June 2000, Volume 42 Issue 6

 

          Research Articles
Use of AFLP Marker to Predict the Hybrid Yield and Yield Heterosis in Maize
Author: WU Min-Sheng, DAI Jing-Rui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(6): 600-604
      
    

The relationship between AFLP molecular marker and hybrid yield/yield heterosis was analyzed in maize (Zea mays L.). The materials consisted of 17 inbred lines and their 136 single cross hybrids in a diallel crossing design. The results indicated that the genetic distance (GD) based on AFLP data was significantly correlated with hybrid yield/yield heterosis, the correlation coefficient being 0.4503, 0.3714, respectively in 1997, and 0.4352, 0.3253, respectively in 1998, but the determination coefficient (r2) was low. The correlation between GD and hybrid yield/yield heterosis was different when parent materials tested were changed. In particular, if parent materials were unrelated lines, GD was not correlated with hybrid yield/yield heterosis. The results suggest that AFLPs with high polymorphism can be used to investigate the relationships among maize inbreds, although they are of limited value for predicting the hybrid yield and yield heterosis of maize.

AFLP 标记与玉米杂种产量、产量杂种优势的预测
吴敏生*  戴景瑞
(中国农业大学遗传育种系,北京100094)

摘要:以 17个玉米 (Zeamays L .)自交系及其按双列杂交配制的 136个单交种为材料 ,研究AFLP分子标记与玉米杂交种产量、产量杂种优势的关系。结果发现 ,基于AFLP数据计算的遗传距离与 1997年杂种产量、产量杂种优势的相关系数 (r)分别为 0 .45 0 3、0 .3714,与 1998年杂种产量、产量杂种优势的相关系数分别为 0 .435 2、0 .32 5 3,均达到显著水平 ,但决定系数 (r2 )都很小。当亲本材料改变时 ,它们的相关性也随着改变 ,尤其是当亲本自交系亲缘关系较远时 ,二者完全不相关。表明尽管AFLP技术有较高的多态性 ,但用于预测玉米的杂种产量和产量杂种优势的作用也是有限的。

关键词: 玉米;AFLP标记;遗传距离;杂种优势;产量

Abstract (Browse 2207)  |  Full Text PDF       
Rapid Identification of Self-incompatibility and S-alleles of Cabbage by the Polymorphism of S Locus
Author: ZHU Li-Quan, WANG Xiao-Jia
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(6): 595-599
      
    

Specific primers were designed according to the sequences of class Ⅰ and class Ⅱ SLG genes. The PCR products using these primers amplified from the cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) gDNAs of Southwest China Agricultural University (SCAU) and Horticulture Research International (HRI), Wellesbourne, showed that those with class Ⅰ SLG genes were strong self-incompatibility (SI) lines and those with class Ⅱ were included both strong and weak SI lines. Thus the whole length of DNA fragment of class Ⅱ SLG gene may be the molecular marker for distinguishing SI lines from SC lines. Furthermore, RFLP analysis of the class  Ⅱ SLG genes from various S-alleles of cabbage was conducted by using 6 restriction endonucleases which recognize 4 bp DNA sequence and the results showed that the S-alleles from HRI as well as the weak SI lines from SCAU presented obvious different RFLP profiles which could be used for distinguishing S-alleles of cabbage.

利用S位点多态性快速测定甘蓝自交不亲和性及其S等位基因系
朱利泉 王小佳*

(西南农业大学农学与生命科学学院,重庆400716)

 摘要:根据Ⅰ类和Ⅱ类SLG基因两端序列合成了特异引物 ,对西南农业大学和HRI (HorticultureResearchInterna tional,Wellesbourne)提供的不同亲和指数的甘蓝 (Brassicaoleracea L .)材料进行了PCR分析。结果表明 :具Ⅰ类SLG基因的材料是强自交不亲和系 ;具Ⅱ类SLG基因的材料既包括强自交不亲和系 ,也包括弱自交不亲和系。因此 ,Ⅱ类SLG基因的存在可作为区别甘蓝自交亲和系和自交不亲和系的分子标记。进一步用 6种识别 4bp的限制酶对Ⅱ类SLG基因DNA片段进行了RFLP分析 ,HRI的自交不亲和材料和西南农业大学的弱自交不亲和材料具有明显的RFLP多态性 ,被进一步用于鉴定甘蓝弱自交不亲和系内的各S等位基因系。这为利用HRI材料对现有种质进行改良提供了分子依据。

关键词: 甘蓝;自交不亲和性;S等位基因系;SLG基因;多态性;快速测定

Abstract (Browse 2066)  |  Full Text PDF       
RAPD Variation Within and Among Populations of Ginseng Cultivars
Author: MA Xiao-Jun, WANG Xiao-Quan, XU Zhao-Xi, XIAO Pei-Gen, HONG De-Yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(6): 587-590
      
    

The genetic variations of four ginseng populations (32 individuals) were confirmed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and 46.1% polymorphic sites were detected, which proved that the genetic diversity level in the garden ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) was relatively high. The diversity coefficient (DC) values of the five populations, i.e., the first-class ginsengs, the third-class ginsengs, the Biantiao (BT) 59 ginsengs, the Beijing ginsengs and P. quinquefolium ranged from the highest in the third-class ginsengs (0.4169) to the relatively lower in the first-class ginsengs (0.2565), then to the lowest in BT59 ginsengs (0.1881). It is proved that the way and the number of generations of selection were very important to purify ginseng population. According to the pairwise differentiation values of all populations, the proportion of diversity coefficient (PDC) values (1.77%) between BT59 ginsengs and the first-class ginsengs was the lowest, that (12.77%) between BT59 ginsengs and third-class ginsengs was moderate, and that (42.01%) between BT59 ginsengs and the Beijing ginsengs was the most significant. The first-class ginsengs and BT59 ginsengs were combined firstly in the dendrogram constructed from the PDC values, followed by the order of the third-class ginsengs, Beijing ginsengs, and P. quinquefolium. The author's results were consistent with those of the previous agronomic studies and these data can provide a basis for cultivation and breeding of ginseng.

