August 2000, Volume 42 Issue 8

 

          Research Articles
Purification and Characterization of Sophora flavescens Lectin
Author: DENG Jun-Lin, ZENG Zhong-Kui, YAN Bo, HUANG Xing-Qi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(8): 828-833
      
    

A lectin with strong hemagglutination activity was isolated from roots of Sophora flavescens Ait. by extraction, fractionation with (NH 4) 2SO 4, ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose and followed by gel filtration on Sephadex G-150 and HPLC assay. The purified lectin showed a single protein band on PAGE and SDS-PAGE . The molecular weight of S. flavescens lectin was 32 kD when SDS-PAGE and Sephadex G-100 was used. The lectin agglutinated rabbit red blood cells at 0.97 μg/mL and showed no specific agglutination with any type of human erythrocytes. The hemagglutination activity could be inhibited by mannose and levulose and slightly by glucose and maltose. The SFL contained 2.89% neutral saccharide. It could inhibit apparently the growth of the mycelium of Gibberlla saubinetii (Mont.) Sacc.,Piricularia oryzae Cav. and Fusarium vasinfectum Atk. at the dosage of 62 μg. It was determined by Edman that the sequence of the N-terminal thirty amino acids was: T/A/VDXLXFTFSDFDPNGEDLLFQGDAHVTSNN.

苦参凝集素的分离纯化及部分性质研究
邓俊林1 曾仲奎2 鄢波3 黄兴奇3

(1.  重庆师范学院生物系,重庆400047;2 . 四川大学生物系,成都610064;
3.  云南省农业科学院生物技术研究所,昆明650223)

摘要:从苦参 (Sophoraflavescens Ait.)根浸出液经硫酸铵分级 ,得苦参凝集素 (SFL)粗品 ,再经DEAE_Sepharose、SephadexG_1 5 0和HPLC层析 ,获得具有强凝集活性的SFL样品 ,用PAGE和SDS_PAGE检测均为单一蛋白染色带。SDS_PAGE显示SFL分子仅有一条肽链 ,SephadexG_1 0 0和SDS_PAGE测得其分子量均为 32kD。当SFL浓度为 0 .97μg/mL时能凝集兔红细胞 ,无血型专一性 ,其凝血活性可被甘露糖和果糖抑制 ,麦芽糖和葡萄糖有弱的抑制作用 ,凝集素分子含有 2 .89%的中性糖 ;当SFL量为 6 2 μg时 ,对棉花枯萎病菌 (Fusariumvasinfectum Atk .)、小麦赤霉病菌(Gibberllasaubinetii (Mont.)Sacc .)和水稻稻瘟病菌 (Piriculariaoryzae Cav)菌丝体的生长发育有明显地抑制作用。用Edman法在蛋白测序仪上测出SFL的N端肽链 30个氨基酸的排列顺序为 :T/A/VDXLXFTFSDFDP NGEDLLFQGDAHVTSNN。

关键词: 苦参凝集素;凝集素的抑菌作用;N端肽链的序列结构

Abstract (Browse 2142)  |  Full Text PDF       
Polyamine Changes and Chilling Injury in Cold-stored Loquat Fruits
Author: ZHENG Yong-Hua, LI San-Yu, XI Yu-Fang, SU Xin-Guo, YI Yun-Bo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(8): 824-827
      
    

Free polyamine levels (spermine (SPM), spermidine (SPD), and putrescine (PUT)) were determined using thin-layer chromatography and fluorometric method in loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. cv. Dahongpao) fruits stored at 1℃ and 12℃ and in postharvest SPM treated fruits stored at 1℃ respectively to investigate the relationship between changes in polyamines and chilling injury. In the loquat fruits stored at 1℃, SPM level decreased gradually in the first two weeks, then increased sharply and reached a peak value after three weeks, thereafter it decreased rapidly. SPD level decreased steadily during the first three weeks and increased significantly afterwards. PUT level evolved in a similar way as the SPM level did except that it increased slowly in the first two weeks. The fruit showed symptom of chilling injury manifested as flesh leatheriness after three weeks. However, no significant increase and decrease of these three polyamines was detected during storage at the nonchilling temperature (12℃). The SPM-treated fruits maintained high levels of SPM and SPD and remained low level of PUT during storage at 1℃, and no symptom of chilling injury was observed. These results suggested that the increase in SPM level in response to chilling exposure might serve as a defense mechanism against chilling injury while the accumulation of PUT could be a cause of the stress-induced injury and the increase in SPD level could be a consequence of this kind of stress.

