September 2000, Volume 42 Issue 9

 

          Research Articles
An Improved Technique for Measuring Root Radial Hydraulic Conductivity
Author: HUANG Ming-Bin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(9): 927-930
      
    

根径向水流导度测定技术的改进
黄明斌*  董翠云
(中国科学院、水利部水土保持研究所,陕西杨凌712100)

摘要:根系径向流的水力学性质主要是根的径向水流导度 ,它取决于根径向水流通道的状况。利用改进的现有原位测定根系径向水流导度的蒸腾计技术 ,设计了一个简便的 4室吸水测定装置 ,可一次性获得根木质部水势和根径向水流导度 ,缩短测定时间 10min ,确保测定精度。然后用改进的装置测定了生长在不同水分条件下冬小麦(Triticumaestivum L .)根系的径向水流导度 ,结果显示根系的平均径向水流导度为 4.6 3× 10 -7m·s-1·MPa-1,并随连体植株水分胁迫程度的增大而降低。

关键词: 冬小麦;根;木质部水势;径向水流导度

Abstract (Browse 2044)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Salinity Stress on the Levels of Covalently and Noncovalently Conjugated Polyamines in Plasma Membrane and Tonoplast Isolated from Barley Seedlings
Author: Zhao Fu-Geng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(9): 920-926
      
    

When the 7-d old barley ( Hordeum vulgare L. ) seedlings were treated with different concentrations of NaC1 for 3 d, the levels of the noncovalemly conjugated polyamines (PAs) in the plasma membrane and tonoplast vesicles and the covalently conjugated PAs in the membrane proteins were promoted by NaC1 of low concentrations and suppressed by NaC1 of high concentrations. Among the noncovalenfly conjugated PAs in the vesicles, spennidine (Spd) level was the most abundant, while putrescine (Put) content was predominant among the covalenfly conjugated PAs, accounted for 40%– 70%, 35% – 60%, respectively. In addition, the TLC (thin-layer chromatography) profiles of the benzoylated PAs presented an unknown polyamine with Rf = 0.92 (X0.92), which conjugated covalently and noncovalently in root tonoplast and its content changed as well as Spd with NaC1 treatment. The total PA contents in the roots were higher than that in the leaves, and the types and contents of covalenfly and noncovalently conjugated PAs in the tonoplast were higher than those in the plasma membrane. The results showed that the above two PAs associated with the membrane might be essential in salt adaption of cells and the maintenance of membrane function.

盐胁迫对大麦幼苗质膜、液泡膜上共价和非共价结合多胺含量的影响
赵福庚 孙诚 刘友良* 刘兆普
(南京农业大学农学系,南京210095)

摘要:用不同浓度NaCl处理 7d龄大麦 (Hordeumvulgare L .)幼苗 3d ,以非共价键和共价键形式分别与质膜和液泡膜微囊及膜蛋白结合的多胺含量受低浓度盐的促进而被高浓度盐所抑制。以非共价键形式与膜微囊结合的各种多胺中亚精胺 (Spd)含量最高 ,占膜上多胺总量的 40 %~ 70 %。与膜蛋白共价结合的各种多胺中腐胺 (Put)含量占主导地位 ,占膜蛋白上多胺总量的 35 %~ 6 0 %。在根系液泡膜上发现一种含量丰富的未知多胺X0 .92 ,该多胺以非共价键和共价键两种形式与膜结合 ,随NaCl处理浓度的变化趋势与Spd相同。根系膜微囊上多胺总含量大于叶片。盐胁迫下液泡膜微囊上两种结合形式多胺种类及含量的变化幅度均大于质膜。表明上述两种膜结合多胺可能在细胞的盐适应和膜功能维持中起重要作用。

关键词: 质膜;液泡膜;多胺;盐胁迫;大麦

Abstract (Browse 2251)  |  Full Text PDF       
Seed Protein Polymorphism Within Individual Plants and Mating System
Author: ZHOU Yong-Gang, WANG Hong-Xin, HU Zhi-Ang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(9): 910-912
      
    

Several isozymes of different seeds within individual plants of 3 species of Caragana Lam. distributed respectively in typical grassland, desertified grassland, and desert areas of Nei Mongol were analyed by using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A considerable variation of isozymes had been observed among different seeds in individual plants which showed a codominant segregation of zymograms among 77 plants tested without exception, thus enabling genetic analysis of isozymes became possible. It also indicated an outbreed property of Caragana in natural populations. Variation in seed protein subunits was further detected within individual plants by denaturation gel electrophoresis. Conversely, no seed protein variation has been found among different seeds within individual plants of the wild soybean ( Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.) and wild green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) being concordant with their inbreeding. A low variation in seed proteins of Albizzia julibrissin Durazz., Winteria sinensis Sweet.,and Magnolia denudata Desr. was seen among differentseeds in individual plants which showed their mixed mating system. The data presented here suggested that electrophoretic analysis of seed protein is a simple, quick and cheap method to detect mating systems of plants.

植株内种子蛋白多样性与繁育系统
周永刚* 王洪新 胡志昂**

(中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093)

摘要:用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳分析了 3种锦鸡儿属植物种子的同工酶。分布在典型草原上的小叶锦鸡儿 (Cara ganamicrophylla Lam .)、典型荒漠的柠条锦鸡儿 (C .korshinskiiKom .)或荒漠草原的中间锦鸡儿 (C .intermediaKuanget H .C .Fu) ,同一植株不同单粒种子的酶谱表现显著的变异 ,类似于经典遗传分析中互显性等位基因分离现象 ,77株植株无一例外 ,因此可以进行遗传分析 ,同时也充分证明了锦鸡儿在自然群体的异交性。用变性胶分析了锦鸡儿单粒种子的种子蛋白亚基 ,同样显示显著的植株内变异 ,77株植株无一例外。说明种子蛋白电泳也可以用于异交性的检测。典型自交植物野生大豆 (GlycinesojaSieb .etZucc .)和逸为野生的绿豆 (Vignaradiata (L .)Wilczek) ,同一植株的不同种子有完全一样的种子蛋白亚基组成。合欢 (AlbizziajulibrissinDurazz .)、紫藤 (WisteriasinensisSweet.)和玉兰 (MagnoliadenudataDesr.)植株内种子蛋白表现出低水平的变异 ,说明其兼性的繁育系统。据此提出植株内种子蛋白电泳可望作为检测植物繁育系统的一种简单、快速、廉价的方法。
关键词: 同工酶;种子蛋白;电泳;植株内变异;繁育系统