人参不同栽培群体遗传关系的RAPD分析
马小军1* 汪小全2  徐昭玺1 肖培根1  洪德元2

(1. 中国医学科学院中国协和医科大学药用植物研究所,北京100094;
2. 中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学开放研究实验室,北京100093)

摘要:用随机扩增多态DNA(RAPD)标记法对 4个人参 (Panaxginseng C .A .Meyer)栽培群体 32个个体进行遗传多样性分析 ,发现RAPD多态位点为 46 .1% ,证明在人参栽培群体中存在较丰富的遗传多样性。分析一路参、三路参、系选品系 5 9号、北京参等 4个人参栽培群体和 1个西洋参 (P .quinquefolium L .)群体的遗传分化指数值表明 ,三路参变异量最大 (0 .416 9) ,一路参降为 0 .2 5 6 5 ,边条参系选品系 5 9号最低为 0 .1881,表明选择方式和选择代数的纯化作用十分显著。分析栽培群体的遗传关系发现 :系选 5 9号与一路参的遗传分化最小 (1.77% )。系选 5 9号与三路参次之 (13.77% ) ,系选 5 9号与北京参最显著 (42 .0 1% )。遗传分化指数比率值聚类图将系选 5 9号和一路参最先聚类 ,然后依次与三路参、北京参、西洋参聚类 ,这一关系符合以往的研究结果。

关键词: 人参;栽培群体;遗传关系;RAPD遗传分化指数比率

Abstract (Browse 2349)  |  Full Text PDF       
AFLP Markers and Sequence Analysis in Rice Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Line, Zhenshan 97A,and Its Maintainer Line
Author: HOUHOU Lei, YANG Guang-Wei, HE Guang-Hua, TANG Bin, XIAO Yue-Hua, PEI Yan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(6): 519-594
      
    

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line, Zhenshan 97A, and its maintainer, Zhenshan 97B, are widely used in hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) production in China. Theoretically, these two lines are homologous in genome DNA but different in cytoplasmic genes. The comparison of AFLP maps based on the total DNA, chloroplast DNA and mtDNA between Zhenshan 97A and Zhenshan 97B are herein reported. Eighty-eight different fragments between the CMS line and its maintainer were shown in 32 pairs of amplification primers. Among the differential fragments, A1, produced by primers EcoRⅠ-AAG and MseⅠ-CTC and used total DNA as templates, appeared in the maps of Zhenshan 97A and its hybrid F1 seeds Shanyou 63 and F2 seeds respectively. A2, produced by the same primers showed up in AFLP of Zhenshan 97B and restore line Minghui 63. The fragments A1, A2 also appeared in that of chloroplast DNA. A1, A2 were recovered from the denatured polyacrylamide gel and cloned to pBluescript SK+. Sequence analysis showed that A1 contained one more repeat of 6 basepairs than that of A2 and the repeat was located upstream of the rice chloroplast tRNA-Leu gene.

水稻胞质雄性不育系珍汕97A 及其保持系的AFLP标记及序列分析
侯磊 杨光伟 何光华 唐彬 肖月华 裴炎*

(西南农业大学生物技术研究中心! 农学系,重庆400716)

摘要:用 32对引物组合对水稻 (Oryzasativa L .)珍汕 97不育系与保持系的总DNA进行AFLP分析 ,显示出 88个差异带。其中 ,引物组合EcoRⅠ-AAC×MseⅠ- CTC产生的差异片段——珍汕 97不育系的A1与保持系的A2 ,信号强 ,差异明显。用该引物组合对杂种F1代汕优 6 3及其F2 分离世代单株以及恢复系明恢 6 3进行比较研究 ,结果表明 ,与不育系胞质相同的汕优 6 3和F2 单株均具A1特征带 ;明恢 6 3具有A2 特征带。进而比较了珍汕 97不育系与保持系的叶绿体DNA和线粒体DNAAFLP谱带 ,证明A1和A2 产生自叶绿体基因组 ,而且DNA序列测定结果表明 ,A1比A2 多一个 6碱基的重复片段 :AGAAAA。DNA序列同源性比较也证实了A1和A2 来自于水稻叶绿体基因组。这对差异片段可以作为鉴别珍汕 97不育系与保持系细胞质的分子标记

关键词: 水稻;叶绿体;胞质雄性不育系;AFLP

Abstract (Browse 2347)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer Accumulation in Relation to UV-B Sensitivity in Rice Cultivars (in English)
Author: LI Shao-Shan, WANG Yan, WANG Xiao-Jing, BIN Jin-Hua, LIU Song-Hao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(6): 576-581
      
    

Five rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, widely planted in South China, were grown in greenhouse with or without supplemental UV-B radiation at level of 13.6 kJ·m-2·d-1. After 15 day-UV-B treatment, significant intraspecific differences were observed in plant height, photosynthetic rate and total biomass. Based on the total biomass accumulation, cultivar “Tesanai” was found to be the most sensitive, and cultivar “Luhuangzhan” was the most tolerant species to UV-B radiation. UV-B induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) in rice DNA were quantified by ELISA with specific monoclonal antibody. CPD accumulations in DNA extracted from 5 rice cultivars were remarkably increased by UV-B radiation, and it was confirmed that there was a strong positive correlation between CPD accumulation and the inhibition of total biomass. Photorepair was proved to be the predominant mode of CPD repair in UV-B irradiated rice. Light-dependent removal of CPD was very fast as compared with dark repair. Different levels of CPD accumulation among rice cultivars were related with different capacity of CPD photorepair. Capacity of light-dependent CPD removal may play an important role in UV-B resistance of rice.