多胺与枇杷果实冷害的关系
郑永华1 李三玉2 席王与芳2 苏新国1 易云波1

(1. 南京农业大学食品科技学院,南京210095;2.  浙江大学园艺系,杭州310029)

摘要:应用薄层_荧光法测定多胺含量以研究其与枇杷 (Eriobotryajaponica Lindl.cv .Dahongpao)果实冷害的关系。果实在 1℃下贮藏时 ,精胺 (SPM)和亚精胺 (SPD)含量逐渐下降 ,但SPM在 2周后迅速回升并于第 3周时达到高峰 ,随后又迅速下降 ,SPD在 3周后持续反弹上升。腐胺 (PUT)含量在前 2周缓慢上升 ,2周后迅速积累并于第 3周时形成高峰 ,随后也迅速下降 ,贮藏 3周后的果实出现明显的冷害症状。在非冷害温度 1 2℃下贮藏时 ,多胺含量波动较小。外源SPM处理可保持较高的内源SPM和SPD水平 ,抑制PUT积累和冷害发生。这些结果表明 ,枇杷果实低温贮藏时SPM含量的升高可能是果实对冷害的防卫反应 ,PUT的积累可能是冷害的原因 ,SPD含量的上升则可能是冷害的结果。

关键词: 枇杷果实;多胺;冷害

Abstract (Browse 2264)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Light Stress on Oxygen Evolution and Photochemical Energy Storage of Hybrid Poplar Clones Determined by Photoacoustic Technique
Author: ZHANG Shou-Ren, GAO Rong-Fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(8): 818-823
      
    

The oxygen evolution, thermal dissipation, and photochemical energy storage of three hybrid poplar clones, namely the triploid clone B342, the diploid clone B11[( Populus alba×P. glandulosa)×(P.tomentosa×P.bolleana)] , and the triploid clone B346 [ (P.tomentosa×P. bolleana)×(P. alba×P.glandulosa )], under light stress were studied using photoacoustics. The oxygen evolution signal and photochemical energy storage varied negatively with the pretreatment-PFD (photon flux density), whereas the thermal signal varied positively with the pretreatment-PFD. Photochemical energy storage was reallocated to PSⅡ more than to PSⅠ, while the photochemical energy storage in PSⅠ was more stable than that in PSⅡ when subjected to light stress. The inhibitors streptomycin (SM), dithiothreitol (DTT) and sodium fluoride (NaF) could all affect the oxygen evolution signal. Clones B11 and B342 were more resistant to light stress than clone B346.

光胁迫对杂种杨无性系光合放氧、光化学能量贮藏的影响
张守仁1,2 高荣孚2

(1. 中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学开放研究实验室,北京100093;2.  北京林业大学生物学院,北京100083)


摘要:以光声光谱技术对经不同光强预处理的 3个杂种杨无性系即三倍体无性系B34 2、二倍体无性系B1 1[(Populusalba×P .glandulosa)× (P .tomentosa×P .bolleana) ]和三倍体无性系B34 6 [(P .tomentosa×P .bolleana)×(P .alba×P .glandulosa) ]的光合放氧、光声热信号及光化学能量贮藏进行测定。叶圆片的光声放氧信号和光化学能量贮藏与预处理光强度成反比 ;而光声热信号与预处理光强度成正比。光化学能量贮藏分配到PSⅡ的份额要比分配到PSⅠ的多。在强光胁迫下PSⅠ的光化学能量贮藏要比PSⅡ的光化学能量贮藏稳定。 3种抑制剂 (strepto mycin ,dithiothreitol,sodiumfluoride)均对叶圆片的光声放氧信号有影响。无性系B1 1和B34 2抵抗光胁迫的能力比无性系B34 6高

关键词: 杂种杨无性系;光胁迫;光声放氧信号;光化学能量贮藏;光声光谱技术;抑制剂
 

Abstract (Browse 2044)  |  Full Text PDF       
Regulation of Bacterial, Yeast and Plant Polysaccharide Synthases: Implications for the Regulation of Pollen-tube Callose Synthase
Author: LI Hui-Juan, Antony BACIC, Steve M. READ
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(8): 771-787
      
    

从细菌、酵母及植物多糖合成酶的调控看花粉管胼胝质酶的调控
李惠娟1* Antony BACIC1 Steve M.READ2

(1.Plant Cell Biology Research Centre,School of Botany, Unixersity of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia;) 2. School of Forestry, Unixersity of Melbourne, Creswick, Victoria 3363,Australia)

摘要: 多糖作为结构和能量贮存分子是植物重要的组成成分。植物细胞壁主要成分为多糖。细胞壁在确定细胞生长、形状方面起重要作用,细胞壁还参与细胞的营养吸收、信息传递,也是防止外源对细胞不良影响的第一道防线。不同植物细胞壁的多糖成分可作为食品、建筑及造纸的原料,具有广泛的工业价值。通过描述细菌、酵母及植物多糖合成酶的机制,推断花粉管胼胝质合成酶的可能调控机制。
关键词: 多糖合成酶;细胞壁;花粉管;胼胝质合成酶