Abstract (Browse 2081)  |  Full Text PDF       
Growth Response of Wheat Roots to Phosphorus Deficiency
Author: SUN Hai-Guo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(9): 913-919
      
    

Study on the plastic response of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. ) root growth to P-deficiency Las revealed. There were significant negative linear relationships between the length of mot axis and internal or external P concentration of plant. The result of root-split experiment showed that the growth of mot axis was regulated by internal rather than external P concentration of plant tissue. The internal P concentration of the plant changed after plant being treated for 1 day. However, significant difference in the length of noot axis in response to different levels of P supplement occurred on the eighth day after treatment. This suggested that the change in internal P concentration of plant may be the primary response to phosphorus deficiency. In concurfence zinc concentration in shoot and IAA concentration in the whole plant increased with the decrease of P supply. The increased IAA m root promoted the growth of mot axes and the initiation of lateral mots, induced the expression of cyclin gene cyclat and subsequently the division of meristematic cells with consequent speeding up the mot extension.

小麦根系生长对缺磷胁迫的反应
孙海国! * 张福锁
(中国农业大学植物营养系,北京100094)

摘要:研究了缺磷诱导小麦(Triticum aestivumL.)根系生长的反应,小麦根轴的生长与植株内外的磷浓度均呈显著的负线性关系。分根实验证明,随着低磷营养液中根比例的增加,在供磷水平不同的分根盒侧的根轴长度的均增加,这说明根轴生长是受体内磷浓度调控的。植株体内磷浓度的处理后1d开始变化,而在不同供磷水平营养液中小麦根轴长度的差异达到显著水平的时间是处理后的第8天,说明植株体内磷浓度的变化可能是小小麦根轴生长对缺磷反应的初始原因。在植株磷对环境磷产生反应的同时,锌在体内的分配也发生了变化。小麦地上部锌浓度随着介质磷水平的降低而提高,植株生长素含量也随之增加。小麦根部生长素浓度在低磷环境中提高后,根轴长度和侧根密度明显增加,细胞周期蛋白因cyclAt的表达活性明显增强。这表明缺磷小麦根系增大是由于体内磷调节锌的分配后增加LAA含量进而诱导cyclAt基因表达的缘故; cyclAt 基因表达活性的提高,促进了根分生组织细胞的分裂,加速了根的伸展。
 

关键词: 小麦根系生长;缺磷;原初反应;磷锌关系;生长素;cyclAt基因表达

Abstract (Browse 2027)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Fungal Elicitors on Cell Growth and Artemisinin Accumulation in Hairy Root Cultures of Artemisia annua
Author: WANG Hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(9): 905-909
      
    

The artemisinin accumulation in the hairy root cultures of Artemisia annua L. was enhanced via a treatment of three fungal elicitors separately ( Verticillium dahliae Kleb., Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehrenb. ex Fr. ) Vuill and Colletotrichum dematium (Pers.) Grove). Among these three elicitors, V. dahliae had the highest inducing efficiency, but none of them manifests any noticeable effects on the cell growth of the hairy root cultures. The artemisinin content of the hairy root cultures treated with V. dahliae elicitor was 1.12 mg/g DW, which was 45% higher than the control (0.77 mg/g DW). The results showed that elicitation was dependent on the elicitor concentration, the incubation period and the physiological stage at which the hairy root cultures were treated. In addition, the authors found that for V. dahliae, the optimum concentration was 0.4 mg carbohydrate per millilitre medium, the strongest response of A. annua hairy root cultures to the elicitation was at the late exponential growth stage, and the highest artemisinin content of the hairy root cultures was on the 4th day post treatment.

真菌诱导子对青蒿发根细胞生长和青蒿素积累的影响
王红 叶和春* 李国凤 刘本叶 种康
(中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093)

摘要:3种真菌诱导子 (大丽花轮枝孢 (Verticilliumdahliae Kleb .)、葡枝根霉 (Rhizopusstolonifer (Ehrenb .exFr.)Vuill)和束状刺盘孢 (Colletotrichumdematium (Pers .)Grove) )处理青蒿 (Artemisiaannua L .)的发根 ,均能促进发根中青蒿素的积累 ,其中以大丽花轮枝孢的诱导效果最好 ;对细胞生长均没有明显影响。经大丽花轮枝孢处理的发根中青蒿素含量达 1.12mg/gDW ,比对照 (0 .77mg/gDW )提高 45 %。诱导子的作用效果与诱导子浓度、诱导子作用时间及发根的生长状态有关。对大丽花轮枝孢来说 ,诱导子作用的最适浓度为每毫升培养基含糖 0 .4mg ;发根在指数生长末期对诱导作用最敏感 ;在加入诱导子 4d后收获发根 ,发根中的青蒿素含量最高。

关键词: 青蒿;发根;青蒿素;真菌诱导子

Abstract (Browse 2408)  |  Full Text PDF       
Intercellular Symplastic Connection and Isolation of the Unloading Zone in Flesh of the Developing Grape Berry
Author: XIA Guo-Hai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(9): 898-904
      
    

