F1 hybrids (Taiyou 2) was more obvious than the difference of mtRNA between the maintainer line (Yuetai B) and F1 hybrids (Taiyou 2). The fact that the transcription of fragment DTA was proved to be differential among CMS line, maintainer line and F1 hybrid by Northern hybridization inferring that the fragment DTA may be relative to the HL CMS. Fragment DTA was composed of 259 base pairs, though no sequence homology and no open reading frame was found in the sequence. It could be used as a probe to clone the whole length gene from the cDNA library.

凌杏元1,2  周培疆1 朱英国1*

(1.  武汉大学生命科学学院遗传学研究所,武汉430072;2.  安徽农业大学生物技术研究中心,合肥230036)

摘要:将T4 RNA连接酶和AFLP技术特点相结合构建了适于mtRNA的差异显示方法 ,并比较了水稻 (OryzasativaL .)红莲型细胞质雄性不育系、保持系和杂种一代mtRNA的差异。在 4组引物对的选择扩增产物中共找到 6个差异片段 ,其中差异条带DTA为不育系仅有 ,条带DAB为不育系和保持系特有 ,而条带DBF1、DBF2 、DBF3 、DBF4 为保持系和F1杂种共有。这表明水稻红莲型不育系粤泰A与杂种一代泰优 2号mtRNA的差异大于保持系粤泰B和杂种一代泰优 2号mtRNA的差异。Northern杂交证实条带DTA在不育系、保持系和杂种一代的转录确有差异 ,表明它与红莲型细胞质雄性不育有关。条带DTA全长 2 5 9bp ,尽管未发现有同源序列和新的开放阅读框 ,但它可作为探针从cDNA文库中筛选全基因序列 ,进而寻找与细胞质雄性不育有关的开放阅读框架。
关键词: 水稻;细胞质雄性不育;线粒体RNA;差异显示

Abstract (Browse 2409)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Light Quality on the Primary Nitrogen Assimination of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Seedlings
Author: Jiang-Ming, BIN Jin-Hua, PAN Rui-Chi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(3): 234-238

Pure blue(BL) or red light (RL) were obtained by filtering blue or red fluorescent lamp light through plastic filters. With the same intensity of white light(WL) as control, the effects of light quality on the primary nitrogen assimilation of rice seedlings were studied. Irradiation for 2-6 h with BL promoted the uptake of NO-3, the induction of nitrate reductase (NR), and the increase of the NO-3 content in the etiolated seedlings.Seedlings grown under BL for 5-7 d had higher activities of NR, NIR (nitrite reductase) GOGAT (glutamate synthase) as well as GS (glutamine synthetase) than those under WL. However, for more than 10 days under BL, the levels of these enzymes became lower than those of the seedlings under WL. Compared with BL or WL, RL was less effective on the primary nitrogen assimilation.

邓江明* 宾金华 潘瑞炽**


摘要: 用滤光膜过滤蓝色或红色荧光灯,得到纯的蓝光和红光,以白光为对照,研究不同光质对水稻(Oryza sativa L.)幼苗初级氮同化的影响。结果表明:蓝光促进水稻黄化幼苗吸收NO3-,增加体内NO3含量,并促进NR(硝酸还原酶)的诱导。在蓝光下生长5-7的幼苗的NR,NIR(亚硝酸还原酶)、GS(谷氨酰胺合成酶)和GOGAT(谷氨酸合酶)活性均高于白光下生长的,但第10天以后,白光下生长的幼苗酶活性最高。与白光和蓝光相比,红光对初级氮
关键词: 光质;蓝光;红光;水稻;氮同化

Abstract (Browse 2836)  |  Full Text PDF       
Confocal Fluorescence Microscopic Observation on the Transcellular Distribution of Actin Filaments in the Epidermis of Garlic Clove Sheath
Author: WANG Dong-Mei, WANG Xue-Chen, ZHANG Wei-Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(3): 327-330

