May 2000, Volume 42 Issue 5

 

          Research Articles
Genetic Diversity of Gli-1, Gli-2 and Glu-1 Alleles in Sichuan Wheat Landraces
Author: WEI Yu-Ming, ZHENG You-Liang, LIU Deng-Cai, ZHOU Yong-Hong, LAN Xiu-Jin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(5): 496-501
      
    

Genetic diversity at Gli-1, Gli-2 and Glu-1 loci was investigated in 89 Sichuan wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) landraces by using acid polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (APAGE) and SDS-PAGE. In these landraces, a total of 32 gliadin and 3 high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin patterns were observed. In total, 14, 15 and 5 alleles were identified at Gli-1, Gli-2 and Glu-1, respectively. At each locus, the alleles in higher frequency were Gli-A1a (89%), Gli-B1 h (46%), Gli-D1a (65%), Gli-A2a (64%), Gli-B2j (45%), Gli-D2 a (48%), Glu-A1c (99%), Glu-B1b (99%) and Glu-D1a (100%). The Nei's genetic variation index (H) of Sichuan wheat landraces was 0.3706, varying from 0 to 0.7087. The highest genetic diversity was found at Gli-B2 locus, while the lowest was found at Glu-D1 . The genetic diversity at Gli loci was higher than that of Glu-1 loci among these landraces, but it was much lower than that of modern wheat cultivars. These results indicated a narrow genetic base of Sichuan wheat landraces. In this study, “Chengdu-guangtou” had the identical gliadin and HMW-glutenin patterns with “Chinese Spring”, further supporting the proposal that “Chinese Spring” is a strain of “Chengdu-guangtou”.

四川小麦地方品种Gli-1、Gli-2 和Glu-1位点的遗传多样性
魏育明 郑有良 刘登才 周永红 兰秀锦
(四川农业大学小麦研究所,都江堰611830)

摘要:运用APAGE和SDS_PAGE方法 ,研究了 89个四川小麦 (Triticumaestivum L .)地方品种Gli_1、Gli_2和Glu-1位点的遗传多样性。在这些地方品种中 ,总共发现 32种醇溶蛋白带型和 3种高分子谷蛋白带型。在Gli-1、Gli-2和Glu-1位点上 ,分别检测出 14、15和 5个等位基因。在每一个位点上 ,出现频率最高的等位基因分别为Gli-A1a(89% ) ,Gli-B1h (46 % ) ,Gli-D1a (6 5 % ) ,Gli-A2a (6 4% ) ,Gli-B2j (45 % ) ,Gli-D2a (48% ) ,Glu-A1c (99% ) ,Glu-B1b (99% )和Glu-D1a (10 0 % )。四川小麦地方品种的Nei’s遗传变异系数平均为 0 .370 6 ,变幅为 0到 0 .70 87;其中Gli_B2位点的遗传多样性最高 ,而Glu_D1位点最低。同时 ,Gli位点的遗传多样性高于Glu-1位点的遗传多样性 ,但又低于现代品种Gli位点的遗传多样性。这些结果说明四川地方小麦品种的遗传基础狭窄。在研究中 ,“成都光头”与“中国春”的醇溶蛋白和高分子谷蛋白的带型完全一致 ,进一步证实“中国春”是“成都光头”的一个选系。
关键词: 小麦;地方品种;遗传多样性;醇溶蛋白位点;高分子谷蛋白位点

Abstract (Browse 2375)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cloning and Expression of a New MADS-box Gene from Rice
Author: JIA Hong-Wu, LUO Da, CONG Bin, GAO Zhi-Zhen, SHAO Jian-Yin, CAO Kai-Ming, SUN Chong-Rong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(5): 490-495
      
    

A new full-length MADS-box gene named FDRMADS8 was isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L.) by 3′RACE and 5′RACE using degenerate primer designed according to the MADS-box conserved region. The analyses of cDNA sequence showed that FDRMADS8 has 1 406 bp and encoded 233 amino acids which displayed the structure of typical plant MADS-box protein. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that it shared 50% identity with AGL14 of Arabidopsis. The RT-PCR expression analysis results from rice root, shoot and flower showed that the FDRMADS8 transcript was detectable in all three tissues, but the expression was lower in root and shoot. In situ hybridization experiments were performed on inflorescences and roots to analyze their temporal and spatial expression pattern. At the early stage of rice flower development, FDRMADS8 was mainly detectable in the bracts, bract hairs and inflorescence stems, while lower expression was detected in the apical meristem. Later in development, the expression of FDRMADS8 was detected in glumes and inflorescence stems. In root, the expression of FDRMADS8 was mainly localized in the elongation and mature region. No apparent expression signal was detected in the root cap, root meristem and pericycle cells. The results suggest that the MADS-box genes play a key role in the rice flower development though not restrict to it.