The uhrastructure and intercellular connection of the sugar unloading zone (i. e. the phloem in the dorsal vascular bundle and the phloem-surrounding the assimilate sink-cells) of grape ( Vitis vinifera x V. labrusca cv. Jingchao) berry was observed via transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that during the early developmental stages of grape berry, numerous plasmodesmata were found in the phloem between sieve element (SE) and companion cell (CC), between SE/CC complexes, between SE/CC complex and phloem parenchyma cell and in between phloem parenchyma cells, which made the phloem a symplastic integration, facilitating sugar unloading from sieve elements into both companion cells and phloem parenchyma cells via a symplastic pathway. On the contrary, there was almost no plasmodesma between phloem and its surrounding flesh photoassimilate sink-cells, neither in between the flesh photoassimilate sink-cells giving rise to a symplastic isolation both between phloem and its surrounding flesh photoassimilate sink-cells, as well as among the flesh photoassimilate sink-cells. This indicated that both the sugar unloading from phloem and pestphloem transport of sugars should be mainly via an apoplastic pathway. Dining the ripening stage, most of the plasmodesmata between SE/CC complex and the surrounding phloem parenchyma cells were shown to be blocked by the electron-opaque globules, and a phenomenon of plasmolysis was found in a number of companion cells, indicating a symplastic isolation between SE/CC complex and its surrounding parenchynm cells during this phase. The symplastic isolation between the whole phloem and its surrounding photoassimilate sink-cells during the early developmental stages shifted to a symplastic isolation within the phloem during the ripening phase, and thus the symplastic pathway of sugar unloading from SE/CC complex during the early development stages should be replaced by a dominant apoplastic unloading pathway from SE/CC complex in concordance.

葡萄果肉同化物卸载区细胞间的共质体联系与隔离
夏国海1  张大鹏1,2*

(1.中国农业大学果树分子发育生物学实验室,北京100094;2.  中国农业大学农业部植物生理生化重点开放实验室,北京100094)

摘要:应用透射电镜技术对葡萄果肉同化物卸载区细胞 (周缘维管束韧皮部及其周围同化物库细胞 )的超微结构及胞间联系进行了系统观察。结果表明 :在葡萄果实发育前期 ,韧皮部筛分子 (SE)与伴胞 (CC)之间、SE/CC复合体之间、SE/CC复合体与韧皮薄壁细胞之间、以及韧皮薄壁细胞相互之间都有十分丰富的胞间连丝 ,因此 ,韧皮部内细胞之间形成了一个共质体紧密联系的整体。但是 ,韧皮部细胞与相邻的果肉库细胞之间、以及果肉库细胞相互之间几乎不存在胞间连丝 ,说明韧皮部与周围果肉库细胞之间、以及果肉库细胞相互之间形成了共质体隔离。在果实成熟期 ,筛管与伴胞和周围韧皮薄壁细胞间的胞间连丝都被深色颗粒状物质堵塞 ,许多伴胞也发生质壁分离 ,这些特征标志着SE/CC复合体与周围薄壁细胞间的共质体联系被阻断 ,果实发育前期的整个韧皮部与周围同化物库细胞之间的共质体隔离 ,演变为韧皮部内部SE/CC复合体与周围细胞之间的共质体隔离。根据果实周缘维管束韧皮部细胞与周围细胞的超微结构变化和胞间联系特点 ,对葡萄果实同化物卸载的细胞学路径进行了讨论。

关键词: 韧皮部;胞间连丝;同化物卸载;葡萄果肉

Abstract (Browse 2202)  |  Full Text PDF       
Active Oxygen Species in Plant Disease Resistance
Author: GUO Ze-Jian, LI De-Bao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(9): 881-891
      
    

Oxidative burst is one of the earliest responses in plant resistance to pathogen attack. Studies indicate that the oxidative burst is composed of two phases. The first burst is weak and biologically nonspecific, whereas the phase Ⅱ burst is massive and produced only as an incompatible interaction. The rapid transient production of active oxygen species plays an important role in plant defense strategy against diseases. It involves: 1) antimicrobial activity, 2) substrate for oxidative cross-linking of cell wall, 3) triggering factor of hypersensitive response, 4) mobile signal inducing local and systemic acquired resistance by itself or its derivatives, 5) induction of phytoalexin accumulation, and 6) regulation of gene transcription. Emerging data indicate that the oxidative burst initiates from the activation of NADPH oxidase system resembling that of animal phagocytes. The generation of active oxygen species by a pH-dependent peroxidase is also present in some plants. Further, there is a complete system in plants to regulate the accumulation and scavenging of active oxygen species to protect plants from secondary infection, and at the same time to avoid the oxidative stress.

活性氧与植物抗病性
郭泽建*  李德葆
(浙江大学生物技术研究所,杭州310029)
关键词: 活性氧;信号传导;防卫反应

Abstract (Browse 2237)  |  Full Text PDF       
cDNA Cloning and Structural Analysis of Granule-bound Starch Synthase Gene of Hairy Roots of Astragalus membranaceus
Author: PENG Ji-Song, ZHAO Shu-Juan , Wu Xiao-Jun , LIU Di , HU Zhi-Bi ,XU Zheng-Kai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(9): 940-945
      
    

Two degenerate primers were designed according to the conserved region among the known granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS ) genes. A cDNA fragment of 560 bp with 89.6% and 73.0% homeologous identical to the corresponding part of GBSSI genes of pea and potato, was amplified by RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) of mRNA isolated from hairy roots of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge). A full-length cDNA of the GBSSI gene was obtained by 5′/3′RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). The deduced polypeptide sequence consisted of 607 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 66 560 and pI value of 7.55. Alignments with the GBSSI sequences from eleven species of higher plants showed a high degree of homology among the mature proteins of all the species compared along the entire length, but a low one among the transit peptides. Two consensus cleavage-site motifs were identified as I(V/I)C↓(G/K)and SXVVX↓A in GBSSI transit peptides of dicots and monocots, respectively. The transit peptide characteristics of all the species studied have the same feature as those of the chloroplast transit peptides except their cleavage-sites. The predicted transit peptide sequence of A. membranaceus is 77 amino acids long with a calculated molecular mass of 58270 and pI value of 5.78. Northern blot analysis indicated that GBSS gene transcripts more abundantly in hairy roots and normal roots than in stems and leaves.