By means of paraformaldehyde fixation, Triton X-100 extraction and TRITC-phalloidin staining, the presence and distribution patterns of F-actin in the outer epidermal cells of the garlic (Allium sativum L.) sheath were studied with fluorescence probe technique and confocal laser scanning microscopy. There were a lot of actin filaments (AFs) impenetrate the cell wall, but the AFs with red fluorescence were absent when the cells were treated with cytochalasin D before fixation; the same result was obtained when the cells were treated with unlabeled phalloidin. These results indicate the presence of F-actin in the intercellular channels and that it is related to the plasmodesmata and intercellular trafficking of macromolecules.

王冬梅1,2 王学臣2* 张伟成3

(1. 河北农业大学农学院,保定071001;2.  中国农业大学生物学院,北京100094;#$ 中国科学院上海植物生理研究所,上海200032)
关键词: 胞间连丝;F-肌动蛋白;异硫氰四甲基罗丹明*鬼笔环肽;细胞松弛素-D;激光共聚焦扫描显微镜检术;蒜

Abstract (Browse 2814)  |  Full Text PDF       
Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Quercus liaotungensis Acorn Predation by Vertebrates in Dongling Mountain, Northern China
Author: WANG Wei, MA Ke-Ping, GAO Xian-Ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(3): 289-293

In studying the spatial and temporal patterns of acorn predation of Quercus liaotungensis Koidz. by vertebrates, Three forests in Dongling Mountain, Northern China, including a broad-leaved forest, a Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. forest and a Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr. forest were selected in which acorn predation was observed in the peak period of acornfall and the period after natural acornfall. The survival of acorn from predation was influenced by forest types and period of acornfall as well as the interaction of forest types and the period of acornfall. The rates of acorn loss are high in the Pinus tabulaeformis forest and Larix principis-rupprechtii forest in both peak period of acornfall and period after natural acornfall. All the acorns deployed on the ground disappeared within two days. In the broad-leaved forest, the rate of acorn loss was high in the period after natural acornfall, but low in the peak period of acornfall probably due to predator satiation. In addition, the acorn removal by the small mammals under study was different among 3 forests. These results suggest that small vertebrates play an important role in predating and dispersing acorns with different spatial and temporal patterns which may affect the acorn fate in different types of forests and the establishment of seedlings as well as the natural regeneration of Q. liaotungensis population.

王巍 马克平 高贤明

摘要:在北京东灵山地区 ,选择 3种不同森林类型 ,于辽东栎 (Quercusliaotungensis Koidz .)坚果下落高峰期和坚果自然下落后 ,对坚果逃逸脊椎动物捕食的存活时间进行调查。森林类型、坚果下落时期以及森林类型和坚果下落的交互作用对坚果的生存时间都有显著影响。在辽东栎坚果下落高峰期和坚果自然下落后 ,华北落叶松 (Larixprincipis_rupprechtii Mayr.)林和油松 (Pinustabulaeformis Carr.)林中辽东栎坚果的丢失速率非常快 ;在落叶阔叶林中 ,坚果在自然下落后丢失速率较快 ,在坚果下落高峰期丢失速率较慢。这种现象可能是由于暂时“捕食者饱足(predatorsatiation)”的原因。另外 ,选择 3个森林类型 ,单独调查小型哺乳动物对坚果生存的影响。坚果在各林型中表现出不同的丢失动态。这些研究结果说明 :脊椎动物对辽东栎坚果的捕食十分强烈 ,在时间和空间上对坚果的捕食都不相同。坚果生存的时空格局差异将直接影响辽东栎坚果在不同森林类型中的命运、幼苗建成以及辽东栎种群的天然更新 (naturalregeneration)。

关键词: 辽东栎;坚果丢失;脊椎动物

Abstract (Browse 2344)  |  Full Text PDF       
Relationships Between the Fruit-bearing Characters of Leymus chinensis Population and Annual Climatic Variations in Natural Meadow in Northeast China
Author: YANG Yun-Fei,YANG Li-Min, ZHANG Bao-Tian, LI Jian-Dong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(3): 294-299