Abstract (Browse 2048)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Changes in Leaf Cells of Submerged Maize
Author: WEI He-Ping, LI Rong-Qian, WANG Jian-Bo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(8): 811-817
      
    

The ultrastructural changes in leaf cells of submerged maize (Zea mays L.) were observed. After 2 h under submergence, an inward collapse of tonoplast was immediately observed while other cell components remained unaltered. After 6 h under submergence, the chloroplast envelope started to degrade and the inward collapse of tonoplast became more prominent. Until 12 h under submergence, localized splitting of the tonoplast appeared; the stromatic thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast started to be vacuolated when its envelope underwent further degradation. With prolongation of submergence to 18 h, the injury of chloroplast was enhanced. As the envelope was completely destroyed and disappeared and degraded the stromatic thylakoid membrane degraded. Meantime, the mitochondrial and nuclear membrane also started to be destroyed. During 24-48 h under submergence, the chloroplast, mitochondria and nucleus of the anoxic leaf cells became gradually disintegrated. Finally, under 72 h of submergence, the leaf cells became completely degraded with little condensed contents. The results indicated that the injury in membrane structure of various organelles, especially vacuole and chloroplast, was closely associated with the eventual demise of leaf cells of the submerged maize.

淹水对玉米叶片细胞超微结构的影响
魏和平 利容千* 王建波
(武汉大学生命科学学院,武汉430072)

摘要:对淹水过程中玉米 (ZeamaysL .)叶片细胞超微结构的变化进行连续观察。淹水 2h后 ,液泡膜发生明显内陷。淹水 6h后 ,液泡膜内陷加剧 ,呈极度松弛状态 ;叶绿体被膜局部向外突出一个由单层膜包裹的泡状结构。淹水 1 2h后 ,液泡膜局部破裂 ;叶绿体被膜破坏加剧 ,成为一松弛的单膜结构 ,同时 ,基质类囊体出现空泡化。淹水 1 8h后 ,叶绿体的破坏进一步加剧 :被膜完全消失 ,基质类囊体开始消化 ;同时 ,线粒体膜和核膜也开始出现明显的破坏。在淹水 2 4~ 48h时 ,叶绿体、线粒体和细胞核逐渐解体。最终 ,在淹水 72h后 ,整个叶片细胞死亡、解体。结果表明 :细胞器特别是液泡和叶绿体膜结构的破坏与受淹玉米叶片细胞最终死亡密切相关。

关键词: 淹水;玉米;叶片细胞;超微结构

Abstract (Browse 2033)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Observation of Changes of Polysaccharide Grains in Dormant Shoots of Eucommia ulmoides
Author: CUI Ke-Ming, LUO Li-Xin, LI Zheng-Li (Cheng-Lee LEE)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(8): 788-793
      
    

Cytochemical and ultrastructural studies indicated that compound spherical bodies observed near the sieve plate in the sieve tube members during the period of cambial dormancy in the shoots of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. were polysaccharide bodies different from the polysaccharide grains in other parenchyma cells in shoots, and were similar to cell walls in their staining properties. The compound spherical bodies occurred in the sieve elements during the period of cambial rest and disappeared in the sieve elements during the period of cambial quiescence and activity.

杜仲休眠枝条中多糖颗粒变化的超微结构研究
崔克明* 罗立新 李正理
(北京大学生命科学学院,北京100871)
 

摘要:在对杜仲 (Eucommiaulmoides Oliv .)形成层休眠期枝条的超微结构研究中发现 ,在筛管分子的筛板附近有一种复合球形体。细胞化学研究证明 ,这是一种多糖颗粒 ,但不同于枝条其他薄壁细胞中的多糖颗粒 ,而与细胞壁中的多糖相似。这种复合球形体只出现于形成层生理休眠期的筛分子中 ,而在被动休眠期和活动期的筛分子中则看不到。

关键词: 超微结构;多糖颗粒;筛管分子;休眠;杜仲

Abstract (Browse 1906)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structural Association of Endoplasmic Reticulum with Other Membrane Systems in Populus deltoides Apical Bud Cells and Its Alterations During the Short Day-induced Dormancy
Author: JIAN Ling-Cheng, SUN Long-Hua, LI Ji-Hong, WANG Hong, SUN De-Lan, Paul H LI
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(8): 803-810
      
    

