January 1959, Volume 8 Issue 1

 

          Research Articles
邦ber einen bisher nicht beobachteten Mechanismus zur Sporenausstrenung bei einer Splachnacee
Author: A. Rieth
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1959 8(1)
Abstract (Browse 1861)  |  Full Text PDF       
妤把抉忌抖快技忘 扭抉抖我扭抖抉我忱我我 (快忸 扼抉志把快技快扶扶抉快 扼抉扼找攸扶我我 我戒忘忱忘折我 我扼扼抖快忱抉志忘扶我攸)
Author: 妤.均.妤忘把忘扶抉志
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1959 8(1)
Abstract (Browse 1785)  |  Full Text PDF       
Notes on Chinese Samydaceae
Author: Wan-chang Ko
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1959 8(1)
      
    The Samydaceae, a tropical and subtropical family, includes 17 genera and about 400 species, the majority of which are found in the tropics. At the present time, two genera, Casearia and Homalium, with approximately 18 species, one variety and one form are known in this country. Most members of this family prefer the moist atmosphere of rain forests in southern latitudes, consequently they are more abundant and more luxuriant in the island of Hainan, where 11 species occur, amounting to about 60% of the known elements of this family so far accredited to our region. The number of species recorded for provinces on the mainland are: Kwangtung 9, Kwangsi 6, Yunnan 3, Fukien 2. Only one species has been definitely recorded for the island province of Taiwan and Hunan. The Chinese species are mostly shrubs, rarely medium sized trees, scattered individually so that they do not constitute dominant components in forest formations. In Hainan, a few species, such as Casearia membranacea Hance, Homalium hainanense Gagnep., while moderate in size, yield wood of fair quality which is suitable for railroad ties, house-building and ship-construction. The wood of Homalium stenophyllum Merr. and Chun is strong and tough, used locally for manufacturing agricultural implements. In the present review of the Chinese Samydaceae, in preparation for a Flora of Hainan, 7 new species have been proposed, 6 in Homalium, 1 in Casearia, namely C. yunnanensis. The new additions amount to an increase of 50% over previously known records. The specimens cited in this paper are deposited in the herbarium of Academia Sinica. South China Institute of Botany, Canton.
Abstract (Browse 2177)  |  Full Text PDF       
Research on the Development of Chloroplasts in Several Bulbous Plants
Author: Tuan Hsu-chuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1959 8(1)
      
    1. By means of differential hydrolysis and separation technique, the development of chloroplasts of Narcissus and Hippeastrum were successively studied. 2. Only a few of the young epidermal cells, during the beginning of cell differentiation possess proplastids, The proplastids may develop into pale and small chloroplasts as the cell matures. 3. The chloroplasts of the palisade and cells of several layers under are very large in size and numerous in number. Most of them are seen with vesicles beside them. Chondriosomes of various sizes are also of common occurence. 4. The chloroplasts of the spongy cells is smaller in comparison with those in the palisade cells. Most of these chloroplasts are able to send out fine pseudopodia of various lengths. The number of the chondriosomes remain about the same as those in the palisade cells while mitosomes make appearance in the cytoplasm. 5. The sheath cells of the vascular bundle possess a very much reduced number of small sized chloroplasts and chondriosomes while they gain a number of the mitosomes. 6. The proplastids show their first sign of transformation into the chloroplasts by their thickened ends. Actual division of the proplastids is not seen, perhaps these proplastids only divide very rarely or not at all. 7. The vesicles and the pseudopodia of the chloroplasts are the evidence of their leucoplastic nature. 8. The matured leaf cells are easily stained. The nucleus, nucleolus, chondriosomes, mitosomes and the chloroplasts are well differentiated against a clear background.
Abstract (Browse 2349)  |  Full Text PDF       
Renovation in Teahnique for the Study of Plant Cells and Their Organoids
Author: Tuan Hsu-chuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1959 8(1)
      