Leymus chinensis(Trin.)Tzvel. is a fine herbage, which is a perennial rhizome grass species with high potentiality of vegetative propagation. The quantitative characters of fruit-bearing and grain weight of the population were successively investigated in three fixed stands from 1983 to 1998,analyzing the relationship between these characters and the climatic factors in different growing and developing stages. Certain degree of correlations were found between the number of seeds and grain weight of the population and different time of sunshine, temperature and rainfall accumulation before and during the growing and developing stages. From vegetative to reproductive growth of the tiller, including flowering, pollination, fertilization, and ovule development and seed formation, lower accumulated temperature and longer day light during the early growth season promoted fruit-bearing of the population, and vice versa. From turning green to fruit-ripening stage, longer sunshine duration benefited while higher accumulated temperature inhibitted nutrient deposition in the grain. Furthermore rainfall was also good to nutrient collection in the grain from turning green to milky stage,not from milky stage to mature stage. Growth and development of the winter tillers would affect the flowering, fruit-bearing, as well as the quality and quantity of seed production in the following year. Therefore, the number of fruit-bearing and the grain weight of the population could be predicted by the length of sunshine duration from August to September of the previous year and amount of rainfall in May of the present year,but the quantitative variation that estimated by simple climatic factor model was only 29.27%-35.76%.

杨允菲 杨利民 张宝田 李建东

摘要:对3个固定样地的羊草(Leymuschinensis(Trin.)Tzvel.)种群连续12-16年的调查和测定及其与不同生长发育阶段气候因子的相关分析,表明羊草种群结实数量和籽实重量均与形成这些性状的生育期内,及其以前各生育期不同阶段的光照时间、积温、降水量有着一定程度的相关关系。从分蘖株的营养生长到生殖生长,包括开花、授粉、受精、胚珠发育为种子形成的整个过程中,较低的温度和生长季前期较多的光照,对结实有促进作用,而较高的积温和较少的光照时间则不利于受精、结实。从返青到籽实成熟期,较多的光照时间对籽实养分积累有促进作用,较高的积温则有不利影响。从返青到乳熟期较多的降水对籽实的养分积累有促进作用,但从乳熟期到完熟期较多的降水则有不利影响。冬性枝条生长发育状况可持续影响到种群翌年的开花、结实及种子生产的数量和质量。用前一年8-9月份的光照时间和当年5 月份的降水量可提前预报羊草种群的结实数量和籽实重量。但是,由这些单项气候因子模型所估计的数量变化仅在29.27%-35.76%之间。
关键词: 羊草;结实率;千粒重;数量性状;气候因子;预报模型

Abstract (Browse 2180)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Potential Impacts of Global Climate Change on Spring-maize Growth in Shenyang
Author: SHANG Zong-Bo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(3): 300-305

Physiological ecology simulation modelling of maize growth (MPESM) was used to simulate the variation of soil moisture, maize development and maize growth under twelve prescribed climate scenarios, which include doubling CO2, raising mean temperature by 1.5 ℃, 3.0 ℃ and 4.5 ℃, and changing precipitation by 0, +20%, -20%, and -40%. The simulated results were compared with that of the present climate, to assess the sensitivity of maize to climatic change. The analysis indicated that soil moisture is sensitive to reduced precipitation, maize development is sensitive to the rise of temperature, and maize growth is affected greatly by temperature elevation and precipitation variation, which cancel out the positive effects of CO2 elevation. It was found that with the severe change of climate, the leaf biomass, the female fringe biomass, and the leaf area index would decline greatly, and the biomass of stem and root would increase greatly. The average yield of maize will decline between 5% and 30%.