一个新的水稻MADS-box基因的克隆及表达分析
贾红武1  罗达2* 丛斌1 高之桢 邵坚寅1 曹凯鸣1 孙崇荣1**

(1. 复旦大学生命科学学院生化系,上海200433;2.  中国科学院上海植物生理研究所,上海200032)


摘要:根据MADS-box基因保守区结构,设计简并性引物,利用3'RACE从水稻(Oryza sativa L.)中克隆了1个新的水稻MADS-box基因的cDNA片段,同时利用5&RACE获得了全长cDnA命名为FDRMADSS。序列分析表明,该cDNA全长1406bp,开放阅读框共编码233个到,具有典型的植物MADS-box基因的结构。推测的氨基酸序列与拟南芥的MADS-box基因,AGL14同源性为50%。应用RT-PCR表达分析表明,FDRMADS8在根、叶和花中均有表达,但在根和叶中表达较低。利用RNA原位杂交对其时空表达模式研究表明:在花发育早期,在苞片、苞毛和花序茎中有大量表达,但在顶端分生组织中表达量较少;在花发育后期,FDRMADS8在颖片以及花序茎中有明显表达,而在外稃、内稃、浆片、雄蕊和心皮原基中表达均不明显。在根中,FDRMADS8 在伸长区和根毛区的皮层中有大量表达,在根冠、根尖分生区和根毛区的中柱鞘细胞中却无明显表达。结果表明水稻MADS-box 基因的功能并不限于控制花发育。

关键词: 水稻MADS-box. 基因;3'RACE;5'RACE;RNA原位杂交

Abstract (Browse 2220)  |  Full Text PDF       
Construction of RAPDs Molecular Genetic Map of Chinese Cabbage
Author: ZHANG Lu-Gang, WANG Ming, CHEN Hang, LIU Ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(5): 485-489
      
    

A molecular genetic map of Brassica campestris L. (syn. B. rapa) was constructed based on the segregation of 99 RAPDs (random amplified polymorphic DNAs) markers from eighty-four 10-base random primers using DNA samples extracted from F2 population of turnip (B. campestris L. ssp. rapifera Metzg) × Chinese cabbage (B. campestris L. ssp. pekinensis Lour. Olsson). This genetic map covered 1 632.4 cM (centiMorgan) genome (Kosambi Function) with 16.5 cM mean intervals between flanking markers and defined thirteen linkage groups, in which the longest linkage group is 267.5 cM with 20.6 cM mean interval and the shortest linkage group is 62.2 cM with 15.6 cM mean interval. The size and distribution of linkage groups in this map is similar to other RFLP maps and karyotype data in B. campestris.

中国白菜RAPD分子遗传图谱的构建
张鲁刚1 王鸣1  陈杭2 刘玲2

(1. 西北农林科技大学,陕西杨凌712100;2. 国家蔬菜工程技术中心,北京100080)

摘要:以芜菁 (Brassicacampestris L .ssp .rapifera Metzg)和结球白菜 (B .campestris L .ssp .pekinensis (Lour.)Olsson )杂交的F2 群体为试材 ,采用RAPD标记 ,用 84个 10核苷酸随机引物 ,构建了白菜的RAPD遗传图谱。该图谱覆盖基因组的 16 32 .4cM (centiMorgan) ,标记间的平均间隔为 16 .5cM。其中最长的连锁群为 2 6 7.5cM ,最短的连锁群为6 2 .2cM。该图谱的大小及连锁群的分布与细胞学资料比较一致。

关键词: RAPD;分子遗传图谱;白菜
 

Abstract (Browse 2316)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genetic Transformation of Watercress with a Gene Encoding for Betaine-aldehyde Dehydrogenase (BADH)
Author: LI Yin-Xin, CHANG Feng-Qi, DU Li-Qun, GUO Bei-Hai, LI Hong-Jie, ZHANG Jin-Song, CHEN Shou-Yi, ZHU Zhi-Qing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(5): 480-484
      
    

Betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) gene was transferred into watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PCR and Southern blotting analysis showed that the BADH gene was integrated into genome of 46 watercress plants. Among the 6 transgenic plants being examined, 5 showed higher BADH activity than the control. Northern blotting analysis of the 5 plants showed that 4 with higher BADH activity had BADH transcript expression. Relative electronic conductivity demonstrated that less membrane damage of transgenic plants. Some transgenic plants grew normally on the medium with 0.5% NaCl while the control plants had very poor roots and slow grew in the same medium. The growth of some transgenic plants were superior to control obviously on the medium with 0.8% NaCl, although they grew slower than on the medium with 0.5% NaCl. And the leaves of control turned yellow after about 20 days to 1 month of cultured and eventually died.

转甜菜碱醛脱氢酶基因豆瓣菜的耐盐性
李银心 常凤启1,2 杜立群1  郭北海3  李洪杰3,4 张劲松4 陈受宜4  朱至清1*

(1. 中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093;2. 北京师范大学生命科学学院,北京100875;
3.  河北省农林科学院粮油作物研究所,石家庄050031;4. 中国科学院遗传研究所,北京100101)

摘要:将山菠菜甜苹碱醛脱氢酶(BADH)基因经根癌土壤杆菌(Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith et Townsend)Conn)AGL1介导转入豆瓣菜(Nasturtium nofficinale R,Br.)PCR、Southerj bloting检测呈阳性的再生植株有46株,对6株再生植株的BADH活性和Northern bloting检测发现,有5株BADH酶活性明显高于对照;膜的相对电导率测定结果说明,在盐胁迫下转基因豆瓣菜的膜结构所受损伤小于对照。转基因植株能够在0.5%NaC1正常生长,而对照在相同的培养基上生根困难且生长缓慢。在0.8%NaC1 的培养基上,部分转基因植株虽然生长减慢,但生长状况明显优于对照,且对照植株在相同培养基上培养20d 到1个月左右后,叶片变黄并最终死亡。
关键词: 甜菜碱醛脱氢酶基因;转基因植株;耐盐性;豆瓣菜