环丁烷嘧啶二聚体累积与水稻UV-B 敏感性的关系
李韶山1 王艳2 王小菁3  宾金华3 刘颂豪1

(1. 华南师范大学激光生命科学研究所,广州510631; 2. 暨南大学生命科学和技术学院,广州510632;
3.  华南师范大学生物系,广州510631)

摘要:利用单克隆抗体ELISA,研究了UV-B对水稻DNA中环丁烷嘧啶二聚体(CPD)的诱导形成及其光、暗修复,并对CPD累积与水稻UV-B敏感性的关系进行了分析。结果表明,我国南方的5个水稻(Oryza sativa L.)品种经13.6kJ·m^-2·d^-1UV-B处理15d后,在株高、生物量光合作用等方面表现出明显的品种间差异。不同品种水稻的DNA中CPD累积比对照组明显增加,且敏感品种CPD的累积比抗性品种显著提高。统计分析证实,CPD的累积与生物量的抑制呈显著正相关( r2=0.622)。UV-B 诱导的水稻DNA中CPD 的清除以光修复为主,不同品种CPD 暗修复能力相似,而光修复能力存在明显差异。根据以上结果推测,不同水稻品种UV-B敏感性与GPD 光修复能力的差异有关。
关键词: 环丁烷嘧啶二聚体(GPD);DNA 修复;水稻;UV-B 敏感性

Abstract (Browse 2169)  |  Full Text PDF       
Differentiation of Hormogonia and Photosynthetic Characterization of Nostoc flagelliforme
Author: ZHONG Ze-Pu, WU Yu-Huan, XU Jie, FENG LI-Jie, SHI Ding-Ji
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(6): 570-575
      
    

Hormogonia of Nostoc flagelliforme is one of the developmental stages in the life cycle of cyanobacterium. High yields of pure hormogonia were obtained by weak light (the filaments were covered by sterilized sand for blocking light), red light, white light plus DCMU (3, 4-dichlorophenyl-1, 1-dimethylurea) in the culture. These pure fractions of hormogonia allowed the study of physiological measurements in comparison to vegetative filaments. The photosynthesis in the hormogonia and the vegetative filaments was characterized by fluorescence emission spectra at 77 K, absorption spectrum and oxygen evolution. Absorption spectrum of the hormogoia and vegetative filaments did not reveal difference. The data indicated the similarity of pigment contents between hormogonia and vegetative filaments. Some differences were observed in oxygen evolution of vegetative filaments and hormogonia in the temperature range of 15 ℃ to 45 ℃ and light intensity around 110 μmol·m-2·s-1 to 1200 μmol·m-2·s-1. The fluorescence emission spectra showed that energy distribution between the two photosystems in mature colonies was more balance than in hormogonia. The absorption of light energy in phycobilisomes and the transfer to the two photosystems in the hormogonia were more effective than in the mature colonies. It may be concluded that the formation of hormogonia affected on the structure and function of phytosynthesis.

发状念珠藻藻殖段的分化及其光合特性的研究
钟泽璞 吴毓缳 徐洁 冯丽洁 施定基
(中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093)


摘要:发状念珠藻 (Nostocflagelliforme Born .etFlah .)存在着两个重要而明显的个体发育阶段 ,即营养藻丝体和藻殖段。采用弱光 (铺垫砂粒遮光 ) ,红光或在白光下向培养基中加入DCMU (3,4_dichlorophenyl_1,1_dimethylurea)等方法 ,可促进营养藻丝体转变成藻殖段。用可见光吸收光谱、低温荧光发射光谱和光合放氧活性表示发状念珠藻藻丝体与藻殖段的光合特性 ,表明营养藻丝体和藻殖段的可见光吸收光谱和色素含量差别不大。而两者在不同光强范围 (110~ 12 0 0 μmol·m-2 ·s-1)和不同温度 (15~ 45℃ )下的光合放氧活性 ,表明发状念珠藻的藻殖段比营养藻丝体可能更适合在低光强下和较高的温度下生长。从荧光发射光谱可以看出 ,在光合能量传递中营养藻丝体比藻殖段在两个光系统之间的光能分配上更加均衡 ;但是藻殖段中藻胆体吸收光能向两个光系统的传递比营养藻丝体的更加有效。可以认为藻殖段的形成对光合作用的结构与功能产生影响。

关键词: 藻殖段;光合作用;发状念珠藻

Abstract (Browse 2389)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Phylogenetic Relationships of an Endemic Genus Sinadoxa in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau:Evidence from ITS Sequence Analysis (in English)
Author: LIU Jian-Quan, CHEN Zhi-Duan, LU An-Ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(6): 656-658
      
    

从ITS 序列探讨青藏高原特有植物华福花属的亲缘关系
刘建全1,2  陈之端2 路安民2

(1. 中国科学院西北高原生物研究所,西宁810001;2. 中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学开放研究实验室,北京100093)


摘要:对青藏高原特有的濒危植物华福花 (Sinadoxacorydalifolia C .Y .Wu ,Z .L .WuetR .F .Huang)的核糖体DNA中的内转录间隔区 (ITS)序列及 5 .8SrRNA基因的序列进行了测定。同川续断目和五加目有关类群序列的比较及分支分析表明华福花属与五福花属 (AdoxaL .)近缘 ,不支持它可能与五加目或败酱科有亲缘关系的假设。尽管形态上它与五福花属分化十分明显 ,但ITS碱基分异却较小。引起其系统位置发生争论的外部形态为什么进化得如此之快 ,是值得进一步深入探讨的课题。