A comparative study was carried out on the EM-cytochemical localization of calcium and Ca2+-ATPase activity in the suspension-cultured cells between the chilling-sensitive maize (Zea mays L. cv. Black Mexican Sweet) and chilling-insensitive Trititrigia (Triticum sect. Trititrigia mackey) at 4 ℃ chilling. When maize and Tyititrigia cells were cultured at 26 ℃, electron microscopic observations revealed that the electron-dense calcium antimonate deposits, an indication of the calcium localization, were localized mainly in the vacuoles, and few was found in the cytosol and nuclei. The electron-dense cerium phosphate deposits, an indication of Ca2+-ATPase activity, were abundantly distributed on the plasma membrane (PM). When the cells from both species were cultured at 4 ℃ for 1 and 3 h, an elevation of Ca2+ level in the cytosol and nuclei was observed, whereas the cerium phosphate deposits on the PM showed no quantitative difference from those of the 26 ℃-cultured cells, indicating that the enzymatic activities were not altered during these chilling periods. However, there was a distinct difference in the dynamics of the Ca2+ distribution and the PM Ca2+-ATPase activity between maize and Trititrigia when chilled at 4 ℃ for 12, 24 and 72 h. In maize cells, a large number of Ca2+ deposits still existed in the cytosol and nuclei, and the PM Ca2+-ATPase became less and less active, and even inactive at all. In Trititrigia cells, the increased cytosolic and nuclear Ca2+ ions decreased after 12 h chilling. By chilling up to 24 and 72 h, the intracellular Ca2+ concentration had been restored to a similar low level as those of the warm temperature-cultured cells, while the activity of the PM Ca2+-ATPase maintained high. The transient cytosolic and nuclear Ca2+ increase and the activities of PM Ca2+-ATPase during chilling are discussed in relation to plant cold hardiness.

杨树顶芽细胞内质网与其他膜系统的结构联系及其在休眠过程中的变化
简令成1* 李积宏1** 李本湘1*** 陈辉煌2

(1.Laboratory of Plant Hardiness,Department of Horticultyral Science, and Plant Biological Sciences Program, 2. Department of Horticulture, and Center for Gene Research and Biotechnology, Oregon State Unixersity,Corvallis,OR 97331, USA)

摘要:杨树 (Populusdeltoides Bartr.exMarsh)顶芽分生组织细胞经一种改良的高锰酸钾固定法固定后 ,显示出一种十分清晰的内膜结构 ,尤其展现了内质网与其他膜系统存在一种结构上的密切联系。一些与核膜相连接的内质网伸展到细胞质中与线粒体、质体及高尔基体发生联系 ,或延伸到质膜。还有些内质网的一端与一个细胞的核膜相连结 ,其另一端穿过胞间连丝与邻近的另一个细胞的核膜相连结 ,在两个相邻的细胞核之间形成一种结构上的“内质网桥”。这种“内质网桥”结构的揭示 ,进一步完善了共质体的概念。在植物细胞间 ,不仅通过胞间连丝造成细胞质的沟通 ;而且通过“内质网桥”形成核与核之间的联络。在短日照诱导的休眠过程中 ,内质网出现收缩现象 ,导致内质网与其他膜系统联系的中断 ,胞间连丝的中断 ,以及核与核之间“桥通道”的中断。在芽休眠被打破和复苏生长后 ,内质网的收缩现象消失 ,内质网与其他膜系统间联系 ,以及相邻细胞核之间重建“内质网桥”。这些结果揭示 ,内质网在沟通细胞核与各细胞器 ,以及核与核之间生命活动的关系上可能起着重要的作用。它的收缩作用可能导致生长的停止和休眠的发展

关键词: 内质网;内质网桥;内质网收缩;胞间连丝;休眠;杨树

Abstract (Browse 2195)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Palaeovegetation Record of Monsoon Evolution in the Desert-loess Transition Zone for the Last 13 ka BP
Author: LI Xiao-Qiang, ZHOU Wei-Jian, AN Zhi-Sheng, DONG Guang-Rong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(8): 868-872
      
    

The study was to clarify the events of monsoon climate recorded by the palaeovegetation, using the results of pollen analysis, organic carbon δ13C, together with high-resolution 14C dating in the desert-loess transition zone for the last 13 ka BP. The palaeovegetation went though in the order of 9 periods viz.:desert-grassland,steppe,semi-desert,humid-grassland,desert,sparse-wood-grassland, desert-grassland, grassland, and desert grassland. The semi-desert, humid-grassland, and desert corresponded with the Younger Dryas events of cold-dry, cool-humid, and cold-dry climate after the end of the last glaciation. The optimum of the Holocene and other humid period between 4.5-3.5 ka BP were of high significance in research area.