    i. Introduction In this paper, the author reports on a series of improved methods to fixing, hydrolyze, separating, staining anti mounting of plant cells together with their organoids. In the end, he succeeded in studying single isolated cells and recorded his observations in photomicrographs. j. Material and method Material used in this experiment consists of several bulbous plants. They are: Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis Hippeaestrum vittatum Herb., Ornithogalum caudatum Ait., and Allium cepa L. Both old and young leaves of Narcissus and Hippeastrum are good material for the study of chloroplasts and mitochondria. Ceratain chemicals and dyes employed in fixation, staining, hydrolysis, etc., found in the literature, are tested and analyzed. Then these chemicals and dyes are repeatedly tried singly or in various combinations for their usefulness in this experiment .Those combinations proved to give consistent good results, are chosen as the ones to be used throughout this study. k. The technique For conveneince, the technique is presented here in seven procedures. 1. Fixation: Material is fixed for 24 hours in either one of the three fluids listed below. These fluids harden the cytoplasm and walls of the parenchymatous cells, thus the cell as a whole is rendered more resistent to the subsequent treatment. 10% ammonium dichromate .... 4 ml 4 ml 4 ml 10% potassium dichromate .... 12 ml 8 ml 16 ml Neutral formalin (add before use) 16 ml 16 ml 20 ml Water 68 ml 72 ml 60 ml 2. Oxidation: After fixation, oxidation of the material is accomplished in a solution with the following ingredients for12每24 hours. This is a preliminary treatment for the differential hydrolysis immediately to follow. 10% ammonium dichromate .............. 20 ml 10% potassium dichromate ............. 80 ml 3. Differential hydrolysis: When oxidatien is completed, the material is transferred into a mixture of formalin and adds for12每24 hours. The purpose of this treatment is to remove the ground-cytoplasm of the cells. The mixture is prepared as the following. Concentrated formalin ................. 8 ml Sulphuric acid .......... ........ 8 ml Nitric acid .............. ......... .. 3 ml Water ...................... 81 ml Usually, it is better to keep the nitric acid in a separate bottle, add it to the formalin and sulphuric acid mixture before use. 4. Separation: The term separation used here is to mean the disintegration of the middle lamella of the cells, which may or may not associated with the softening or disintegration of the tissue and cell walls. Separation of the cells is done by coaking the material in the following solution. Chromic acid .................... 2 gms Sulphuric acid .................... 8 ml Nitric acid ..................... 3 ml Water ................. . ..... 89 ml The chromic acid used in this solution, may cause shrinkage of the cells, therefore too long a treatment of the material must be avoided. 4每6 hours at 25 ⊥ is usually more than enough. Formerly, the term "maceration" is used to mean the separation of the cells by means of various macerating agents, but now it is widely used to denote the fractional centrifugation of finely ground cells with their components such as the mitochondria, plastids, microsomes etc. blended into a suspension ready for enzyme and biochemical studies. Therefore, now, it is necessary to adopt a new term to mean the disintegration of the middle lamella of the cells to take the place left by "maceration". The author suggests the term "separation" as Gray (11) used it to mean the disintegration of the middle lamella. 5. Preparation of a slide: Following separation, a small piece of the material is teased into threads by means of two needles on a slide, with a drop of acidified floating fluid. The material is then squashed into a fine cell suspension. Blot off the excess fluid by inserting a small piece of blotting paper at the edge of the suspension. The floating fluid is prepared according to the following formula. Pure glycerine .................... 10 ml 10% nitric acid ................. 1 ml 1% hydrochloric acid ............... 1 ml 1% acetic acid ................... 1 ml Water ................ ..... 87 ml 6. Staining: With the foregoing pretreatment of differential hydrolysis, the staining of the material is then a simple matter, since the stain is a mixture of several dyes and differentiation is accomplished immediately when a drop of the stain mixture is given to the cell suspension. Stir the suspension with a needle and put a coverglass on the suspension after 1每5 minutes. Draw away the excess fluid from the preparation by inserting again a piece of blotting paper to the edge of the coverglass. The slide can be examined immediately under the microscope or kept in this manner for days and months. The stain can be prepared in three concentrations according to the following formulas. Generally the stain is purplish-red when mixed, however, the quality of the dyes may affect the coloration of the mixture. If the mixture is too red or blue, the effect of mix-staining may lost. 1% aq. sol. of acid fuchsia ..... 30 ml 20 ml 10 ml 1% aq. sol. of fast green ..... 12 ml 12 ml 12 ml 1% aq. sol. of anilin blue .... . 12 ml 12 ml 12 ml Pure glycerine ..... 10 ml 10 ml 10 ml Glacial acetic acid ........ 12 ml 12 ml 12 ml Water ........... 24 ml 34 ml 44 ml 7. Dehydration and mounting: Not less than 6 hours after staining, the coverglass of the preparation can be dropped into a horizontal staining jar filled with enough acidified 95% alcohol. It is important to see that the preparation is submerged in the alcohol with the cover-glass facing the bottom of the jar. There is a slight advantage by suspending the slide in the jar so that the coverglass will drop off from the slide flatly down to the bottom. Plenty of time may be allotted to this stage of dehydration, for the acid alcohol will keep enough stains in the cells. From here on, the dehydration and clearing is carried on as usual in absolute alcohol and xylol-alcohols. Mounting is completed in balsam. The acid alcohol is prepared according to the following formula. 95% alcohol ..................... 97 ml 10 % nitric acid .................. 1 ml 1% hydrochloric acid ....... 1 ml 1% acetic acid .................... 1 ml l. Observation and conclusion Examing one of the preparations with the microscope, it is quite interesting to see the various cell types in a single field. The relative position and sizes of the nuclei, chloroplasts, and mitochondria give the cell a solid contour which is not seen in any of the sectioned preparations. From the numbers, shapes and the sizes of the chloroplasts and mitochondria of the cells, the author is able to identify most them to the positions they occupy in the tissues. The development of the chloroplasts observed in some of the material can be followed clearly through from the thread like proplastids to the mature chloroplasts. In conclusion, the author recommends the technique as a convenient method to study the relationship of the cells and their organoids. It is the hope of the author, that the technique may be applied more widely to certain branches of cell research for the promotion of better understanding or all types of cells and cell organoids with their environments.
Abstract (Browse 2441)  |  Full Text PDF       
Botanical Problems in Roumania
Author: A. Borza
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1959 8(1)
Abstract (Browse 1962)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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