关键词: 华福花;内转录间隔区(ITS);系统学;进化

Abstract (Browse 2411)  |  Full Text PDF       
Molecular Cytogenetic Study on Genome Constitutions of Octoploid Tritileymus (in English)
Author: WANG Xian-Ping, FU Jie, ZHANG Xiang-Qi, JING Jian-Kang, WEN Yu-Xiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(6): 582-586
      
    

The genome constitutions of six types of partial amphiploid derived from Triticum aestivum L. ×Leymus mollis (Trin.) Hara, octoploid Tritileymus were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The results indicated that the chromosome numbers of the six octoploid Tritileymus were all 2n=56 in somatic cells. The in situ hybridization using L. mollis (JJNN) genomic DNA as probe showed that five octoploid Tritileymus, M842-4, M842-8, M842-12, M842-13 and M842-16 possessed 14 chromosomes of L.mollis. Their chromosome constitutions could be depicted 2n=56=42Ta+14Lm (Ta = Triticum aestivum chromosome, Lm = L. mollis chromosome). The other one, M842-10 had 12 L. mollis chromosomes and its chromosome constitution should be expressed 2n=56=44Ta+12Lm. Using Psathyrostachys juncea (Fisch.) Nevski (NN) genomic DNA as probe, the in situ hybridization results in five octoploid Tritileymus, M842-4, M842-8, M842-10, M842-12 and M842-16 were all the same as that of using the L. mollis genomic DNA as probe. And in M842-13, fourteen chromosomes showed weaker hybridization signals; it was similar to that of the octoploid JJ8x with genomes AABBDDJJ , an amphiploid of Triticum aestivum and Agropyron junceum (L.) Beauv. (JJ). According to the above results, the genome formulas of the six octoploid Tritileymus could be deduced as follows: The M842-4, M842-8, M842-12 and M842-16 had the same genome formula of AABBDDNN ; the M842-10 had AABBDDNN +2Ta-2Lm (N); and the M842-13 had AABBDDJJ . The values of the octoploid Tritileymus for wheat variety improvement, the variations of L. mollis chromosome number in the octoploid Tritileymus and its probable mechanism were discussed.

八倍体小滨麦染色体组构成的分子细胞遗传学研究
王献平1  傅杰2 张相岐1*  景建康 文玉香1

(1. 中国科学院遗传研究所植物细胞与染色体工程国家重点实验室,北京100101;
2. 西北农林科技大学,陕西杨陵712100)

摘要:应用基因组荧光原位杂交技术对 6种类型的八倍体小滨麦 (octoploid Tritileymus)的染色体组构成进行了分子细胞遗传学分析。结果表明 ,6种八倍体小滨麦的体细胞染色体数目均为 2n =5 6。用滨麦 (Leymusmollis (Trin .)Hara) (染色体组为JJNN)DNA作探针进行原位杂交时 ,M842-4、M842-8、M842-12、M842-13和M842-16等 5种类型八倍体小滨麦的体细胞中都有 14条滨麦染色体 ,其染色体组成为 2n =5 6 =42Ta +14Lm (Ta =小麦染色体 ,Lm =滨麦染色体 )。M842-10中只有 12条滨麦染色体 ,其染色体组成为 2n =5 6 =44Ta +12Lm。用新麦草 (Psathyrostachysjuncea (Fisch .)Nevski) (染色体组为NN)DNA作探针进行原位杂交时 ,M842-4、M842-8、M842-10、M842-12和M842-16的结果与用滨麦DNA作探针的原位杂交结果相同。而M842-13只在 14条染色体上显示较弱的杂交信号 ,与小麦(TriticumaestivumL .)_灯芯偃麦草 (Agropyronjunceum (L .)Beauv .)双二倍体 (染色体组为AABBDDJJ)的原位杂交结果相似。由此推断 ,M842-4、M842-8、M842-12和M842_16的染色体组构成为AABBDDNN ,M842_10的染色体组构成为AABBDDNN +2Ta - 2Lm (N) ,而M842-13的染色体组构成为AABBDDJJ。还对八倍体小滨麦的应用价值和八倍体小滨麦中滨麦染色体的数目变异及其可能的机制进行了讨论。

关键词: 八倍体小滨麦;荧光原位杂交;染色体组构成

Abstract (Browse 2611)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cone and Ovule Development in Platycladus orientalis (Cupressaceae) (in English)
Author: ZHANG Quan, XING Shu-Ping, HU Yu-Xi, LIN Jin-Xing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(6): 564-569
      
    

Seed cone in Platycladus orientalis (L.) France consists of four or five pairs of decussate bracts. Usually, two pairs of the fertile bracts in the middle of the cone subtend six ovules, which initiate in an acropetal manner. Only one ovule presents on each of the upper fertile bract, while two ovules initiate from a common primordium in the axil of lower bracts. In Beijing, most female cones initiated in July. All parts of the cone formed before dormancy, which occurred during November to the next January. After pollination in March, bract morphology changed dramatically; intercalary growth of the bract base formed a conspicuous protuberance, in which inverted vascular system developed. Furthermore, ovules on different pairs of bracts initiated in an acropetal manner and two ovules in each lower fertile bract initiated from a common primordium, which was different from the basipetal initiation of ovules and independently formed single ovule as reported by Takaso in Calltris.