Abstract (Browse 2242)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plant Profilin Inhibits Polymerization of Maize Pollen Actin in Vitro
Author: REN Hai-Yun, YI Ke-Xi, JING Yan-Ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(5): 476-479
      
    

The effects of different ratio of native profilin on maize (Zea mays L.) pollen actin polymerization in vitro were analyzed by using ultracentrifuging sedimentation and ultraviolet absorption spectrum measurement (the molar ratio of profilin to actin was 2∶1, 1.5∶1, 1∶1, 0.5∶1, 0.1∶1 respectively). Preliminary results showed that profilin bound to G-actin and inhibited its polymerization. The inhibition of actin polymerization by profilin increased with the increasing ratio of profilin to pollen actin. The dissociation constant (Kd) value of profilin for binding to actin was (1.30±0.33) μmol/L. No stimulation effect of profilin on actin polymerization was observed, suggesting that pollen profilin may affect actin organization by sequestering the G-actin.

前纤维蛋白影响花粉肌动蛋白体外聚合分析
任海云 易克喜 荆艳萍
(细胞增殖及调控生物学教育部重点实验室,北京师范大学生命科学学院,北京100875)


摘要:利用超速离心沂淀及紫外分光光度测定等技术,研究了不同比例的玉米(Zea nays L.)花粉内泊前纤维蛋白对玉米(Zea mays L.)花烩肌动蛋白(前纤维蛋白与肌动蛋白摩尔数比分别为2:1,1.5:1,1:1,0.5:1,0.1:1)聚合与解聚的影响。初步实验结果显示,前纤维蛋白在各种比例下均可与Mg=ATP肌动蛋白结合并抑制肌动蛋白的聚实验条件下尚水见玻有前纤维蛋白促进植物肌动蛋白聚合的作用

关键词: 玉米花粉;肌动蛋白;前纤维蛋白

Abstract (Browse 2386)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Study of Immunological Properties on Glutamine Synthetase Isozymes in Rice Plants
Author: LIN Qing-Hua, LI Chang-Jian, ZHANG Chu-Fu, PENG Jin, PENG Shao-Bing, John BENNETT
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(5): 471-475
      
    

In rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots two glutamine synthetase (GS) isozymes, GSra and GSrb, were identified recently in the author's experiments, but the homology of both GSra and GSrb as well as their localization in the rice roots are unclear. In the present study, the purified GSra and GSrb from rice roots were used to immunize rabbits to obtain the respective antibodies. The immunodiffusion and immunoblotting experiments showed that the antibody against GSra or GSrb was specific for GS and its isozymes. The immunoprecipitation test indicated that the antibody of GSra or GSrb not only recognized its respective antigen, but also well recognized each other's antigen. GSra or GSrb antibody recognized also better cytosolic GS1 of rice leaves, but the recognization for chloroplast GS2 from rice or spinach (Spinacia oleracea Mill.) leaves was weaker. Our results indicate that GSra and GSrb from rice roots are quite similar in antigenicity and are extremely similar proteins and that both GSra and GSrb may also be a form of cytosolic GS just as the cytosolic GS1 of rice leaves.

水稻谷氨酰胺合成酶同工酶免疫学性质比较研究
林清华1 李常健1 张楚富1* 彭进1 PENG Shao-Bing2 John BENNETT 2

(1.  武汉大学生命科学学院,武汉430072;/2.International Rice Research Institute,P.O. Box 3127,1271 Makati City,Philippines)

Abstract (Browse 2310)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Water Stress on the Mossbauer Spectrum of Fe2+/Fe3+ Components in Cucumber PSII Particles
Author: ZENG Fu-Li, WU Jin-Song, ZHANG Li-Jing, WANG Jian-Bo, ZHOU Rong-Jie, ZHANG Ming-Feng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(5): 467-470
      
    

There were four doublets in the Mössbauer spectrum of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) photosystemⅡ (PSⅡ) particles. According to the value of isomer shift and quadrupole splitting, they represented oxidized cytochrome b559 (Cyt-b559), reduced Cyt-b559, Fe3+-quinone (Q) complex, and Fe2+-Q complex respectively. After water-stress, the electron transport rate between QA (primary quinone electron acceptor of PSⅡ)/QB(secondary quinone electron acceptor of PSⅡ) was affected and the absorption doublets of Fe2+ disappeared, suggesting that the reduced Cyt-b559 and Fe2+-Q complex had been oxidized. The results indicated that water-stress had changed the redox status of iron in the iron-quinone complex. Iron took part in electron transport through the change from a state of reduction to oxidation.

干旱胁迫对黄瓜PSII颗粒铁组分Mossbauer谱的影响
曾福礼1 吴劲松1 张丽静1 王建波2 周荣洁2 张明凤3*

(兰州大学,生物系1,物理系2,化学系3,兰州730000)

摘要:黄瓜(Gcumis sativus L)叶片PSⅡ颗粒的Mossbauer谱呈现4套双峰,依它们的化学位移相四敬矩劈塑数值,分别属于氧化态Cyt-b559,还原态Cyl-b559、Fe3+-Q画物和Fe2+-Q复合物。干埋胁迫旱影响QA/QB中铁(Fe)参与电子传递的速率,使PSⅡ颗粒的Mossbauet谱中Fe2+的吸收双峰消失,即还原态G7yt-B559转变为氧化态Cyt-b559Fe2-Q复合物转变为Fe3+-Q复合物。结果干旱胁迫改变了铁醌复合物中的铁存在状态,使铁具有氧化6还原态变化,从而参与电子传递。