黄芪毛状根GBSSI 基因cDNA克隆及其结构分析
彭佶松1* 赵淑娟1  吴晓俊1 刘涤1** 胡之璧1  许政日岂2

(1. 上海中医药研究院中药研究所,上海200032;2. 中国科学院上海植物生理研究所植物分子遗传国家重点实验室,上海200032)


摘要:根据多种已发表的淀粉粒结合淀粉合成酶(GBSS)基因序列的对比分析,以它们保守区的核酸顺序为基础,设计一对简并引物。从膜荚黄芪(Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge)毛状根提取mRNA,用RT-PCR 的方法扩增出560bp的cDNA片段。序列测定表明,此片段与发表的豌豆和马铃薯GBSSI 基因相应序列同源性分别达89%和73.0%。通过5'/3'RACE(rapid amplification of  cDNA ENDS)的方法,分别扩增出5''和3'A端序列,从而获得全长的cDNA。序列分析表明此cDNA 编码黄芪的GBSSI。根据推导的蛋白质序列,这是一个由607个氨基酸组成的、pI 为7.55、相对分子量为66 560 的前体蛋白。根据类GBSS的氨基酸的序列比较,其氨基端转运肽同源性较低,而成熟蛋白氨基酸序列同源性较高。结合知GBSSI 的转运肽切割位点和!! 种植物氨基端对准分析的结果,确立了此类!GBSSI的转运肽切割位点识别模式。对黄芪GBSSI 转运肽切割位点进行了预测,它含有77个氨基酸的转运肽,成熟蛋白pI为5.78,相对分子量为58 270。Northern blot 分析表明,GBSSI基因在黄芪毛状根和正常根中的表达高于茎和叶。

关键词: 黄芪;淀粉粒结合淀粉合成酶;转运肽

Abstract (Browse 2201)  |  Full Text PDF       
Biological Effects of Stevia rebaudianum Induced by Carbon Ion Implantation
Author: SHEN Ming-Shan,JIANG Xian-Zhi,XU Jin-Sen,CHEN Liang,CHEN Mu-Chuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(9): 892-897
      
    

The biological effects during seed germination were investigated after the dry seeds of Stevia rebaudianum Bertoni were implanted with carbon ion beam of 75 keV and 10 14 ions/cm 2. The results showed that the germination rate of carbon ion implanted seeds was slightly higher than that of the control, but the survival rate of the treated seedlings, on the contrary, was lower than that of the control (P <0.02), while the height of the treated seedlings was significantly higher than that of the control (P <0.01). On the 4th day after germination, the leaf cell wall in the treated group was thick, some high electron-dense substance deposited in the enlarged plasmodesma; Cell membrane reased with high electron-dense granules deposited on it. The plasma membrane protruded towards cell wall, and the granules shifted via plasmodesma or deposited onto cell wall. These phenomena may be related to the conveyance of implanted ions across cell wall, or be related to the accumulation of callose. In addition, the implantation of carbon ions could increase the lamellae of the chloroplast and cause high development of the chloroplast which sometimes contained two plastid centers in an individual chloroplast. Also, the highly developed cristae, abundant mitochondria and typical crystalloid structure in microbody could be found. All these results indicated that the anabolic and catabolic activities in the seedlings implanted with carbon ions before germination were obviously more active than those in the controls.

注入碳离子对甜菊的生物学效应
沈明山 蒋先志 徐金森 陈亮 陈睦传*

(厦门大学细胞生物学及肿瘤细胞工程教育部重点实验室,厦门361005)

摘要:对甜菊 (Steviarebaudianum Bertoni)种子注入能量为 75keV、剂量为 10 14 /cm2 的碳离子 ,研究其种子萌发期产生的一系列生物学效应。注入碳离子的种子萌发率略高于对照组 ,但种苗的成活率比对照组低 (P <0 .0 2 )。运用假设检验法分析 ,结果表明注入离子的种子出苗株高显著高于对照组 (P <0 .0 1)。萌发 4d的处理组 ,叶片细胞壁增厚 ,胞间连丝扩大 ,内有高电子密度的物质沉积 ,细胞质膜皱折 ,膜上有高电子密度的沉积颗粒 ,质膜向细胞壁方向突起 ,质膜上的颗粒通过胞间连丝转移或沉积于细胞壁上。上述现象可能与注入离子的过壁运输有关 ,也可能与胼胝质的积累有关。此外 ,实验组植物的叶绿体发达 ,片层结构明显多于对照组 ,两个质体发生中心同时存在于同一个叶绿体内 ;线粒体丰富 ,内嵴发达 ;微体内可见典型的晶格排列结构。这些结果表明 ,离子注入种子以后 ,种子萌发期的合成代谢和呼吸代谢能力明显强于对照组

关键词: 甜菊;碳离子注入;细胞器;生物学效应

Abstract (Browse 2156)  |  Full Text PDF       
Detection of Differentiation Among BB, CC and EE Genomes in the Genus Oryza by Two-probe Genomic in situ Hybridization (GISH)
Author: Chang-Bao , ZHANG Da-Ming, GE Song, LU Bao-Rong, HONG De-Yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(9): 988-990
      
    

双探针原位杂交揭示稻属BB、cc 和EE 基因组之间的分化
李常宝1 张大明1* 葛颂1  卢宝荣2 洪德元1

(1. 中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学开放研究实验室,北京100093;2.Genetiic Resources Center, International Rice Research Institute, MCPO Box 3127, 1271 Makati City,Philippines)