侧柏雌球果及其胚珠的发育
张泉 邢树平 胡玉熹 林金星*

(中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093)

摘要:观察了侧柏 (Platycladusorientalis (L .)France)胚珠的发育过程及后期球果苞片的结构变化。在北京 ,雌球果原基 7月分化。通常一个球果有 4对苞片 ,中部两对可育 ,靠球果顶端一对各产生一枚胚珠 ,其下一对各两枚。胚珠的发育顺序是向顶的 ,下部可育苞片腋部的两枚胚珠源于同一原基。胚珠原基分化成珠心和珠被 ,在发育过程中 ,珠被逐渐包围珠心 ,最后形成烧瓶状的胚珠。 11月到次年 1月 ,球果处于休眠状态。 3月中旬 ,苞片张开露出胚珠接受花粉。传粉后 ,苞片近轴面居间生长迅速 ,形成突起 ,并将苞片推到了水平位置。成熟果鳞有两组维管束 ,远轴面维管束延伸至苞片 ,近轴面延伸到居间生长突起。近轴面维管束发育较晚 ,其木质部朝向远轴面。

关键词: 侧柏;胚珠发育;球果发育;苞片结构

Abstract (Browse 2192)  |  Full Text PDF       
Construction of a Trehalose-6-phosphate Synthase Gene Driven by Drought-responsive Promoter and Expression of Drought-resistance in Transgenic Tobacco
Author: ZHAO Hui-Wu, CHEN Yang-Jian, HU Yuan-Lei, GAO Yin, LIN Zhong-Ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(6): 616-619
      
    

The trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene (TPS) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hansen and the drought-responsive promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. have been cloned by PCR procedure. A plant expression vector with TPS under control of Prd29A has been constructed and used for the genetic transformation of tobacco. The transgenic tobacco with Prd29A/TSP demonstrated TPS expression with increased drought tolerance under drought stress. Some obvious morphological changes including dwarf and fine shoot, lancet-shaped leaves and vigorous auxiliary buds have been observed in a few transformed plants.

干旱诱导性启动子驱动的海藻糖-6-磷酸合酶基因载体的构建及转基因烟草的耐旱性
赵恢武 陈杨坚 胡鸢雷 高音 林忠平
(北京大学生命科学学院蛋白质工程及植物基因工程国家重点实验室,北京100871)

摘要:通过PCR程序克隆拟南芥(Arabidopsis thaliana (L.)Heynh.)的干旱诱导性启动子Prd29A及来自酿酒酵母(Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hansen)的海藻糖-6-磷酸合酶基因(TPS),并将它们组成可在植物中表达的载体RT。通过根癌土壤杆菌(Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smithet-Townsend)Conn)LBA4404介导,获得转基因烟草(Nicotiana tabacum L.)。Southern分析表明,TPS基因已经整合到烟草基因组中。Northern分析表明,TPS基因的表达受干旱胁迫的诱导。转基因烟草的形态发生多种改变,包括植株变矮,茎变细,叶子呈柳叶状,腋芽明显,同时耐旱性得到增强。

关键词: 干旱诱导性启动子;海藻糖-6-磷酸合酶基因;烟草;耐旱性

Abstract (Browse 2134)  |  Full Text PDF       
Spatial Pattern Analysis and Topographical Interpretation of Species Diversity in the Forests of Dalaoling in the Region of the Three Gorges
Author: SHEN Ze-Hao, ZHANG Xin-Shi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(6): 620-627
      
    

The paper aims to explore the influence of topography on the pattern of vegetation on landscape scale. Based on the investigation of a large number of forest communities at Dalaoling Mountain in the Three Gorges, 7 indexes were used to figure out the topographical characteristics of habitats. The topographical pattern of different communities were analyzed with detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA) ordination, and the influence of topographical factors, spatial factors and their interaction on the total variance of vegetative pattern were quantitatively partitioned. The results suggested that, the contribution of the 3 aspects is 9.50%, 5.94% and 6.81%, respectively. Topography shows dominant controlling effect on the vegetative pattern at Dalaoling. But 77.75% of the variance were not interpreted yet.

三峡大老岭森林物种多样性的空间格局分析及其地形解释
沈泽昊1,2  张新时2  金义兴3

(1.  北京大学城市与环境学系,北京100871;2. 中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093;
3. 中国科学院武汉植物研究所,武汉430074))

摘要:在对三峡大老岭地区森林的大量群落样方调查基础上 ,研究地形因子和取样尺度对群落不同层次α多样性水平及其空间格局的影响 ,结果表明 :①受地形、人为或自然干扰的影响 ,大老岭森林群落的α多样性存在海拔10 0 0m以下、海拔 110 0~ 170 0m和海拔 170 0m以上 3段不同的水平与变化特征 ;②对海拔 10 0 0m以上样方群落的 16种多样性指数的DCCA分析表明 ,群落乔、灌、草各层的多样性在多维地形因子梯度上表现出不同的格局 ;③本地地形因子对群落α多样性格局影响的大小顺序是 :坡位 海拔 坡向 坡面 坡度 坡形。④对海拔 10 5 0m和 16 70m处两个样方α多样性的多尺度对比分析表明 :高、低海拔的群落不同层次α多样性水平及其变化在各个尺度上差别明显。总之 ,地形对山地森林植物物种多样性格局显示了多方面和多尺度的影响 ;α多样性的海拔梯度格局在此未得到确证。

关键词: 三峡大老岭;α多样性;格局;地形

Abstract (Browse 2250)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Comparative Study of Morphological Responses of Seedling Roots to Drying Soil in 20 Species from Different Habitats (in English)
Author: LIU Zhi-Min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(6): 628-635
      
    

Rooting depth and root and shoot biomass were measured for seedlings of 20 species in both watered and unwatered sand columns. The species were from habitats of widely varying moisture status, ranging from marsh to desert. Moisture status of the species' habitats was quantified as Ellenberg moisture number. Seedlings were allowed to grow in moist sand for 21 days and were then exposed to the treatments (watered and unwatered) for a further 21 days. Rooting depth of control plants was not correlated with Ellenberg number. Riit depth of plants from dry habitats tended to increase in drying sand, while roots of plants from wet habitats decreased in depth. Plasticity of rooting depth (depth in unwatered/depth in watered sand) was significantly correlated with Ellenberg number (r2=0.56). Plasticity of shoot/root ratio was also correlated with Ellenberg number, but the relationship was weaker than for rooting depth plasticity. Species that showed the greatest pasticity in rooting depth also showed the greatest ability to sustain shoot growth in unwatered sand. There was some evidence that growth of plants from very dry habitats was reduced in the watered treatment. Results of this study suggest that a major, although not the only, adaptation of plants of dry habitats is the ability of their seedlings to exploit deeply buried water resources.