沙漠/黄土过渡带13 Ka BP 以来季风演化的古植被记录
李小强1 周卫建1 安芷生1 董光荣2

(1. 中国科学院黄土与第四纪地质国家重点实验室,西安710054;2.  中国科学院兰州沙漠研究所,兰州730000)

摘要:利用花粉分析结果并结合有机碳δ13 C及高精度14 C测年等资料 ,阐明沙漠 /黄土过渡区 1 3kaBP以来古植被记录的季风气候事件。古植被经历了荒漠草原_干草原_半荒漠_湿润草原_荒漠_疏林草原_荒漠草原_草原_荒漠草原 9个阶段。冰后期的半荒漠_湿润草原_荒漠对应于其中冷干_凉湿_冷干的YoungerDryas事件 ,全新世气候适宜期以及 4.5~ 3.5kaBP的另一气候较适宜期等在研究区均有明显表现

关键词: 沙漠* 黄土过渡带;古植被;季风演化;气候事件

Abstract (Browse 1959)  |  Full Text PDF       
Transformation of Two Nitrogen-fixation-related Plant Genes into Tobacco and Their Expressions
Author: ZHANG Jing -Xian, JING Yu-Xiang, SHEN Shi-Hua, WANG Yi-Qun, GAO Yue-Feng, SHAN Xue-Qin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(8): 834-840
      
    

Lectins and leghemoglobins in legumes play the important roles, respectively, in recognition of host plants to their own rhizobia, and lowering the oxygen partial pressure surround the bacteroids and protecting nitrogenase from oxygen in symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodules.In order to investigate the non-leguminous recognition of rhizobial bacteria relating to nitrogen fixation, plant expression vectors containing pea lectin gene (pl) and Parasponia hemoglobin gene (phb) have been, respectively, constructed in a plasmid and the plasmid has been introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) using Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith et Townsend) Conn as a vehicle for transformation. PCR and Southern blot demonstrated that the two genes were integrated into the genome of the tobacco plants. Histochemical staining for GUS activity, Western blotting,and in situ hybridization of pea lectin showed that they were expressed at translational level in the plants. These results may provide a clue for exploring whether Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae could extend its host range and make the transgenic tobacco plants have the possibility of being symbiotic, or associative to nitrogen fixation.

固氮相关的两个植物基因转化烟草及其表达
张静娴 荆玉祥*  沈世华 王逸群 高越峰 单雪琴
(中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093)

摘要:豆科植物凝集素和血红蛋白分别在植物识别其相应的根瘤菌和在根瘤内降低氧分压保护固氮酶的共生固氮作用中起重要作用。将豌豆 (Pisumsativa L .)凝集素基因 (pl)和Parasponiaandersonii 血红蛋白基因 (phb)构建到同一植物表达载体上 ,通过根癌土壤杆菌 (Agrobacteriumtumefaciens (SmithetTownsend)Conn)介导法转化烟草 (Nico tianatabacumL .) ,经PCR扩增和Southernblot分析 ,证明外源双价目的基因已同时整合到转基因植株的基因组中。用GUS组织化学染色、Westernblot和凝集素原位杂交实验 ,证明gus报告基因和pl基因已在转基因烟草植株中得到转译表达。这一结果将为根瘤菌能否扩大宿主范围 ,使烟草与豌豆根瘤菌具有共生或联合固氮作用的可能性研究奠定基础。

关键词: Parasponia andersonii;血红蛋白基因;豌豆凝集素基因;转基因烟草;基因表达

Abstract (Browse 2159)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructure of Epidermis and Flesh of the Developing Apple Fruit
Author: PENG Yi-Ben, ZHANG Da-Peng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(8): 794-802
      
    

The ultrastructure of the epidermis and flesh of apple (Malus domestica Borkh cv. Red Fuji) fruit was systematically observed during the fruit development via transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that, in spite of the ultrastructural changes in many aspects of the developing fruit epidermal cells, it remained almost unchanged throughout the whole developmental process that the cytoplasm was filled with numerous endoplasmic reticula (ER). Most of these endoplasmic reticula were tube-like and rough-ER with enlarged cisterna from which many vesicles were produced. Some of the vesicles were shown to merge into vacuole. Some dynamic Golgi bodies were also found. All the ultrastructural characteristics showed that the epidermal cells have the features of excretory cells. The ultrastructure of the fruit flesh cells at the young fruit stage were shown to be metabolically active, characterized by the presence of numerous clustered plasmodesmata, cisterna enlarged- and rough-ER filling the cytoplasm, plenty of vesicles and Golgi bodies, indicating their dynamic cellular transport function. Some giant-circular rough-ERs were found. All the ultrastructural features at this early developmental stage should be closely associated with the enlargement of the young fruit. At the rapid growing phase of the fruit the main changes were characterized by: the starch grain-filled amyloplasts, furcating of the single orifice of plasmodesmata, and the cytoplasm enrichment of both the Golgi body-formed vesicles and other vesicles. These features correspond well with those of a photoassimilate sink-cell. An ultrastructural degeneration phenomenon was observed at the fruit ripening stage, but the mitochondria and plasmalemma still remained intact, which might be related to the continuous development of fruit quality during the fruit ripening.