摘要:利用双探针原位杂交技术 ,揭示了稻属Oryzaofficinalis复合体中BB、CC和EE基因组之间的分化。以标记的BB基因组 (来自二倍体的O .punctataKotechyexSteud .)的总DNA为探针 ,同BBCC基因组 (O .minutaJ.S .Presl.etC .B .Presel)的中期染色体杂交。结果表明 ,BB基因组的DNA探针同与四倍体O .minuta中的BB基因组的染色体之间有强烈的杂交信号 ,而与CC基因组的染色体之间的杂交信号很弱。而EE基因组 (来自O .aus traliensisDomin)的总DNA标记的探针同O .minuta基因组的所有染色体均有不同程度的杂交 ,且杂交信号的大小和强弱在BB基因组的染色体和CC基因组的染色体之间无显著的差异。由此证明 :(1)CC和BB基因组之间的分化程度很大 ;(2 )EE基因组同CC和BB基因组具有一定的亲缘关系 ;(3)CC基因组与EE基因组之间的关系较近而同BB基因组关系较远。

关键词: 基因组原位杂交(CISH);稻属;基因组分化;BBCC 基因组;BB基因组;EE基因组

Abstract (Browse 2220)  |  Full Text PDF       
Length Variation of the Nuclear Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer in the Genus Abies, with Reference to Its Systematic Utility in Pinaceae
Author: XIANG Qiao-Ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(9): 946-951
      
    

The internal transcribed spacer (1TS) region (1TS1, ITS2 and 5.8S rDNA) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) was amplified via PCR in 28 taxa of Abies Mill. The amplified fragments showed length polymorphism among species, with species from Central America and two species from North America having a length of approximately 2 500 base pairs (bp) and the remaining taxa having a length of approximately 1 700 bp based on 100 bp and 1 kb ladder standard markers. The complete sequencing of ITS of Abies bracteata showed that the shorter type is 1 697 bp (1TS1 is 1 296 bp, 5.8S + 1TS2 is 401 bp). For the longer one, the partial rrs1 and complete 5.8S + ITS2 sequencing revealed that thelength of 5.8S + ITS2 is the same as that of the shorter type. The length difference of ITS in Abies is mainly due to the length difference in the ITS1 region, a result similar to the previous findings in other genera of Pinaceae. Variation in ITS length seems well correlated with morphological and geographic characters in Abies, suggesting that the length variation may be a phylogenetically informative character within the genus, long ITS was also found in other genera of Pinaceae in the previous studies. The long length of ITS in the family makes the sequencing of the region and subsequent alignment of sequences among species or genera more difficult than in taxa with short ITS, such as angiosperms. Although the length variation of ITS in the genus Abies is significant, the homogenous of ITS sequence between the longer one and the shorter one is obvious if the insertion in the longer ITS is ignored.

ITS(nrDNA)片段在冷杉属植物中的长度多态性及其在松科的系统与演化研究中的应用
向巧萍1* 向秋云2  Aaron LISTON3 傅立国1 傅德志1

(1. 中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093; 2.Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State Unixersity, Pocatello, Idaho 83209-8007, USA;3. Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State Unixersity,Corvallis, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-2902, USA)

摘要:由PCR反应扩增了 2 8种冷杉属 (Abies Mill.)植物的nrDNA的ITS(包括ITS1、ITS2和 5.8SrDNA)片段 ,经过与 1 0 0bp和 1kb的标准分子量DNA进行比较和某些类群ITS的全序列和部分序列测定 ,发现分布于墨西哥和 2种分布于北美的冷杉属植物的ITS片段长度约为 2 50 0bp ,而分布于欧亚大陆和其他分布于北美的冷杉植物的ITS长度约为 1 70 0bp ,二者相差约 80 0bp。A .bracteata (D .DonNutt.)的ITS全序列长度为 1 697bp ,其中ITS1为 1 2 96bp ,5.8S +ITS2为 4 0 1bp。A .durangensis的部分ITS1和全部 5.8S +ITS2的测序结果表明 ,5.8S +ITS2的长度与A .bracteata的相同 ,为 4 0 1bp ,从而揭示出ITS长度的变化主要是由于ITS1的长度变异所致。这与松科属间ITS长度的变异是由于ITS1长度的变异所致相一致。冷杉属ITS长度的变异式样与形态特征和地理分布具有很好的相关性。结合形态学性状和地理分布资料 ,初步探讨了ITS长度变异这一性状在冷杉植物系统演化中的意义 ,并对运用ITS片段探讨松科属间和属下的系统演化关系的可行性和局限性进行了讨论。认为较长的ITS片段应该为分析系统演化关系提供较大的信息量 ,可望得到具较高分辨率的结果 ,但松科植物属间较大的ITS片段的长度增大和长度变异不仅增加了基因扩增和测序的难

关键词: nrDNA ITS长度变异;系统演化;冷杉属;松科

Abstract (Browse 2366)  |  Full Text PDF       
Creation and Cytological, Biochemical, Molecular Identification of Alien Disomic Substitution Lines with BYDV-resistance from Triticum aestivum-Agropyron intermedium Hybrids
Author: TANG Shun-Xue
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(9): 952-956
      
    

By the method of combined anther culture and conventional selection, six new BYI)V (barley yellow dwarf vims)-resistant wheat germplasms (2n = 42) were obtained from the crosses between common wheat cv. 77-5433 and Zhong 5, a partial Triticum aestivum-Agrotryron intermedium amphiploid. The six germplasms were comprehensively identified by meiosis pairing analysis, testing cross analysis using monosomic analysis, C-banding, isoelectrofocusing (IEF) of isoenzyme and RAPD analyses. The results indicated that all the germplasms were alien substitution lines carrying resistant genes originated from Zhong 5.