在旱化土壤条件下来自不同生境的20种植物幼苗根系的形态反应的比较
刘志民1 K.THOMPSON2 R.E.SPENCER2 R.J.READER3

(1.中国科学院兰州寒区旱区环境与工程研究所,兰州730000;

2.NERC Unit of Comparatixe Plant Ecology, Department of Animal and Plant Sciences,Unxersity of Sheffield,Sheffield S 10 2TN,UK;

3.Department of Botany, Unixersity of Guelph,Guelph,Ontario,Canada N1G 2W1

摘要:在浇水和未浇水的塑料管中栽培了 2 0个植物种 ,测量了其幼苗的根深、根重和茎重。这些种的原始生境含水状况差异较大 ,是从沼泽到沙漠的系列。植物种原始生境的水分状况用Ellenberg水分序数定量。幼苗首先在湿沙中生长 2 1d ,然后进入为期也是 2 1d的处理阶段 (浇水和不浇水 )。浇水植株的根深与Ellenberg水分序数无关。在旱化的沙层中 ,源于干旱生境的植物的根深趋向于增加 ,来自湿润生境的则减少。根深塑性 (即未浇水的根深 /浇水的根深 )与Ellenberg水分序数显著相关 (R2 =0 .5 6 ) ,茎 /根比值塑性也与Ellenberg水分序数相关 ,但不如根深塑性的关系明显。根深塑性表现最为明显的植物种具有在未浇水沙层中维持茎生长的最大能力。有迹象表明 ,在浇水处理时 ,来自很干旱生境的植物生长减弱。研究结果表明 :幼苗利用深层水分的能力是植物对干旱生境的主要适应。

关键词: 干旱;E1lenberg序数;塑性;再生第略;根生长;幼苗;茎生长

Abstract (Browse 2177)  |  Full Text PDF       
Advances in Molecular Biology of Plant Isoprenoid Metabolic Pathway
Author: CHEN Da-Hua, YE He-Chun*, LI Guo-Feng, LIU Yan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(6): 551-558
      
    

New advances in molecular biology of plant secondary metabolic pathway were summarized. The biosynthesis of artemisinin was used as an example, combined with the research work in the authors' laboratory. Some new ways for producing plant secondary metabolites were proposed.

植物类异戊二烯代谢途径的分子生物学研究进展
陈大华 叶和春* 李国凤 刘彦
(中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093)
关键词: 类异戊二烯;次生代谢;生物合成;关键酶;分子调控

Abstract (Browse 2162)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ecological Patterns in Anatomic Characters of Leaves and Woods of Fagus lucida and Their Climatic Control in Mountain Fanjingshan, Guizhou, China
Author: FANG Jing-Yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(6): 636-642
      
    

Fagus lucida L. distributed in Mountain Fanjingshan, Guizhou, China was used to explore ecological patterns in plant anatomy and their relationship with ecological factors, by applying climatic variables and multi-statistical analysis. As the results, with increasing temperature, all the anatomical characters of leaves, stomatal size of leaf surface, and vessel diameter and fiber length of woods showed a decreasing tendency, while stomatal density of leaf, and vessel frequency and ray height of woods increased. As coldness index and moisture index increased, all the anatomic characteristics of leaf, stomatal size, and vessel length, and width and fiber length of wood displayed a sharp increase, whereas stomatal density, vessel frequency and ray height decreased. The stepwise regressive analysis showed that moisture variable is a limiting factor for controlling anatomic characters of leaves, and vessel frequency, vessel length and width, and fiber length of woods, precipitation for stomatal density, and temperature for stomatal size. No significant correlation of the rays frequency to climatic variables indicates that the rays frequency is a stable anatomical character.

贵州梵净山亮叶水青冈解剖特征的生态格局及主导因子分析
方精云 费松林1  樊拥军2  崔克明3

(1.  北京大学城市与环境学系,北京100871;2.  南开大学生命科学学院,天津300071;
3.  北京大学生命科学学院,北京100871)

 

摘要:使用具有不同生物学意义的生态因子为环境变量 ,应用多元统计方法 ,分析了贵州梵净山的亮叶水青冈(Faguslucida L .)叶片及木材形态解剖特征的生态格局和影响其变化的主导生态因子。结果表明 ,随着温度要素的增加 ,叶片的所有解剖特征、叶表面的气孔面积以及木材的导管直径、纤维长度均显示下降趋势 ,而叶表面的气孔器密度、木材的导管频率和单列射线高度呈上升趋势 ;随着寒冷指数 (负积温 )和水分因子 (年降水和水分综合指数 )的增加 ,叶片的所有解剖特征、叶表面气孔面积、木材的导管直径和导管长度以及纤维长度均呈明显增加趋势 ,而叶表面的气孔密度和木材的导管频率、单列射线高度则呈下降趋势。逐步回归分析表明 ,水分因素是影响叶片解剖特征、木材的导管频率、导管分子长度和宽度以及纤维长度的主导因子 ;降水量是叶表面气孔器密度变化的制约因子 ,而温度因素则决定着气孔器面积的变化 ;射线频率与生态因素无显著相关 ,表明该类指标是一个较稳定的性状。

