January 2001, Volume 43 Issue 1

 

          Research Articles
Isolation and Characterization of a Mitochondrial atp6 Gene from Soybean (Glycine max)
Author: HE Chao-Ying, WU Xiao-Lei, ZHANG Jin-Song, GAI Jun-Yi, CHEN Shou-Yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(1): 51-58
      
    

Mitochondrial ATPase (mtATPase) complex plays vital roles in higher plants. It consists of a few subunits. In the present study, a new copy of the mtATPase subunit 6 (EC 3.6.1.34) gene (atp6) was cloned and characterized from Glycine max (L.) Merr., which has the shortest opening reading frame of 223 amino acids in all organisms examined and designated as the atp6 copy3 (atp6 -3). PCR amplifications of the atp6-3 from 9 soybean cultivars combined with sequencing analysis suggested its wide occurrence in G. max. RFLP analysis of a RILs population implied that paternal inheritance of the atp6 -3 might occur in G. max at undetermined frequency. Under salicylic acid (SA)-treated condition, the expression of the atp6 gene was significantly inhibited. The possible role of this inhibition was discussed.

栽培大豆中一个线粒体atp6基因的分离与鉴定
贺超英1 吴晓雷1 张劲松1 盖钧镒2 陈受宜1*

(1. 中国科学院遗传研究所植物生物技术实验室,北京100101;2.  南京农业大学大豆研究所,南京210095)

摘要: 线粒体ATP酶 (mtATPase)复合体在高等植物生命活动中起重要作用。从栽培大豆 (Glycinemax (L .)Merr.)中分离鉴定了一个新的mtATPase第六亚基 (EC 3.6 .1.34 )基因 (atp6 ) ,它编码具 2 2 3个氨基酸的ATP6亚基 ,是所有已克隆的atp6基因中最短的一个 ,并把它命名为atp6 copy3(atp6-3)。通过对 9种栽培大豆的PCR分析及序列分析表明atp6-3广泛存在于栽培大豆中。以atp6-3为探针对大豆重组近交系的RFLP分析初步表明栽培大豆线粒体有父性遗传的可能性。水杨酸处理明显抑制atp6的表达 ,并对其可能作用进行了讨论。
关键词: 栽培大豆;线粒体)+,- 基因;负调控;水杨酸

Abstract (Browse 2229)  |  Full Text PDF       
Expression of TNF-α Gene in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and Purification of Its Product by Affinity Chromatography
Author: SHI Ding-Ji, YE Xin, ZHONG Hui, CAI Yi-Ying, SHAO Ning, PENG Guo-Hong, DONG Xiao-Jun, WANG Chun-Mei, OUYANG Ye-Xin, LI Zhen-Jia
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(1): 46-50
      
    

The effects of N (NaNO3) and C (NaAc) source in medium on the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) gene in transgenic Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 were compared. The data showed that N source stabilized the expression of foreign protein and C source altered the synthesis of cell walls. Comparing several methods for breaking the cells, supersonic was able to extract TNF-α better than others. For purification of TNF-α, transgenic Anabaena cells were broken, the extracts were precipitated with ammonia sulfate, and the impure TNF-α was eluted from DEAE ion exchange chromatography. Electrophoresis (PAGE-SDS) showed a single band at 17 kD position.

TNF-a基因在鱼腥藻7120中的表达及其产物的亲和层析纯化
施定基1*  叶 欣1,2 钟 晖 蔡以滢1 邵 宁1彭国宏4 董晓军3 王春梅1 欧阳叶新1 李振甲3

(1. 中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093;2. 中国科技大学生命科学学院,合肥230027;
3. 中国人民解放军#&! 医院,北京10085;2. 中国科学院海洋研究所,青岛266071)

摘要: 用转入TNF-a基因并稳定表达了4 年多的丝状体蓝藻———鱼腥藻7120(Anabaena sp.PCC7120),研究比较了在培养液中氮源(NaNO3)和碳源(NaAc)对转基因藻生长和TNF-a基因的不同影响。氮源能稳定外源蛋白的表达,而碳源则影响细胞壁的合成。通过比较几种不同的破碎细胞的方法,发现超声破碎得到的可溶性总蛋白含量和TNF-a含量均要比冻融法高出1 倍左右,经过细胞破碎、硫酸铵分级沉淀、常压离子交换液相层析后,除去杂蛋白及大量容易堵柱的糖类等物质,最后通过亲和柱层析,分离出了纯的目标蛋白———重组肿瘤坏死因子(TNF-a)。经凝胶电泳鉴定为单一的谱带,分子量为17 kD.

关键词: 肿瘤坏死因子a(TNF-a);转基因蓝藻(鱼腥藻7120);亲和层析

Abstract (Browse 2084)  |  Full Text PDF       
Evidence of Hydropassive Movement in Stomatal Oscillations of Glycyrrhiza inflata under Desert Conditions
Author: WANG Gen-Xuan, LIAO Jian-Xiong, WU Dong-Xiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(1): 41-45
      
    

Stomatal conductance was found to change from steady-state to a state of oscillations during daytime when vapour pressure deficit (VPD) increased to a value of 1 kPa in Glycyrrhiza inflata Batalin grown under the conditions of arid desert in north-west China. The injected metabolic inhibitors (NaN 3 or carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyl-hydrazone (CCCP)) slightly reduced the stomatal conductance but did not significantly decrease the intensity of stomatal oscillations (amplitude/average). The oscillation intensity was found to be significantly correlated with VPD and root resistance, but not with the respiration rate. There might exist a minimum threshold of VPD (0.8 kPa) and root resistance (1/4 relative value) that induced stomatal oscillations. These results suggested that stomatal oscillations induced by atmospheric drought stress and root resistance were mainly a type of hydropassive movement.