摘要:利用玉米 (Zeamays L .)生长生理生态学模拟模型 (MPESM) ,分别模拟了未来气候变化的 12种气候条件下(CO2 浓度倍增 ,平均气温上升 1.5℃、3.0℃和 4.5℃ ,降水量增加 2 0 %、减少 2 0 %、减少 40 %和降水量不变 ) ,沈阳地区土壤湿度、玉米发育和玉米生长的变化 ,并与当前气候条件下进行了比较 ,以评价玉米生长对各种气候因子变化的敏感性和全球气候变化下沈阳地区春玉米的生长趋势。研究表明 :土壤湿度对降水减少反应较敏感 ,玉米发育对气温升高反应较敏感 ,升温和降水改变对玉米生长都有很大影响 ,足以抵消CO2 浓度增高产生的施肥效应。随着气候变化程度的增加 ,叶和雌穗生物量以及叶面积指数会降低 ,而茎和根生物量则会增加。未来气候变化下玉米平均产量会有所降低 ,减产幅度在 5 %~ 30 %之间。

关键词: 全球气候变化;玉米生长;生理生态学模型

Abstract (Browse 2095)  |  Full Text PDF       
New Triterpenoid Saponins from Polycarpon prostratum (Caryophyllaceae)
Author: DING Zhong-Tao, ZHOU Jun, HE Yi-Neng, DAI Hao-Fu, TAN Ning-Hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(3): 306-310

Three new triterpenoid saponins, namely prostratosides A-C (1-3), were isolated from the whole plant of Polycarpon prostratum (Forssk.) Aschers. et Schwein. ex Aschers. By spectroscopic methods, their structures were determined as 3-O-{β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-α-L-arabinopyranoside}-22α-acetoxy-saikogenin G, 3-O-{β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-α-L-arabinopyranoside}-16α-hydroxy-22α-acetoxy-saikogenin E and 3-O-{β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-α-L-arabinopyranoside}-21β-acetoxy-saikogenin G, respectively.

丁中涛1,2 周俊1* 何以能1 戴好富1谭宁华1

(1. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所植物化学开放实验室,昆明650204;2. 云南大学化学系,昆明650091)

摘要:从石竹科植物多荚草 (Polycarponprostratum (Forssk .)Aschers.etSchwein .exAschers)中分离得到 3个新的柴胡皂甙类化合物 :prostratosideA~C (1~ 3)。它们的结构通过波谱方法分别鉴定为 :3-O-{ β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→ 2 )-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→ 4)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→ 2 ) -α_L_arabinopyranoside-2 2α-acetoxy-saikogeninG ,3-O-{ β-D-xylopyra nosyl-1→ 2 )-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→ 4)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→ 2 ) ]-α-L-arabinopyranoside}-16α-hydroxy-2 2α-acetoxy-saiko geninE和 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→ 2 )-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→ 4)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→ 2 ) -α-L-arabinopyranoside-2 1β-acetoxy-saikogeninG .

关键词: 多荚草;石竹科;三萜皂甙

Abstract (Browse 2026)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Armillaria mellea Elicitor on Accumulation of Tanshinones in Crown Gall Cultures of Salvia miltiorrhiza
Author: SONG Jing-Yuan, QI Jian-Jun, LEI He-Tian, REN Chun-Ling, FU Jie, ZHANG Yin-Lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(3): 316-320

Using a computer software `uniform design, regression analysis and optimization system' (UROS), the effects of Armillaria mellea Karst elicitor, with respect to its concentration, time of supplement and harvest time, on the accumulation of tanshinones in the crown gall cultures of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge in 67-V liquid medium were studied. The result showed that the maximum tanshinone yield was 147 mg/L (P<0.05), 62 mg/L (P<0.05), 94 mg/L (P<0.05) in the liquid medium and the cultures 29 day after addition of A. mellea (119 mL/L) at day 0, in the medium 26 day after the addition of 113 mL/L of A. mellea, 28 day after addition of 87 mL/L of A. mellea, respectively. The results confirmed that the computer software UROS was a good tool in the multi-factor study.