关键词: 生态解剖;气候因子;生态格局;亮叶水青冈

Abstract (Browse 2308)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Relationship Between the Activity of Cyanide-resistant Respiration and the Expression of Alternative Oxidase in Different Organs of Mung Bean Seedlings
Author: LI Chi-Jun, LIANG Hou-Guo, DU Lin-Fang, WANG Rui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(6): 646-648
      
    

Twelve peptides, including eight conservative amino acid residues in the amino acid sequence of hydrophilic S helix of the alternative oxidase (AOX), were synthesized by solid-phase method. The polypeptide was coupled to αchymotrypsinogen, and the antibodies against this complex were obtained in rabbit. By using these antibodies, which were raised to immunoreact with total proteins of purified mitochondria from different organs of mung bean (Phaseolous radiatus L.) seedlings, it was found that there were two hybridizable AOX fractions in the mitochondria of mung bean seedlings. Their molecular weight was about 35 kD and 38 kD, respectively. Moreover, among the respiratory parameters obtained in hypocotyl, true leaf and cotyledon of mung bean seedlings true leaf had the highest total respiration (Vt), alternative pathway (AP) capacity(Valt) and the activity of AP (ρValt). Hypocotyl Vt and ρValt were the lowest, but its Vt was higher than that of the cotyledon. The activities of total and cyanide-resistant respiration were consistant with the analysis of Western blotting of AOX expression. The highest Vt and ρValt in true leaf were accompanied by two hybridizable polypeptides of AOX protein. The next was cotyledon Vt and ρValt with only one 38 kD hybridizable polypeptide of AOX protein. Hypocotyl Vt and ρValt were the lowest and its immunobloting band was similar to that of the cotyledon, but the expression amount of 38 kD protein was less than that of the cotyledon. The 35 kD AOX may make the main contribution to the true leaf ρValt.

绿豆幼苗不同器官抗氰呼吸活性与交替氧化酶表达的关系
李驰峻1 梁厚果1* 杜林方1 王锐2

(1.  四川大学生命科学学院,成都610064;2.兰州大学生命科学学院,兰州730000)
关键词: 抗氰呼吸;合成多肽;交替氧化酶表达;绿豆幼苗

Abstract (Browse 2239)  |  Full Text PDF       
Classification and Nomenclature of Plant Metallothionein-like Proteins Based on Their Cysteine Arrangement Patterns (in English)
Author: LIU Jin-Yuan, ZHAO Guang-Rong, LI Ji
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(6): 649-652
      
    

Cotton is the most important economic crop, and its fiber is the major raw material used for textile industry. Cotton fiber with its good properties such as thermal insulation, hygroscopicity, and air-permeability, can not be replaced by other fibers. With rapid development of textile technology and the increasing requirement of consumers for higher quality of textile products, it is urgent to improve cotton fiber quality, especially its strength and color. There is genetically a negative correlation between the yield and the quality of cotton, therefore molecular engineering-breeding could be an access to concordant improvement of both yield and quality of cotton fiber. This paper reviewed the progress of analyzing cotton fiber-related genes and the present status of improving cotton fiber quality by genetic engineering. Some breakthroughs are expected in separating fiber development-related genes with high throughput techniques and in exploring the novel technology to manipulate transgenic cottons.

基于半胱氨酸排列方式的植物类金属硫蛋白
的分类与命名法
刘进元*  吕暾  赵南明
(清华大学生物科学与技术系,北京100084)


摘要:随着植物基因组研究的进展,在基因文库和蛋白文库登录的植物类金属硫蛋白基因已超过50个,接近金属硫蛋白总数的1/3,而且有不断上升的趋势。鉴于目前植物类金属硫蛋白命名与分灰随意性太大,很有必要建立一个统一合理的命名与分类法。对植物类金属2硫蛋白一级结构进行详细分析后,发现该蛋白两端富含半胱氨酸的区域内关胱氨酸的排列方式颇具规律性,进而提出了以半胱氨酸排列方式为基础的分类及命名法,并阐述了采用这种方法的理由及其可行性。

关键词: 植物类金属硫蛋白;半胱氨酸排列方式;分类及命名法

Abstract (Browse 2009)  |  Full Text PDF       
Stomatal Opening Induced by Acetylcholine Is Associated with Cytoskeletal Components (in English)
Author: HUANG Rong-Feng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(6): 559-563
      
    

细胞骨架参与乙酰胆碱诱导的气孔开放
黄荣峰1,3 王学臣2,3 娄成后2,3

(1.  中国农业科学院生物技术研究所,北京100081;2.  中国农业大学生物学院,北京1000094;
3.  农业部植物生理生化重点开放实验室,北京100094)

摘要:动物系统中,乙酰胆碱(Ach)是胆碱能系统中的主要成分,近上的研究表明高等植物体内均有Ach、胆碱乙酰基转移酶和乙酰胆碱酯酶,以及乙酰胆碱受本的存在,这些物质调节着生命吕的许多重要过程,如气孔运动等。以前的研究表明微管、微丝参与了气孔的运动。本文研究了Ach调控的气孔开放是否与微管、微丝的结构相关联。结果表明Ach可以在KCl溶液和无KCl溶液中诱导气孔开放;同时Ach还能在无KCl溶液中促进保卫细胞原生质体的膨胀。然而,当用微丝聚合特异性抑制剂细胞松弛素B,或者植物微管聚合特异性抑制剂甘草膦(oryzalin)预处理蚕豆(Vicia Faba L.)叶片下表皮或者蚕豆叶片保卫细胞原生质体后,Ach诱导的气孔开放以及原生质体膨胀均受到不同程度的抑制,即微管、微丝结构的破坏将影响Ach诱导的气孔开放以及原生质体膨胀。首次表明)*+ 诱导的气孔开放与微管、微丝的动态结构相关联。
关键词: 微管;微丝;乙酰胆碱;蚕豆;气孔运动