关键词: 黄瓜;PSII颗粒;Mossbauer谱;Fe-Q复合物;干旱胁迫

Abstract (Browse 2377)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Molybdenum and Boron on Membrane Lipid Peroxidation and Endogenous Protective Systems of Soybean Leaves
Author: LIU Peng, YANG Yu-Ai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(5): 461-466
      
    

The study deals with the changes of membrane peroxidation and endogenous protective system with different supplementation of molybdenum (Mo) and/or boron (B) concentration in soybean (Glycine max L.) leaves at three developmental stages (5-trifoliate stage, initiation of flowering, and peak podsetting stage) in three pot-grown soybean varieties (“Zhechun No.3”, “Zhechun No.2”, “3811”). The control plants under low Mo and low B exhibited an increasing of membrane permeability (MP), malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline (Pro) contents, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and ascorbate oxidase (AO) activities and a decrease of ascorbate (AsA) contents, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (AP) and catalase (CAT) activities. Application of Mo or B alone raised the ability of anti-oxidant of soybean leaves. The results indicated that the anti-oxidant enzymes (including SOD, POD, CAT and AP) related closely to anti-oxidant compounds (including AsA and Pro). There was some difference between the effects of Mo and B on the anti-oxidant, and a synergetic effect was observed between Mo and B. Some genetic variation in the responses to Mo and B was found among the three soybean varieties which was related to the activities of the total anti-oxidant systems.

钼、硼对大豆叶片膜脂过氧化及体内保护系统的影响
刘鹏1,2 杨玉爱2

(1. 浙江师范大学生物系,金华321004;2. 浙江大学资源科学系,杭州310029)

摘要:以 3个大豆 (Glycinemax L .)品种 (“浙春 3号”、“浙春 2号”和“3811”)为材料 ,设置不同的钼、硼水平 ,研究了 3个生育期 (五叶期、初花期和盛荚期 )大豆叶片膜脂过氧化及体内保护系统的变化。结果表明 :在低钼、低硼胁迫下 ,大豆叶片的质膜透性 (MP)、丙二醛 (MDA)和脯氨酸 (Pro)的含量、多酚氧化酶 (PPO)和抗坏血酸氧化酶 (AO)的活性增加 ,抗坏血酸 (AsA)的含量及超氧化物歧化酶 (SOD)、过氧化物酶 (POD)、抗坏血酸过氧化物酶 (AP)、过氧化氢酶 (CAT)的活性下降 ;施钼或施硼都有利于大豆抗膜脂过氧化胁迫 ;大豆体内保护系统中的酶类 (SOD、POD、CAT和AP)和非酶类化合物 (AsA和Pro)密切相关 ,协同抗氧化 ;在抵御膜脂过氧化的程度上 ,钼和硼的作用存在一定的差异 ,且钼和硼呈现相互促进的作用 ;3个大豆品种对钼、硼的反应存在基因型差异 ,与抗氧化系统的整体活力(酶类和非酶类 )相关。

关键词: 大豆;钼;硼;膜脂过氧化;体内保护系统

Abstract (Browse 2128)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Photoperiod on Ca2+-ATPase Distribution in Photoperiod-Sensitive Cytoplasmic Male-Sterile Wheat During Anther Development
Author: MENG Xiang-Hong, WANG Jian-Bo, LI Rong-Qian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(5): 446-454
      
    

Potassium antimontate was used to locate Ca2+ in fertile and sterile anthers of photoperiod-sensitive cytoplasmic male-sterile wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).The quantity and distribution of calcium precipitates change in microspore and pollen during microsporogenesis and pollen development.The calcium precipitates gradually accumulated on the surface of tetraspore or pollen until pollen mature. They were abundant on the surface of the trinucleate pollen,but not in the cytoplasm.Calcium was transported in anther wall and intervening connective tissue via symplast and apoplast system,meeting the need of microspore and pollen development.Abortive pollens were observed in the anthers developed under long daylight exposure. Abundant calcium precipitates were distributed along the edge of the degradatived pollen plasma and in the locular matrix,but little in the anther wall and intervening connective tissue of the early abortive pollen.Calcium precipitates accumulated on the surface of pollen was less than fertile pollen,but abundant calcium appear in the epiderms,endotheciums,middle layers of anther wall and cells of connective tissue.The results indicate that abnormalities in the distribution of calcium correlate with the failure of pollen development in photoperiod-sensitive cytoplasmic male-sterile wheat.

光周期对光敏胞质不育小麦花药发育过程中Ca2+-ATPase分布的影响
孟祥红 王建波* 利容千
(武汉大学生命科学学院,武汉430072)