发育过程中苹果果皮和果肉细胞的超微结构
彭宜本* 张大鹏**

(中国农业大学果树分子发育生物学实验室,北京100094)

摘要:用透射电镜对发育过程中苹果 (Malusdomestica Borkhcv.RedFuji)果皮和果肉细胞的超微结构进行了观察。结果表明 ,不同发育期果皮细胞的超微结构发生了变化 ,其中最引人注目的是 ,内质网自始至终密布于整个细胞质中 ,而且大多为槽库膨大的、合成功能旺盛的管状粗面内质网 ,并分泌出大量的具运输功能的小泡 ;观察到这些小泡与液泡融合的景象 ;细胞中也存在活跃的高尔基体。超微结构上的这些现象显示了果皮细胞具有分泌细胞的基本特征。果肉细胞在幼果生长期表现出代谢旺盛的特点 ;观察到成束出现的胞间连丝、遍布于整个细胞质中的槽库膨大的粗面内质网、丰富的大小囊泡和活跃的高尔基体 ;也观察到巨大的环型粗面内质网。在果实快速生长期 ,整个造粉质体内充满淀粉 ,胞间连丝由幼果期的单通道发育为分叉型通道 ,细胞质中存在丰富的囊泡和活跃地分泌小泡的高尔基体。在果实成熟期 ,果肉细胞呈现出降解的特点 ,线粒体仍然完好 ,质膜依然完整。对果皮和果肉细胞超微结构变化与果实发育的关系进行了讨论。

关键词: 苹果;果实;果皮;果肉;超微结构;果实发育
 

Abstract (Browse 2060)  |  Full Text PDF       
Agronomic Characteristics and Cytogenetic Observation of the Hybrid F1 from Triticum aestivum and Aegilops triuncialis
Author: KONG Xiu-Ying, DONG Yu-Shen, ZHOU Rong-Hua, JIA Ji-Zeng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(8): 845-848
      
    

In order to efficiently introduce the genes of Aegilops triuncialisL. for resistance to powdery mildew into Triticum aestivum L., it is of importance to understand the genetic mechanism of their F 1 hybrid. It was shown that the bivalent frequency was higher than that of the theoretical value. It resulted from the combination of the wheat inhibitors of 5B Ph gene which located respectively on C and U genome of Aegilops triuncialis L. The results of chromosome in situ hybridization with the C genome-specific repetitive sequence, pAeca212, as the probe further indicated that some chromosomes of the C genome of Ae. caudata L. paired with the chromosomes of the other genomes.

普通小麦与钩刺山羊草杂交F1的农艺性状及细胞遗传学的观察
孔秀英 董玉琛 周荣华贾继增
(中国农业科学院作物种质资源研究所,农业部作物品种资源与生物技术重点开放实验室,北京100081)

摘要:为有效地利用钩刺山羊草 (Aegilopstriuncialis L .)的抗白粉病基因对小麦 (Triticumaestivum L .)进行遗传改良 ,了解两者杂交后杂种F1的遗传机制是十分必要的。对F1杂种的研究表明 ,二价体频率高于理论值 ,是分别存在于钩刺山羊草C和U基因组中的小麦 5B染色体上Ph基因抑制因子联合作用的结果。以尾状山羊草 (AegilopscaudataL .)C基因组特异重复序列pAeca2 1 2为探针所进行的原位杂交结果进一步表明在联会的二价体中 ,C基因组染色体与其他基因组染色体之间发生了联会。

关键词: 普通小麦;钩刺山羊草;原位杂交

Abstract (Browse 1949)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Geographical Distribution Pattern of the Subgenus Pogonophace (Fabaceae: Astragalus) in China Using GIS Technique
Author: ZHANG Ming-Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(8): 849-854
      
    

The geographical distribution maps of the subgenus Pogonophace (Fabaceae: Astragalus) in China were designed and drawn using GIS cartographic technique. The species of the subgenus and county of China were treated as the basic composition units in the GIS cartographic technique. Most of the distribution maps were shown in spots. The distribution pattern of the subgenus illustrates that it is a peculiar group to adapt the cold alpine environment and distribute mainly in Hengduan Mountains and Himalayas. According to the geographical distribution maps and some statistic analyses, Hengduan Mountains region is suggested to be the distribution center, differentiation center and endemic center of the subgenus. Some vicariance traces at levels of the species or sections are very interesting among the distribution patterns of the subgenus and shown clearly in the maps.