Abstract (Browse 2158)  |  Full Text PDF       
Spectral Properties and Characterization of the Modified PSII Core Complexes (in English)
Author: LI Shu-Qin, CHEN Yao-Dong, TANG Chong-Qin, LI Liang-Bi, KUANG Ting-Yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(6): 643-645
      
    

光系统II核心复合物的化学修饰及其光谱性质研究
李淑芹 陈耀东 唐崇钦 李良璧 匡廷云
(中国科学院植物研究所光合作用研究中心,北京100093)

摘要:用组氨酸的特异性修饰剂 (DEPC)对PSⅡ核心复合物进行了化学修饰 ,并对其光谱性质进行了研究。研究结果表明 :修饰后的PSⅡ核心复合物的吸收光谱在红区发生了很大变化 ,随修饰时间的增加 ,6 80nm处的吸收逐渐下降。修饰后的PSⅡ核心复合物的荧光光谱在最初的 1min内出现荧光上升现象 ,然后逐渐下降 ,峰位蓝移。这些研究结果表明 ,组氨酸残基的修饰导致了原初电子供体P6 80结构的破坏 ,并对其功能产生了影响。

关键词: 光系统II核心复合物;光谱性质;化学修饰

Abstract (Browse 1905)  |  Full Text PDF       
Extracellular Calmodulin Induces rbcS-3A Gene Expression in Suspension Culture of Tomato Cells (in English)
Author: ZHANG Su-Qiao, MA Li-Geng, SUN Da-Ye
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(6): 653-655
      
    

细胞外钙调素诱导番茄悬浮细胞rbcS-3A 基因表达
张素巧 马力耕 孙大业*

(河北师范大学生物学系,石家庄050016)

摘要:利用番茄 (Lycopersicumesculentum Mill.)悬浮培养细胞为材料 ,以3 2 P标记的寡核苷酸 (40bp)为探针检测了细胞外钙调素对番茄细胞rbcS_3A及rbcS_3C基因表达的影响。当向暗中培养的番茄悬浮细胞 (第 7天 )中加入外源纯化钙调素 (10 -7mol/L)并处理 2 4h后 ,rbcS-3A基因的表达明显增加 ,而相同浓度的S-10 0蛋白和BSA则没有作用。加入外源钙调素 (10 -7mol/L)对rbcS_3C基因的表达没有影响。上述结果表明细胞外钙调素对暗中培养的番茄rbcS基因的表达有调控作用 ,并且这种调控作用具有亚型特异性 ,即对番茄rbcS-3A基因的表达有诱导作用 ,而对番茄rbcS_3C基因的表达没有作用。
 

关键词: 细胞外钙调素;rbcS-3A 基因;番茄

 

Abstract (Browse 2135)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on Pollen Fertility in Transgenic Maize with Transgene of Zm13-Barnase
Author: LIU Da-Wen, WANG Shou-Cai, XIE You-Ju, DAI Jing-Rui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(6): 611-615
      
    

5 mg·L-1 Bialaphos was determined to be the adequate concentration for selection of maize (Zea mays L.) calli on herbicide resistance after evaluating three concentrations of Bialaphos in three genotypes. The chimeric gene Zm13-Barnase was transferred into the embryogenic calli of maize by particle bombardment, and 24 normal plants were regenerated from the 32 herbicide-resistant calli obtained after six cycles of continuous selection under 5 mg·L-1 Bialaphos. PCR assay showed that 18 plants were positive for Barnase gene with a frequency of 75%. I-KI staining and pollen germination revealed that five plants were partially male-sterile. Southern blot analysis indicated integration of Barnase gene into maize genome.

Zm13-Barnase基因玉米的获得及其花粉育性研究
刘大文* 王守才 谢友菊 戴景瑞**

(中国农业大学作物科学学院,北京100094)

摘要:研究了Z31×Q31、H×Z3、A188×B73三种玉米 (Zeamays L .)基因型的愈伤组织对除草剂Bialaphos的耐性 ,从而确定 5mg·L-1为适宜的选择压。用基因枪将Zm13_Barnase基因转化玉米Q31×Z3、Z31×Q31的胚性愈伤组织 ,经 6轮的除草剂筛选获得 32块抗性愈伤组织 ,再生得到 2 4个植株。经PCR检测 ,18个植株PCR反应呈阳性。I_KI染色和花粉离体萌发观察发现 ,5个植株的花粉为部分不育。Southernblot分析证明 ,这 5个植株中整合有Bar nase基因。

关键词: 玉米;遗传转化;核酸酶基因;雄性不育

Abstract (Browse 2117)  |  Full Text PDF       
Physical Mapping of the Sequences Homologous to Disease Resistance Genes myb1 and NDR1 in Maize
Author: NING Shun-Bin, SONG Yun-Chun*, WANG Ling, WEI Wen-Hui, LIU Li-Hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(6)
      
    Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, the authors investigated the homology between three plant species, maize (Zea mays L.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), maize and Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. at cytogenetic level using two probes corresponding to functional disease resistance genes myb1 and NDR1 in Arabidopsis and tobacco respectively. The hybridization signals of the tested probes were detected in maize chromosomes 8 and 5 respectively, and the single location of each of the two probes showed only single copy of them in maize genome. The results provided a valuable insight into searching for genes associated with programmed cell death in plants using heterologous probe with comparative genetic approach. In addition, the improvements of FISH technique using heterologous probes were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2128)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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