抗大麦黄矮病毒小麦!中间偃麦草二体异代换系的选育和细胞、生化、分子生物学鉴定
唐顺学1 李义文1 梁辉1 曲乐庆1 白建荣1  贾双娥1 魏晓丽1 李振声1 贾旭1  B.FR5EBE2

(1. 中国科学院遗传研究所植物细胞与染色体工程国家重点实验室,北京100101;2. D.epartment  of Pathology,Kansas Unixer,Manhattan KS 66506-5501 USA

摘要:结合花药培养和常规选育 ,从 77- 433×中 5杂交组合后代中选育出 6个抗大麦黄矮病毒 (barleyyellowdwarfvirus ,BYDV)、染色体数目为 42的小麦 (TriticumaestivumL .)新种质 ,并用减数分裂配对分析、单体小麦测交法、基因组原位杂交、C分带、同工酶等电聚焦和RAPD对上述材料进行了综合鉴定 ;表明这些材料都是小麦_中间偃麦草(AgropyronintermediumGarten)二体异代换系 ,其抗病性来自其携带的一对中间偃麦草染色体

关键词: 中5;BYDV抗病种质;二体异代换系;细胞、生化、分子生物学鉴定

Abstract (Browse 2279)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genetic Relationship and Genomic in situ Hybridization Analysis of the Three Genomes in Triticum aestivum
Author: LI Da-Yong, ZHANG Xue-Yong, YANG Ji, RAO Guang-Yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(9): 957-964
      
    

Common wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) is an allohexaploid, consisting of three different genomes (Au, B and D ) which are genetically closely related. Genomic DNA of the three possible genome donors, T. urartu Thum., Aegilops speltoides Tausch and Ae. tauschii Coss.,were employed as probes to hybridize with the diploid genomic DNA digested by Eco RⅠand Hin dⅢ respectively. Both the hybridization strength and band patterns among the genomes would be good indicators of genome relationships. Combining distr ibution data of some repetitive DNA sequences cloned from T. urartu in the three genomes, the authors draw a conclusion that Au and D are more closely related to each other than either one to the B genome. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) of T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring with genomic DNA probes of the three diploid progenitors respectively indicated that the three genomes could be discriminated clearly via GISH. The signals on the chromosomes of Au and D genomes were even. However, when Ae. speltoides DNA was used as probe, there were very strong cross hybridization and the signals condensed on some areas of the metaphasic chromosomes. In the interphase nucleus, the chromatin of B genome dispersed on the same region and the signals on the homologous chromosomes distributed symmetrically. Rich repetitive DNA sequences in B genome, especially the tandem repetitives, perhaps take an important role for the formation of the special hybridization pattern. The main difference between B and the other two genomes probably is in the repetitive DNA sequences.

普通小麦三个基因组之间的遗传关系及原位杂交分析
李大勇1,2  张学勇1* 杨继2 饶广远2

(1. 中国农业科学院作物品种资源研究所,农业部作物种质资源与生物技术重点实验室,北京100081;
2. 北京大学生命科学学院,北京100871)

摘要:以普通小麦 (Triticumaestivum L .)的 3个可能的二倍体供体种 (乌拉尔图小麦 (T .urartu Thum .)、拟斯卑尔脱山羊草 (Aegilopsspeltoides Tausch)和粗山羊草 (Ae.tauschii Coss .) )的基因组DNA为研究对象 ,通过它们之间的相互杂交 ,比较杂交强度以及泳道中带纹的不同 ,并结合部分DNA重复序列在基因组间含量差异的数据 ,得出结论 :Au 和D基因组的关系相对较近。分别以这三个二倍体种的基因组DNA为探针 ,与普通小麦中国春 (T .aestivumL .cv .ChineseSpring)根尖细胞进行基因组原位杂交 (GISH) ,可以清晰地识别出 3个基因组。Au 和D基因组的染色体都呈现均匀的杂交信号 ,但以拟斯卑尔脱山羊草基因组DNA为探针时 ,发现交叉杂交现象十分显著 ,并且杂交信号区域化分布 ,呈现明显的重复序列的特征。在间期核中 ,来自不同基因组的染色质占据不同的空间。我们认为 ,造成B基因组染色体非均匀杂交现象的主要原因 ,可能是因为该基因组中含有更为丰富的串联重复序列 ,B与Au、D基因组的差异也可能主要体现在重复序...

关键词: 小麦;基因组;DNA重复序列;亲缘关系;基因组原位杂交(CISH)

Abstract (Browse 2291)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on Soil Microbiotic Crust and Its Influences on Sand-fixing Vegetation in Arid Desert Region
Author: ZHANG Jing-Guang, WANG Xin-Ping, LIU Li-Chao, XIAO Hong-Lang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(9): 965-970
      
    

Based on secular fixed-site data in the artificial sand-fixing vegetation district at the southeast fringe of the Tengger Desert, the formative characteristics of soil microbiotic crusts and its influences on vegetation dynamics were analyzed. Once sand barrier and artificial vegetation have stabilized the surface of the sifting sand, could form aeolian deposition crust and then evolve into algae-dominated crust. Such processes result from the interactions of physical effects of atmospheric dust and silt deposition on sand surface, sinking and raindrop impact, and soil microorganism activities. Under the condition of less than 200 mm precipitation, the presence of microbiotic crust changes the soil hydraulic conductivity, alters the temporal and spatial distribution of the limited precipitation in sand layer and leads to the decline of deep-rooted shrubs. The development of microbiotic crust and subsurface soil affects the plant growth and seed rain distribution, as a result, the diversity of plant species gradually tend to become saturated and finally affects the vegetation stability.