用GIS技术研究中国簇毛黄耆亚属(豆科:黄耆属)的地理分布式样
张明理
(中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093$)


摘要:用GIS技术设计和绘制了豆科黄耆属 (Astragalus L .)簇毛黄耆亚属在中国的地理分布图。以种类和县级分布为基本构图单元。分布图形均呈斑块状。分布式样揭示出这个亚属是一个集中分布在横断山和喜马拉雅 ,适应于高寒山地的特化类群。根据地理分布直观图及有关统计分析 ,认为横断山是这个亚属的分布中心、分化中心和特有中心。分布式样和直观图还揭示出一些种之间、组之间有趣的替代现象

关键词:GIS;制图;簇毛黄耆亚属;地理分布

Abstract (Browse 2273)  |  Full Text PDF       
Airborne Pollen Grains of Burdur, Turkey
Author: Adem BICAKCI, Ahmet AKKAYA, Hulusi MALYER, Ercan TURGUT, nal SAHIN
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(8): 864-867
      
    

The pollen grains in the atmosphere of Burdur have been studied for a two-year period (1996 through 1997) with a Durham sampler. A total of 11881 pollen grains belonging to 39 taxa have been identified and recorded with some unidentified ones. Of them, 5726 were identified in 1996 and 6155 in 1997. Of the total pollen grains, 76.51% were arboreal, 21.62% non-arboreal and 1.87% unidentified. The majority of the investigated pollen grains were from Pinus L., Cupressaceae, Gramineae, Quercus L., Platanus L., Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Salix L., Cedrus L., Compositae, Juglans L. and Urticaceae respectively. The highest level of pollen concentration was in May.

 

Abstract (Browse 2151)  |  Full Text PDF       
On Metasequoia in Eocene Age from Liaoning Province of Northeast China
Author: LIU Yan-Ju, LI Cheng-Sen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(8): 873-878
      
    

The fossil specimens of Metasequoia Miki, aged in early Eocene was collected from Guchengzi and Jijuntun Formations of Fushun, Liaoning Province, Northeast China. Female and male cones and nutricious shoots, together with leafy epidermis and epidermis of staminal bract were investigated and here by described in details. The specimens is attributed to M. occidentalis after comparing them with M. glyptostroboides, M. milleri and M. occidentalis, considering the characteristics of leaves, female and male cones, epidermal cells and stomata. The average stomatal density of M. glyptostroboides in the stomatal distributional regions is measured to be 183.85/mm2, that of Fushun specimens 140.13/mm2; the average stomatal index of M. glyptostroboides in the stomatal distributional regions is 10.79, that of Fushun specimens is 9.48.

中国辽宁省始新世水杉的研究
刘艳菊1,2 李承森1

(1. 中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093;2. 北京市物理化学分析测试中心,北京100089)


摘要:以辽宁省抚顺早始新世古城子组和计军屯组的水杉 (Metasequoia Miki)为研究对象 ,对其雌球果、雄球花枝和营养枝叶的形态、叶表皮和雄球花苞片表皮的结构进行了研究分析 ,并与M .glyptostroboides,M .occidentalis,M .milleri的性状进行比较 ,认定其属于M .occidentalis。并测得M .glyptostroboides和抚顺水杉叶下表皮气孔分布区内的平均气孔密度和平均气孔指数。在气孔分布区内 ,M .glyptostroboides的平均气孔密度为 1 83.85个 /mm2 ,平均气孔指数为 1 0 .79;而抚顺标本叶的平均气孔密度为 1 4 0 .1 3个 /mm2 ,平均气孔指数为 9.48。

关键词: 辽宁抚顺;始新世;水杉

Abstract (Browse 2043)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Comparative Study on Photosynthesis and Water Use Efficiency Between Clonal and Non-clonal Plant Species Along the Northeast China Transect (NECT)
Author: JIANG Gao-Ming, DONG Ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(8): 855-863
      
    

Net photosynthesis (P n), transpiration (E), stomatal conductance (g s) and water use efficiency (WUE) of more than 218 species belonging to two different reproductive functional types, i.e. clonal (115 species) and non-clonal species (103 species), along the 1 670 km Northeast China Transect (NECT) were analyzed. The results showed that P n and WUE appeared to be lower in the east and west ends of NECT, with peaks in the middle. Transpiration was found to be higher in the west end, where most temperate desert species were distributed. On the same site, most clonal species showed higher P n and related physiological variables than non-clonal species. For different growth forms over NECT, e.g. forest trees, shrubs and grasses, meadow steppe shrubs and grasses, typical steppe shrubs and grasses, the meadow steppe and typical steppe grasses, showed higher values of physiological variables than the forest or the desert species. But for the two reproductive plant functional types (PFTs), clonal species had higher physiological variables, with averages of 22%, 15%, 23% and 14% higher than the non-clonal ones for P n, E, gs, and WUE, respectively. Such differences indicated that clonal species might have advantages over non-clonal species in utilizing environmental resources such as light, CO2, and especially water.