摘要:应用铅沉淀法 ,研究了不同光照条件下光敏胞质不育小麦 (Triticumaestivum L .)可育花药和不育花药发育过程中Ca2 +-ATPase的分布。短日照可育条件下 ,单核早期至成熟花粉 ,Ca2 + -ATPase在花粉表面、外壁内先增加后减少 ,在花粉内壁及质膜上逐渐增加 ,在胞质内分布较少 ;成熟花粉的营养细胞核仁内有大量Ca2 +-ATPase分布 ,精细胞核仁内亦有Ca2 + -ATPase分布。乌氏体上、绒毡层细胞内或其解体残留物上有大量Ca2 + -ATPase的分布 ,药壁其他细胞亦有Ca2 + -ATPase分布。自单核期开始 ,长日照不育条件下花药内Ca2 +-ATPase分布与短日照下相比有以下差异 :花粉质膜上Ca2 + -ATPase虽逐渐增多 ,但与同时期短日照下相比明显减少 ;其内壁发育不完善 ,无或少有Ca2 + -ATPase的分布 ;花粉表面、外壁内、乌氏体表面及药壁细胞内分布较少 ;但绒毡层外膜、表皮与药室内壁细胞间隙内有明显Ca2 + -ATPase分布。对花粉发育过程中Ca2 +-ATPase的来源、在维持Ca2 + 稳态中的作用及其与花粉败育的关系作了讨论。

关键词: 光敏胞质不育;小麦;花药发育;Ca2 +-ATPase;细胞化学

Abstract (Browse 1991)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultracytochemical Localization of ATPase During the Secondary Xylem Differentiation and Dedifferentiation in Eucommia ulmoides Trunk
Author:
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(5): 455-460
      
    

The ultracytochemical localization of ATPase in the secondary xylem cells during their differentiation and dedifferentiation in the girdled Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. was carried out using a lead phosphate precipitation technique. Throughout the differentiation, which is a typical programmed cell death (PCD) process, ATPase deposits increased in the nucleus but decreased and progressively disappeared in the cell organelles. At the same time, the distribution of ATPase increased in the inner face of the cell wall and pits with cytoplasmic degeneration. The results demonstrated that the PCD was an energy dependent active process and was controlled by nuclear genes. On the other hand, the distribution of ATPase in the intercellular spaces increased with the formation of the new cambium resulted from the dedifferentiation of the secondary xylem cells after girdling. However, ATPase was not found in the nucleus of the dividing cells, suggesting that nutrients were transported through protoplast during differentiation, and through both protoplast and apoplast during dedifferentiation. Thus, the energy required in cell division was provided mainly by intercellular spaces. These findings indicate that the dynamic distribution of ATPase reflected which cell component was actively taking part in the cell metabolism at various stages of the plant development, and its distribution was associated with the physiological state of the cell. Based on the characteristic distributions of ATPase, the critical stage of cell differentiation and the relationship between the critical stage and dedifferentiation were discussed.

杜仲次生木质部细胞分化和脱分化过程中ATPase的超微细胞化学定位
王雅清   Kalima-N,Koma MWANGE 崔克明*

(北京大学生命科学学院,北京100871)

摘要:采用磷酸铅沉淀技术,对杜仲(Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.)次生木质部细胞分和脱化过程进行了ATPase的超微细胞化学定位。随着分化过程中细胞程序性死亡(programmed cell death,PCD)程度的加深,ATPase在细胞核上的分布由少变多,而在各种细胞器上的分布由有到无,并且随着细胞质的解体,ATPase在细胞壁内侧和纹孔处的分布也由少到多,说明它们的变化是由核基因控制的主动需能过程;杜仲剥皮后的脱分化过程中,随着细胞开始分裂进而迅速分裂形成新的形成层,胞间隙和胞间层中ATPade的分布由少到多,但分裂细胞的核上无此酶分布,可
能细胞由分化向脱分化转变时,物质运输由单一的共质体运输转变为共质体运输和质外体运输两种途径,并且这些细胞代谢所需的能量可能主要来自胞间隙和胞间层。以上结果说明,ATPade的分布反映了某一时空内哪些细胞组分在活跃地参与细胞代谢及个体发育过程,其分布是与细胞的生理状态相对应的,即是受遗传程序控制的。此外,根据酶的分布特点,探讨了细胞分化临界期的指标及其与脱分化的关系。
关键词: 杜仲;次生木质部;分化;脱分化;细胞程序性死亡(PCD);ATPase

Abstract (Browse 2092)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Simple and Easy Method for Site-specific Mutagenesis Using Long-distance Inverse PCR in the Presence of Pfu-DNA Polymerase
Author: DONG Yu-Qing, YU Xin, ZHAO Jin-Dong*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(5): 539-541
      
    

Site-specific mutagenesis has been widely used in molecular biology and biochemistry. The authors have developed a simple and easy method for site-specific mutagenesis of any genes on plasmids using long distance inverse PCR in the presence of Pfu-DNA polymerase. The efficiency of this method is higher than 90% and the entire procedure can be performed just in one tube. No subcloning is needed. This method is especially useful for obtaining mutant genes on large plasmids such as Ti plasmids used for plant transformation.

一种简易的利用Pfu-DNA聚合酶进行反向长距离PCR获得定点突变的方法
董宇清 于昕 赵进东*

(北京大学生命科学学院,北京100871)

摘要:定点突变是一种常用的分子生物学方法。利用Pfu-DNA聚合酶进行反向长距离PCR可以有效地获得定点突变。方法操作简易 ,突变效率高于 90 %。整个操作过程可在一个试管中完成 ,不需亚克隆。对克隆在大质粒 (如转化植物的Ti-类型质粒 )尤为实用。

关键词: 反向长距离PCR;质粒;定点突变

Abstract (Browse 2374)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New Gleicheniaceous Fern Chansitheca (Sphenopteris) wudaensis from the Lower Permian of Wuda, Nei Mongol, China
Author: DENG Sheng-Hui, SUN Ke-Qin, LI Cheng-Sen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(5): 533-538
      
    

Chansitheca (Sphenopteris) wudaensis sp. nov. is described based on the materials collected from the Lower Permian Shansi Formation of Wuda, Nei Mongol, China. The frond is small and at least two times pinnate. The pinnule is sphenopteroid. The sori are borne on the abaxial surface of the pinnule, arranged in two rows parallel to the midvein, elliptic,and composed of 4-10 round sporangia. The indusium is absent. The annulus is transverse and complete, and consists of about 18 thickened cells. The features of the fertile parts, sori, sporangia and annulus and the absence of indusium indicate that the new species belongs to the Gleicheniaceae.