干旱沙漠区土壤微生物结皮及其对固沙植被影响的研究
李新荣 张景光 王新平 刘立超 肖洪浪
(中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所沙坡头沙漠试验研究站,兰州730000)

摘要:在腾格里沙漠东南缘人工固沙植被区 ,采用已有的数据和长期的定位观测 ,分析了固沙植被区生物结皮的形成特点及其对植被动态的影响。流沙经过沙障固定和种植植物后 ,沙土表层形成风积物结皮 ,再演变成以藻类为优势种的微生物结皮 ,而这一过程是因沙物质得到固定后 ,大气降尘和粉粒在沙表层堆积、下沉 ,再经雨滴的冲击等物理作用和土壤微生物的活动共同作用的结果。在降水不足 2 0 0mm的条件下 ,结皮的形成改变了土壤水分的传导 ,有限的降水在沙土层中的时空分布发生了变化 ,使深根系的灌木逐渐衰退 ,浅根系的植物得到了发育。结皮和亚表层土的发育影响了植物的生长和种子雨的分布 ,使植物种的多样性渐趋于饱和状态 ,并最终影响到植被的稳定性。

关键词: 干旱沙漠地区;微生物结皮;固沙植被

Abstract (Browse 2524)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Complexity and Diversity of Typical Plant Communities Along the Northeast China Transect (NECT)
Author: LI Zhen-Qing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(9): 971-978
      
    

This study examine the notion of plant community complexity in a broad sense and develop a new measure based on the average length L(S) (L(S)=∑ qj=1p jl j ) of the communication-theoretical parsimonious code required to describe the community (S). Total complexity may be differentiated into organized and unorganized complexity. The author refers to Shannon-Wiener entropy H(S) (H(S)=-∑ qj=1 p j log 2 p j ) and Renyi entropy H 12 (S) (H α(S)=11-αlog 2∑ qj=1 p α j , where α =12) as “disorder-based complexity", L(S) as “total complexity" and the difference Δ(S)=L(S)-H(S) and Δ 12 (S)=L(S)-H 12 (S) as “structural complexity". The complexity and diversity of typical plant communities along the NECT (Northeast China Transect) were discussed. The results suggest that structural complexity is higher in the lightly grazed grassland than the heavily grazed grassland. Clearly, structural complexity and disorder-based diversity are not substitutes for one another and should be considered as autonomous, equally important properties. Δ 12(S) measures a community complexity distinct form the disorder-based complexity H 12 (S) .

中国东北样带(NECT)植物群落复杂性与多样性研究
李镇清
(中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093)

摘要:在更广的意义上考虑群落复杂性的概念 ,将群落总复杂性分解为基于无序的复杂性和结构复杂性。并以群落的两个原始数据———群落组分 (例如种群 )数和各组分个体的比例分布为基础 ,用描述群落的最小剩余码的平均码长L(S) =∑qj=1 pjlj (其中lj为物种S的相对多度的Huffman码字长度 ,q是物种数 ,pj 满足∑qj=1 pj=1)测度群落总复杂性。用Shannon_Wiener熵H(S) =-∑qj=1 pjlog2 pj和Renyi熵Hα(S) =11-αlog2 ∑qj=1 pαj (α =12 )测度基于无序的复杂性。将总复杂性和基于无序的复杂性之差Δ(S) =L(S) -H(S)和Δ12 (S) =L(S) -H12 (S)作为组织复杂性或群落结构复杂性的测度。研究了中国东北样带典型植物群落的α_多样性、总复杂性和结构复杂性及其沿中国东北样带的变化趋势。研究结果表明 ,干扰相对较少的围栏割草地群落具有较高的结构多样性 ,而一些过度放牧的极端退化草地的结构多样性都较低。表明Δ12 (S)测度的复杂性组分不同于基于无序的复杂性组分H12 (S) ,将Δ12 (S)作为群落结构多样性测度是合适的。

关键词: 中国东北样带;植物群落;多样性;复杂性;结构复杂性

Abstract (Browse 2118)  |  Full Text PDF       
Characteristic Change of Several Forest Landscapes Between 1896 and 1986 in Heilongjiang Province
Author: CHEN Xiong-Wen, ZHANG Xin-Shi, ZHOU Guang-Sheng, CHEN Jin-Zheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(9): 979-984
      
    

The 16 tree species on Northeast China Transect (NECT) were analyzed from the change of geographical distribution, frequency and dominance pattern and the spatial correlation at landscape scale in 1986 and 1994. Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc. and Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hemsl. had spread rapidly towards west and east, respectively. The frontier form of species had close relation with its movement. The patch size of Pinus koraiensis, Populus davidiana Dode., Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Juglans mandshurica Maxim., Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr., Betula dahurica Pall., Picea koraiensis Nakai, Abies nephrolepis Maxim. and Larix olgeusis var. koreana Nakai decreased, however, Quercus mongolica Fisch., Betula costata Trautv., Acer mono Maxim., Tilia spp., Ulmus spp., Betula platyphylla Suk. and Fraxinus rhynchophylla increased. The frequency pattern of Populus davidiana, Betula platyphylla, Fraxinus rhynchophylla and Betula dahurica changed significantly. The dominance pattern of Populus davidiana, Tilia spp., Juglans mandshurica, Betula platyphylla, Betula dahurica and Abies nephrolepis changed significantly. The spatial correlation between Quercus mongolica and Betula dahurica, Betula costata and Picea spp., Betula costata and Abies nephrolepis, Picea spp. and Abies nephrolepis declined, however, the spatial correlation between Larix spp. and Betula platyphylla, Acer mono and Ulmus spp. increased.

1896 年和1986年黑龙江省几种森林景观的特征变化
陈雄文
(中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态开放研究室,北京100093)

摘要:通过用地理信息系统软件对 1896和 1986年的黑龙江省的森林分布图中提取的 5种森林景观进行处理和计算得到 :在 90年中 ,云杉 (Picea)、冷杉 (Abies)林、樟子松 (Pinussylvestrisvar.mongolicaLitvin)林和阔叶红松 (PinuskoraieusisSieb .etZucc .)林斑块总面积分别减少 87%、40 %和 84%。北纬 5 1°以北地区阔叶林斑块面积增加 5 0 0 % ,北界向西北扩展约 2 90km。云杉、冷杉林和针阔混交林斑块在 1986年的斑块的分维数小于 1896年的斑块的分维数 ,而樟子松林、阔叶红松林和阔叶林的 1986年斑块分维数都分别大于 1896年的分维数。云杉、冷杉林、樟子松林、阔叶红松林和阔叶林景观破碎化增加。云杉、冷杉林 ,樟子松林和阔叶红松林转化为针阔混交林的比率大于各自保留的比率。

关键词: 森林景观;斑块;景观破碎化;景观转移比率;黑龙江省

Abstract (Browse 2320)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Genetic Transformation of Pueraria as Medicinal Plant by Agrobacterium rhizogenes
Author: Shu-Hong, LI Ling*, SHI He-Ping, PAN Rui-Chi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(9): 936-939
      
    

Pueraria radix (the dried root of Pueraria plant) is known as a traditional Chinese drug. Hairy roots of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, P.lobata var. montana and P. phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes (Riker et al .) Conn R1601 were developed directly from the surface of sterile leaves in vitro . The transformation frequency was 16.6%, 16.2% and 26.6%, respectively. All hairy roots in the three species displayed the typical phenotypes of rapid growth, highly branched and plagiotropism, and also exhibited hormone autotrophy and resistance to kanamycin.The genetic transformations were confirmed by opine paper electrophoretic analysis, rol gene PCR amplification and molecular hybridization.