宋经元1 祁建军1 雷和田1 任春玲2  付洁1 张荫麟1

(1. 中国医学科学院中国协和医科大学药用植物研究所,北京100094;2. 河北省科学院微生物研究所,保定071051)

摘要:以67-V液体培养基为基本培养基,利用计算机软件“均匀设计、回归分析及优化系统”,研究了蜜环菌(Armillaria mellea Karst)诱导子浓度、诱导子的加入时间与处理的收获时间对丹参(Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge)冠瘿组织积累丹参酮的影响。结果表明,蜜环菌诱导子浓度为119mL/L、第0天加入诱导子、第29天收获培养物与培养液时可获得最高的丹参酮生产量(147mg/L,P<0.05),蜜环菌诱导子浓度为113mL/L第0 天加入诱导子、第26天收
关键词: 丹参;冠瘿组织;蜜环菌;诱导子;丹参酮;均匀设计、回归分析及优化系统

Abstract (Browse 2452)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Dehydration and Rehydration on Photosynthesis of Detached Leaves of the Resurrective Plant Boea hygrometrica
Author: DENG Xin, HU Zhi-Ang, WANG Hong-Xin, WEN Xiao-Gang, KUANG Ting-Yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(3): 321-323

Fluorescence induction kinetics was used to investigate the effects of dehydration and rehydration on photosynthesis of detached leaves of the desiccation-tolerant, resurrective plant Boea hygrometrica (Bunge) R. Br. In comparison with the desiccation-intolerant plant Chirita heterotricha Merr., the PSⅡphotochemical activity of Boea hygrometrica was characterized by a faster decline during dehydration and a much higher capacity of recovery during rehydration. By means of native PAGE, it was further shown that the thylakoid pigment-protein complexes of Boea hygrometrica were highly stable during dehydration and rehydration. These features may contribute to the extreme desiccation resistance of photosynthesis apparatus of resurrective plant Boea hygrometrica.

邓馨1* 胡志昂1** 王洪新1  温小刚2 匡廷云2

(1.中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093;2.  中国科学院植物研究所光合作用基础研究开放实验室,北京100093)
关键词: 复苏植物;耐脱水性;荧光诱导动力学;叶绿素;类胡萝卜素;色素蛋白复合体

Abstract (Browse 2452)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation of Zizania latifolia Species-specific DNA Sequences and Their Utility in Identification of Z. latifolia DNA Introgressed into Rice
Author: LIU Zhen-Lan, DONG Yu-Zhu, LIU Bao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(3): 324-326

刘振兰 董玉柱 刘宝*(东北师范大学遗传与细胞研究所,长春130024)

摘要:根据两个植物抗病基因N和RPS 2中核酸结合位点(NBS)和富亮氨酸重复区(LRR)中的保守序列设计了一对特异引物,用PCR从具有水稻(Oryza sativa L.)改良所需要的许多优良性状的水稻近缘野生种菰(Zizania latifolia (Griseb.) Turcz. ex Stapf)的基因组DNA中扩增同源片段。PCR产物经克隆后,分别以菰和水稻的基因组DNA为探针,通过点杂交对所得克隆进行了分析。点杂交结果表明,在所分析的60个克隆中有2个克隆是菰专化的序列,即它们与水稻无杂交信号。基因组DNA的Southern杂交进一步证实了这2个克隆的专化性。为了验证一些可能的“水稻-菰”渐渗杂交系是否确实含有源自供体菰的DNA,以这2个克隆为探针,与经EcoRⅠ酶切的5个可能的渐渗杂交系进行了Southern杂交。结果表明,这2个克隆均能检测出其中的一个系含有其同源序列。这一结果为曾经报道的经一种非常规有性杂交方法将菰DNA导入水稻提供了确凿的证据。