内蒙古乌达地区早二叠世晋囊蕨属一新种
邓胜徽1 孙克勤2 李承森3

(1. 石油勘探开发科学研究院,北京100083;2. 中国地质大学,北京100083;3.  中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093)

摘要:通过扫描电镜研究 ,建立了内蒙古中部乌达地区下二叠统山西组晋囊蕨属的一个新种Chansithecawudaensis sp .nov .。新种的小羽片Sphenopteris型 ;囊群椭圆形 ,由 4~ 10个孢子囊组成 ,着生于小羽片背面 ,位于中脉的两侧 ;环带横列于孢子囊的上部 ,完全 ,单排细胞 ,细胞数目约为 18个。这些特征表明新种属于里白科。

关键词: 下二叠统;里白科;晋囊蕨属

Abstract (Browse 2056)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Neogene Pollen/Spore Flora of Lühe, Yunnan
Author: XU Jing-Xian, WANG Yu-Fei, DU Nai-Qiu, ZHANG Cui-Fen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(5): 526-532
      
    

The Neogene flora of Lühe belongs to Holarctic geoflora. Angiosperms are the dominated elements in this flora, such as Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Ulmus, Corylus, Quercus, Cyclobalanopsis, Castanopsis, Carya, Castanea, Liquidambar, Davidia, Ilex, Palmae, etc. The vegetation type is evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forest although some coniferous forests (Abies,Tsuga,Pinus etc) are present near the highlands. The assemblage of pollens and spores reflects a warm and humid subtropical climate. The geological age of Lühe ranges from Middle-Late Miocene to Early Pliocene, based on comparison with other floras.

云南吕合地区晚第三纪孢粉植物群
徐景先1  王宇飞1*  杜乃秋1 张翠芬2

(1. 中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093;2.   云南省楚雄州吕合煤矿,楚雄675213)

摘要:吕合地区晚第三纪孢粉植物群研究表明该植物群属北极第三纪植物区系 ,孢粉组合以被子植物为主 ,温带成分如Alnus、Betula、Carpinus、Corylus、Quercus、Castanea、Ulmus等 ,亚热带、热带成分如Cyclobalanopsis、Castanopsis、Liquidambar、Carya、Davidia、Ilex、Palmae等。吕合附近海拔较高的地带分布松科Abies、Tsuga、Pinus等针叶树种。吕合孢粉组合中温带成分比热带、亚热带成分花粉类型多 ,每种类型的花粉含量也多。植被类型为常绿落叶阔叶混交林 ,反映温暖湿润的亚热带气候类型。植物群对比揭示吕合植物群时代为中新世中晚期_上新世早期。

关键词: 吕合;晚第三纪;孢粉植物群

Abstract (Browse 2304)  |  Full Text PDF       
Norditerpenoid Alkaloids from Delphinium orthocentrum (Ranunculaceae)
Author: DING Li-Sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(5): 523-525
      
    

直距翠雀花中的降二萜生物碱
丁立生1* 王静2 彭树林1  陈能煜2*

(1.  中国科学院成都生物研究所,成都610041;2.  兰州大学化学系,兰州730000)

 

Abstract (Browse 2218)  |  Full Text PDF       
Clonal Plasticity in Response to Nutrient Availability in the Stoloniferous Herb, Duchesnea indica
Author: DONG Ming, ZHANG Shu-Min, CHEN Yu-Fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(5): 518-522
      
    

A pot experiment with three levels of nutrient (N, P, K) supply was carried out to investigate clonal plasticity of stoloniferous herb Duchesnea indica Focke in response to nutrient availability. The plants had greater biomass at higher levels of nutrient availability. The root/shoot ratio of the plants changed with the nutrient availability in the following order: low level > high level > medium level. They had the largest biomass allocation to stolon at the medium level of nutrient availability. The biomass allocation to petiole did not respond to the treatments. The plants formed more stolons and ramets at the high and medium levels than the low level of nutrient availability. The petiole length, specific petiole weight(mg/cm)and stolon internode length of the plants did not respond to the treatments, while the specific stolon weight (mg/cm)of the plants was greater at the high and medium levels than the low level of nutrient availability. The results have been discussed in the context of adaptation of clonal plants to environmental heterogeneity.