发根土壤杆菌对葛属药用植物的遗传转化
刘传飞 于树宏 李玲*  施和平 潘瑞炽
(华南师范大学生物系,广州510631)

摘要:葛根是传统中药。利用发根土壤杆菌 (Agrobacteriumrhizogenes (Rikeretal.)Conn)R16 0 1转化野葛 (Puerarialobata (Willd .)Ohwi)、山葛 (P .lobatavar.montana)和三裂叶野葛 (P .phaseoloides (Roxb .)Benth .)离体叶片 ,在叶片表面直接形成毛状根。毛状根的诱导频率分别为 16 .6 %、16 .2 %和 2 6 .6 %。三种药用葛毛状根均表现出生长快、多分支、负向重力性的典型特征。毛状根离体培养均具有激素自主特性和抗卡那霉素特性 ,毛状根的冠瘿碱纸电泳、rol基因扩增及分子杂交实验均证实了其转基因性质。

关键词: 发根土壤杆菌;毛状根;遗传转化;药用葛

Abstract (Browse 2249)  |  Full Text PDF       
Construction of Genetic Fingerprints of Aneurolepidium chinensis Using Microsatellite Sequences
Author: LIU Jie, LIU Gong-She, QI Dong-Mei, LI Fang-Fang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(9): 985-987
      
    

The genetic fingerprints of Chinese wildrye ( Aneurolepidium chinensis (Trin.)Kitag) were constructed by Southern blot analysis of Ase Ⅰ-,Dra Ⅰ-,Eco RⅠ-,Hin dⅢ-,NcoⅠ-,MobⅠ-,RsaⅠ-,PstⅠ-, TaqⅠ- digested genomic DNA probed with synthesized oligonucleotide,(CT)8,(GCTA)4,(GGAT) 4 or(GACA) 4 .The difference between “Jisheng 4" and Chinese wildrye was shown by RFLP analysis of Dra Ⅰ-or Rsa Ⅰ- digested genomic DNAs probed with GCTA)4 .DNA fragments were obtained by PCR performed with genomic DNA of “Jisheng 4" as a template and(CT)8,(GCTA)4,(GGAT)4 or(GACA)4 as primer. Five size 2325,1455,876,774 and 299 bp fragments were amplified when (GGAT) 4 was used, indicating satisfied results were obtained.

用微卫星序列构建羊草遗传指纹图谱
刘杰 刘公社* 齐冬梅 李芳芳
(中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093)
关键词: 羊草;指纹图谱;SSR

Abstract (Browse 2067)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cloning and Expression of Human Pro-urokinase Gene in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002
Author: LUO Na, NING Ye, SHI Ding-Ji, ZHOU Xian-Wan, YU Mei-Min, RU Bing-Gen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2000 42(9): 931-935
      
    

Pro-urokinase (pro-UK) gene was ligated with promoter PpsbA and cloned into the integrative vector pTZ18-8, which contained a psbB gene fragment from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 as the integrative platform. The expression vector was transferred into Synechococcus sp.PCC 7002 via natural transformation. Transformants conferring ampicillin resistance were amplified and then analyzed. DNA dot blot and Western blot demonstrated the existence and expression of pro-UK gene. The supernatant from crude cell extract showed thrombolytic activity, indicating that the expression product did not form inclusion bodies. According to the results of ELISA, expression of pro-UK was about 2×10 -5 -3×10 -5 g per gram of wet cells.

人尿激酶原基因在聚球藻7002中的克隆和表达
罗娜1 宁叶1  施定基2  周先碗1 俞梅敏1 茹炳根1*

(1.  北京大学生命科学学院蛋白质工程及植物基因工程国家重点实验室,北京100971;
2. 中国科学院植物研究所光合作用研究中心,北京100093)

摘要:将人尿激酶原基因连在PpsbA启动子之后 ,再将启动子连同基因克隆入整合载体pTZ18中。pTZ18_8中含有一段来源于集胞藻 6 80 3的psbB基因片段作为整合平台。将整合表达载体用直接转化的方法转入聚球藻Syne chococcussp .PCC 70 0 2中。经氨苄青霉素筛选并扩大培养后的转化子进行DNA斑点印迹及Western印迹 ,证明了基因的存在及表达。菌体破碎后的上清液有较高的溶解纤维蛋白的活性 ,说明表达产物未形成包含体。经ELISA测定 ,表达量为每克鲜藻 2× 10 -5~ 3× 10 -5g蛋白。

关键词: 尿激酶原;溶栓剂;聚球藻7002;整合载体;基因工程

Abstract (Browse 2081)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

PROMOTIONS

    Photo Gallery
Scan with iPhone or iPad to view JIPB online
Scan using WeChat with your smartphone to view JIPB online
Editorial Office, Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, Institute of Botany, CAS
No. 20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093, China
Tel: +86 10 6283 6133 Fax: +86 10 8259 2636 E-mail: jipb@ibcas.ac.cn

Copyright © 2017 by the Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences
Online ISSN: 1744-7909 Print ISSN: 1672-9072 CN: 11-5067/Q