沿中国东北样带(NECT)分布的若干克隆植物与非克隆植物光合速率与水分利用效率的比较
蒋高明 董鸣
(中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093)

摘要:比较了沿 1 6 70km长的中国东北样带 (NECT)分布的在繁殖习性上不同的植物功能型 ,克隆植物 (clonalplant)与非克隆植物 (non_clonalplant)的光合作用、蒸腾作用、气孔导度、水分利用效率。所测定的 2 1 8种植物中有1 1 5种属于克隆植物。对于灌木和草本植物功能型而言 ,净光合速率 (Pn)和水分利用效率 (WUE)在样带东西两端较低 ,在样带中间较高 ;蒸腾速率在温带荒漠植物分布的西端出现升高的趋势。在森林乔木、森林灌木、森林草本、草甸草原灌木、草甸草原草本、典型草原灌木、典型草原草本、荒漠草原灌木、荒漠草原草本等不同功能型的植物中 ,典型草原灌木和草本植物的光合生理指标较高。在相同的生长环境中 ,克隆植物比非克隆植物表现出较高的Pn 以及其他生理指标。克隆植物的光合速率、蒸腾速率、气孔导度、水分利用效率分别比非克隆植物高出 2 2 %、1 5 %、2 3%和 1 4 %。这种现象表明克隆植物在CO2 、光能和水分资源利用能力上优于非克隆植物

关键词: 光合作用;克隆植物;非克隆植物;森林;草原;温带荒漠;中国东北样带

Abstract (Browse 2500)  |  Full Text PDF       
Selective Marker of Marine Microalgal Genetic Engineering
Author: HUAN Jian, TANG Xue-Xi, GONG Xiang-Zhong, DAI Ji-Xun, CHEN Zheng-Hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(8): 841-844
      
    

Six species of marine microalgae, viz., Nitzschia closterium Ehr.,Chaetoceros muelleri Lemm., Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohl., Isochrysis galbana Parke 8701, Platymonas subcordiformis (Wille) Hazen and Chlorella vulgaris Beij. exhibited different sensitivities to 5 kinds of antibiotics. Among the 5 kinds of antibiotics, chloromycetin was the common sensitive antibiotic for the 6 species of marine microalgae. Its 72 h EC 50 (50% effective concentration) was from 56-289 mg/L, which made chloromycetin the reasonable selective marker for the 6 species of marine microalgae.Thus, CAT (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) gene could be widely used as selective marker in the study of marine microalgal genetic engineering. Moreover, Chaetoceros muelleri was sensitive to kanamycin and ampicillin, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum was sensitive to ampicillin, therefore, NTPⅡ (neomycin phosphotransferaseⅡ) gene and Ampr (Ampicillin resistant) gene could be used as selective marker for Chaetoceros muelleri, and Ampr gene for Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

海洋微藻基因工程的选择标记
黄健1  唐学玺1 宫相忠 戴继勋1 陈正华2

(1. 青岛海洋大学生命学院,青岛266003;2. 中国科学院遗传研究所,北京100101)

摘要:6种海洋微藻新月菱形藻 (Nitzschia closterium Ehr.)、牟勒氏角刺藻 (ChaetocerosmuelleriLemm .)、三角褐指藻(Phaeodactylumtricornutum Bohl.)、绿光等鞭金藻 870 1 (IsochrysisgalbanaParke 870 1 )、亚心形扁藻 (Platymonassubcordi formis (Wille)Hazen)和小球藻 (ChlorellavulgarisBeij.)对 5种抗生素的敏感性实验表明 ,不同的海洋微藻对各种抗生素的敏感性不同 ,其中氯霉素是 6种海洋微藻普遍敏感的抗生素 ,它对 6种海洋微藻 72h的半抑制浓度在 5 6~2 89mg/L之间。可见氯霉素是 6种海洋微藻较理想的选择压力。因此CAT(氯霉素乙酰转移酶 )基因可作为阳性选择标记基因广泛应用于海洋微藻的基因工程研究。另外 ,牟勒氏角刺藻还对卡那霉素 ,氨苄青霉素敏感。三角褐指藻也对氨苄青霉素敏感。因此 ,NTPⅡ (新霉素磷酸转移酶 )基因和Ampr(氨苄青霉素抗性 )基因也可作为牟勒氏角刺藻基因工程研究的阳性选择标记基因。Ampr 基因还可作为三角褐指藻基因工程研究的阳性选择标记基因。

关键词: 海洋微藻;基因工程;抗性选择标记;抗生素;氯霉素

Abstract (Browse 2212)  |  Full Text PDF       
State Key Basic Research and Development Plan of China: Dynamics and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity and Regional Ecological Security in the Yangtze Valley
Author: ZHAO Li-Hui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(8): 879-880
Abstract (Browse 2000)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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