关键词: 物种专化DNA序列;渐渗杂交系;菰;水稻

Abstract (Browse 2315)  |  Full Text PDF       
Transformation of Wheat with a Gene Encoding for the Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase(BADH)
Author: GUO Bei-Hai, ZHANG Yan-Min, LI Hong-Jie, DU Li-Qun, LI Yin-Xin, ZHANG Jin-Song, CHEN Shou-Yi, ZHU Zhi-Qing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(3): 279-283

Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) cDNA cloned from Atriplex hortensis L. in the plasmid pABH9 containing maize ubiquitin promoter and bar gene was transferred into wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by microprojectile bombardment with 4.1% of average frequency of transformation. From 300 young embryo calli bombarded with the plasmid, 24 transgenic plants were obtained showing BADH gene integration by both PCR and Southern blotting analysis. Among the 24 transgenic plants, 13 exhibited higher BADH activity than the control. Some transgenic plants grew normally with healthy roots on the medium containing 0.7% NaCl while the control plants had very poor roots and finally died.

郭北海1,2 张艳敏2 李洪杰2  杜立群1 李银心1张劲松3 陈受宜3 朱至清1*

(1. 中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093;2.  河北省农林科学院粮油作物研究所,石家庄050031;
3.  中国科学院遗传研究所,北京100101)

摘要:采用基因枪法将山菠菜甜菜碱醛脱氢酶 (BADH)基因导入小麦 (Triticumaestivum L .)品种 ,并且得以表达。该基因由玉米Ubi1启动子控制。在盐胁迫条件下 ,多数转基因植株叶片的BADH活性比受体亲本提高 1~ 3倍 ,部分植株相对电导率比亲本明显低 ,表明转基因植株的细胞膜在胁迫时有受损较轻倾向。PCR和Southern杂交分析证实外源BADH基因已插入小麦基因组 ,平均转化频率为 4.1%。

关键词: BADH基因;转基因;基因枪;小麦

Abstract (Browse 2471)  |  Full Text PDF       
Molecular Markers of Ph1 Gene in Chinese Spring and Development of Winter Wheat New Line Harboring ph1b Gene
Author: WANG Xin-Wang, LAI Jing-Ru, CHEN Liang-Hong, LIU Guang-Tian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(3)
    he genomic DNA of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) “Chinese Spring” (CS) and its ph1b mutant were analyzed by using 19 sequence tagged site PCR (STS-PCR) primers, which derived from RFLP probes from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) chromosome 5H. One marker was identified on wheat chromosome 5BL, which is 5.7 cM (centiMorgan) proximal to Ph1 gene, using the CS homoeologous group 5 nullisomic-tetrasomic, ditelosomic 5BL line and an F2 population from CS×ph1b mutant. This linked PCR marker was converted into a more specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. To obtain a new winter wheat line containing ph1b gene, the authors used a nullisomic 5B line of “Abbodanza”as a bridge parent and crossed respectively with the CS ph1b mutant (donor) and a winter wheat variety, “Jing 411” (recipient). The meiotic chromosome pairing was checked in the progeny of each cross, as well as using the marker-assistant selection of the SCAR marker identified for ph1b gene. After three inter-crossing and one selfing, a relatively stable ph1b substitution line of winter wheat with “Jing 411” background was obtained.
Abstract (Browse 2149)  |  Full Text PDF       
Phenolic Compounds from Erigeron breviscapus (Compositae)
Author: YUE Jian-Min, ZHAO Qin-Shi, LIN Zhong-Wen, SUN Han-Dong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(3)
    Five caffeoyl conjugates were isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Erigeron breviscapus (Van.) Hand-Mazz for the first time. Along with them, nine other chemical constituents were also identified. One new caffeoyl conjugate, erigoster A (1 ) with a novel basic skeleton was mainly assigned by the using a combination of two-dimensional NMR techniques.
Abstract (Browse 2104)  |  Full Text PDF       


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