匍匐茎草本蛇莓对基质养分条件的克隆可塑性
董鸣 张淑敏 陈玉福
(中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学开放研究实验室,北京100093)


摘要:为了研究匍匐茎草本植物对基质养分供应水平的克隆可塑性 ,在一栽培实验中匍匐茎草本植物蛇莓(Duchesneaindica Focke)经历了高、中、低养分 (N ,P ,K)水平的环境处理。实验表明 ,蛇莓植株生物量在较高养分条件下较大 ,根冠比在低养分条件下最大 ,高养分次之 ,中养分最小 ;对匍匐茎的生物量投资在中养分条件下最大 ;对叶柄的生物量投资没有对养分处理发生反应。蛇莓植株在低养分下比在高养分和中养分条件下形成较少的匍匐茎和克隆分株。蛇莓植物的叶柄长度、单位长度叶柄重量 (mg·cm-1)和匍匐茎节间长度都没有对养分处理发生反应 ,单位长度匍匐茎重量 (mg·cm-1)在低养分条件下较小。结合克隆植物对环境异质性的生态适应意义对实验结果进行了讨论。

关键词: 蛇莓;克隆植物;匍匐茎;养分;可塑性

Abstract (Browse 2218)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Simplified Model with Soil Water Limitation on Spring Wheat Growth
Author: ZHENG Hai-Lei, MAITANI Toshihiko, HUANG Zi-Chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(5): 512-517
      
    

The authors constructed a simplified model of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) carbon assimilation and dry matter accumulation (DMA) process which consisted of two independent variables, day length (L) and total daily radiation (TDR). Leaf water potential (Ψ) was incorporated into the simplified growth model based on the assumption that both light use efficiency (α) and CO2 conductance of assimilation (gc) were depressed by water limitation. Finally,Ψ was estimated from a regression equation in which the independent variables were relative soil water content in the upper 80 cm (θR,80), ambient temperature (Ta), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), the cumulative leaf water potential below thresholds of -1.5 MPa (Ψc,1.5). Some applications in research program of field experiment of atmosphere-land surface processes in Heihe River region were tested. The simulated data agreed well with the data observed at Linze oasis in 1989 for various levels of water supply and at Zhangye oasis in 1992 in the field. The analysis and simulation using the model demonstrated that the simplified growth model could describe very well the DMA process of spring wheat with and without water limitation in the region of HEIFE (Heihe field experiment).

考虑土壤水分限制的春小麦生长简化模型
郑海雷1* 米谷俊颜2 黄子琛3

(1. 厦门大学生物系,厦门361005;2.  日本冈山大学生物资源研究所,冈山710;3.  中国科学院兰州沙漠研究所,兰州730000)

摘要:建立了以日长 (L)和日总辐射 (TDR)为自变量的春小麦 (Triticumaestivum L .)碳同化和干物质累积 (DMA)的简化模型 ;考虑了水分限制下光能利用效率 (α)、碳传输导度 (gc)均被降低的设定 ,将反映春小麦水分状况的叶水势 (Ψ)作为参数纳入本模型 ;Ψ则通过多元回归由 80cm土层相对含水量 (θR ,80 )、气温 (Ta)、水汽压差 (VPD)、低于- 1.5MPa叶水势之和 (Ψc ,1.5)给出。讨论了模型在“黑河地区地气相互作用研究”中的应用实例。模型分析和模拟结果表明 ,该简化生长模型能较好地描述春小麦在水分限制和无水分限制条件下的干物质累积过程。

关键词: 春小麦;生长;简化模型;水分限制

Abstract (Browse 1960)  |  Full Text PDF       
Phylogenetic Relationships of Diploid Species in Aegilops Inferred from the ITS Sequences of Nuclear Ribosomal DNA
Author: WANG Chao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(5): 507-511
      
    

The entire sequences of the ITS region of nuclear rDNA were determined from 9 diploid species in the genus Aegilops of Poaceae by direct double-sequencing. These sequences, together with the published ITS sequences, were analyzed using PHYLIP 3.5c package to assess the phylogenetic relationships in the genus Aegilops. The ITS regions and the coding region of 5.8S rDNA analyzed in the study were ranged from 601 to 607 bp in length, among them 75 variable sites were observed. The G+C content being, 61.1%-62.9%, is similar to most other species in Poaceae. The phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences showed that there was no sister group relationships between Ae. speltoides and the other species of Section Sitopsis, thus suggesting that Ae. speltoides could be separated from the section. The phylogenetic trees also indicated that Ae.uniaristata in Section Comopyrum was more closely related to Ae.caudata and Ae.umbellulata than to the other members in this section, which was in general agreement with the previous cytogenetic results.

山羊草属二倍体物种核rDNA ITS 区序列及其系统发育关系分析
王超 施苏华2  王建波1* 钟扬3

(1.  武汉大学生命科学学院,武汉430072;2.  中山大学生命科学学院,广州510275;3. 中国科学院武汉植物研究所,武汉430074)

摘要:测定了山羊草属(Aegilops)二倍物种核rDNA ITS区序列,发现其碱基粉介于601-607之间,比报道的小riuceae)其他属的ITS区我略长,G+C含量达61.1%~62.9%,序列间的分化距离为0.0050~0.0468。用PHYLIP3.5e软件包对所测得的DNA数据进行聚类分析,结果显示:1.Ae.speltoides与该组其他种相距很远,支持将其从Sitopsis组中独立出来, uniaristata不与同组的另两个物种聚在一起,却与Ae. caudata和Ae. umbellulata的关系很近,与以前对该属的细胞遗传学研究结果相似。
关键词: 山羊草属;ITS区序列;亲缘关系

Abstract (Browse 2174)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genetic Differentiation of A and B Chromosomes Between Common Wheat and Wild Emmer as Revealed by RFLP Analysis
Author: RONG Jun-Kang, LIU Bao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(5): 502-506
      
    

To investigate chromosome differentiation of genome A and B between common wheat and wild emmer wheat ( Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides (Koern.) Bowden), the authors conducted a RFLP analysis of the two species using 153 genomic, cDNA and chromosome-specific probes. 75.8% of the probes had detected hybridization polymorphism in at least one of the five restriction enzymes. However, the polymorphic probes were unevenly distributed among different homoeologous groups, between different genomes and in different regions of a single chromosome. Homoeologous group 1 possessed the highest level of polymorphism (96.2%), followed by group 6 and 2 (84.6% and 82.1% respectively). In contrast, only 60%-67% of probes of the other four groups was polymorphic. In most groups the number of probes capable of detecting B chromosome polymorphism was slightly higher than that revealing A chromosome difference (totally 51.8% vs 43.1%). In a single chromosome, RFLP was predominant in the distal region (65.1%) and showed a decreasing trend from the proximal (46.2%) to the pericentric (42.4%) regions. The results suggest that there exists a substantial amount of DNA polymorphism between the A and B chromosomes of common wheat and those of wild emmer wheat, indicating that a considerable degree of genetic differentiation has taken place in the A and B genoms of two species during evolution from wild emmer to common wheat. The extent of the genetic differentiation may vary among different homoeologous groups, between A and B chromosomes and in different regions of individual chromosome.

利用RFLP 揭示普通小麦与野生二粒小麦间A 和B 组染色体的遗传分化
戎均康1* 刘宝2**

(1. 浙江大学农学系,杭州310029;2.  东北师范大学细胞与遗传研究所,长春130024)

摘要:普通小麦是栽培二粒小麦 (Triticumturgidum var.dicoccum ShrankexSch櫣bler)与粗山羊草 (T .tauschiiCoss .)天然杂交并自然加倍的产物 ,而栽培二粒小麦是由野生二粒小麦 (T .turgidumvar.dicoccoides (Koern .)Bowden)进化而来的。从野生二粒小麦到普通小麦的进化过程中其遗传物质可能发生了许多变化。以普通小麦_野生二粒小麦染色体臂置换系为材料 ,研究了普通小麦与野生二粒小麦间的限制性片段长度多态性 (RFLP) ,以揭示此二物种之间A和B组染色体的遗传分化。结果表明 ,两物种的A和B染色体均存在很大的差异。在所研究的 15 3个包括基因组、cDNA和染色体专化序列在内的探针中 ,75 .8%的探针至少在所用的 5种限制性内切酶中的一种具有多态性 ,但是这种多态性在A和B染色体上的分布是不均匀的。就同源群 (Homoeologousgroup)来说 ,第一群具有最高的多态性 (96 .2 % ) ;第六和二次之 (分别为 84.6 %和 82 .1% ) ;其余 4个群最低 (约在 6 0 %~ 6 7%之间 )。在大多数的群中 ,B组染色体通常比相应的A组染色体具有较高的多态性。所有B组染色体的多态性频率为 5 1.8% ,而A组染色体为 43.1%。位于染色体末端的探针比染色体中部和着丝点周围的探针显示较高的多态性 ,三者的多态性频率分别为 6 5 .1%、46 .2%和42.4%。以上结果表明,上述二物种在DNA 分子水平上已存在很大的遗传分化。对这些遗传分化发生的时间和机制进行了讨论。
关键词: 小麦;染色体臂置换系;遗传分化;限制性片段长度多态性;物种进化
 

Abstract (Browse 2037)  |  Full Text PDF       
In Vitro Development of Tobacco Primary Endosperm Cells in Microculture
Author: LI Shi-Tao, FANG Ke-Feng, YANG Hong-Yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(5): 542-544
      
    

烟草初生胚乳细胞在微室培养中的发育
李师弢 房克凤 杨弘远*

(武汉大学生命科学学院发育生物学研究中心,武汉430072)

摘要:用酶解_研磨法分离出烟草 (Nicotianatabacum L .)受精后胚囊和初生胚乳细胞进行微室饲养培养。培养基为Km8p附加各种其他成分 ,饲养细胞为分裂旺盛的烟草叶肉原生质体 ,在 2 5℃下静止暗培养。培养 3d后 ,初生胚乳细胞开始第一次分裂 ,继续分裂至 14d时形成大的细胞团。首次报道了双子叶植物初生胚乳细胞的离体发育。

关键词: 初生胚乳细胞;离体发育;烟草

Abstract (Browse 1964)  |  Full Text PDF       
Apoplast-The Important Signal Source for Fate Decision of Cell Development
Author: Apoplast-The Important Signal Source for Fate Decision of Cell Development SUN Da-Ye
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(5): 441-445
      
    

Apoplast is a special extracellular structure of the plant cell. In recent years, apoplast had been revealed as a powerful signal source that could determine the fate of cell development. Some novel polypeptide molecules in the apoplast, the signal molecules induced by the pathogenic infection or wound, and other extracellular signal molecules, like cAMP, calmodulin, part components of extracellular matrix (ECM), all of them were found to be present in the apoplast. More important, it is also proved that they play a very important role for intercellular communication, interaction between cells and determination of the cell fate during development.

质外体——决定植物细胞发育命运的重要信号源
孙大业
(河北师范大学生物系,石家庄050016)


关键词: 植物;质外体;发育;信号分子

Abstract (Browse 1968)  |  Full Text PDF       
Analysis of the Projects Received and Financially Supported in the Division of Botany by the National Natural Science Foundation of China in 1999
Author: YAN Zhang-Cai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(5)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1963)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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