荒漠条件下甘草气孔振荡的水被动证据
王根轩1* 廖建雄1 吴冬秀2

(1. 兰州大学干旱农业生态国家重点实验室,兰州730000;2.  河南大学生物系,开封475001)

摘要: 生长在中国西北干旱荒漠的甘草(Glycyrrhiza inflata Batalin), 当白天大气水蒸汽压差(VPD)高于1 kPa 时,其气孔导度随时间的变化趋势为从稳态转为振荡态。通过茎木质部注射代谢抑制剂(NaN3或羰基氰化物-间-氯苯腙(CCCP))使气孔导度有些微降低,但是并不能显著改变气孔振荡强度(振幅/平均值)。气孔振荡强度与VPD和根阻力显著相关,但与呼吸速率无明显相关。在荒漠条件下,当VPD大于0.8 kPa和至少存在1/4全根阻力的条件下才可能出现气孔振荡。结果说明荒漠干旱条件诱发的甘草气孔振荡可能主要是一种水被动过程。

关键词: 气孔振荡;甘草;水被动;气孔导度;水蒸汽压差

 

Abstract (Browse 2222)  |  Full Text PDF       
Characterization of Energy-Transduction in Thermal Pretreated Chloroplast from Spinach
Author: PENG Jiang-Xin, WAN Chang-Zhao, ZOU Yong-Long, CHEN Gen-Yun, QIAN Yue-Qin, YUAN Qin WANG Guo-Qiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(1): 29-35
      
    

Characterization of energy-transduction on the chloroplast thylakoid membranes from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) after thermal pretreatment was investigated. The related reactions of energy-transduction in chloroplasts were seriously affected by thermal pretreatment. The results were obtained as following: (1) The rate of cyclic photophosphorylation declined when the pretreatment temperature increased in the range of 25 to 45 ℃. (2) The thermal pretreatment led to a decrease of the activity of thylakoid membrane-bounded ATPase. (3) Proton uptake of chloroplasts and the fluorescence quenching of 9-aminoacridine (9-AA) in thylakoid membrane decreased after the thermal pretreatment, but addition of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) could partially restore the fluorescence quenching of 9-AA. (4) Both the rates of fast phase in electrochroism absorption change at 515 nm and the millisecond delayed light emission (ms-DLE) of chloroplast showed a progressive decrease upon raising the temperature of pretreatment. (5) Immunbloting analysis showed that the thermal pretreatment caused the changes of protein content and the electrophoresis mobility of thylakoid membrane-bound ATPase and its α-subunit. (6) If the temperature of pretreatment were higher than 33 ℃, oxygen uptake of PSⅠ -mediated in the samples was rapidly inhibited, but addition of sinapine into the reaction medium could partially restore the ability of oxygen uptake in the samples. These results are briefly discussed in relation to the change of permeability of thylakoid membranes, the dissociation of coupling factor complex as well as accumulation of the radicals in the thylakoid membranes after thermal pretreatment.

热预处理菠菜叶绿体的能量转换特征
彭建新1万常照2邹永龙1 陈根云1 钱月琴1 袁勤2王国强1*

(1. 中国科学院上海植物生理研究所,上海200032;2. 上海市农业科学研究院作物研究所,上海201160)

墒要: 经热预处理(温度为25~45 ℃,部分实验为20~36 ℃,时间为5~10 min)的菠菜(Spinacia oleracea L.)叶绿体,严重影响其能量转换的各步反应。⑴循环光合磷酸化速率随处理温度增高而下降。⑵类囊体膜上腺三磷酶失活。⑶光照诱导叶绿体的质子吸收减小;叶绿体的9_氨基吖啶(9_AA)荧光猝灭减弱,但加二环己基碳二亚胺(DCCD)可以部分恢复9_AA荧光猝灭。⑷叶绿体的延迟发光和ΔA515 nm电色效应均出现明显变化。⑸免疫印迹反应结果表明,经45 ℃预处理叶绿体的膜上腺三磷酶出现解离,其α亚单位的蛋白量明显减少。⑹预处理温度超过33 ℃,叶绿体光系统Ⅰ介导的氧吸收速率也下降,在反应介质中加芥子碱可以部分恢复其氧吸收能力。就这些结果与膜透性变化、耦联因子复合物解离和自由基积累的关系进行了讨论。

关键词: 菠菜;叶绿体;热预处理;能量转换;类囊体膜透性;耦联因子复合物

Abstract (Browse 2031)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ornithine Pathway in Proline Biosynthesis Activated by Salt Stress in Barley Seedlings
Author: ZHAO Fu-Geng, SUN Cheng, LIU You-Liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(1): 36-40
      
    

14 C-glutamate and 14 C-arginine were spreaded on leaves of six-day old barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings that were treated with NaCl 200 mmol/L. The result showed that the pathway of arginine→ornithine→proline existed in the six-day old barley seedlings and was provoked remarkably by NaCl treatment. After seven days, proline accumulation contributed via the arginine→ornithine→proline pathway was 1.0-1.5 folds of that via the glutamate→proline pathway. The activation of arginine→ornithine→proline pathway by salt stress in the salt-tolerant cultivar “Jian 4" was 1.7-2.0 folds of that in the salt-sensitive cultivar “KP 7", which suggested that the activation of arginine→ornithine→proline pathway in barley seedlings played an important role in improving salt tolerance of plants.

盐胁迫激活大麦幼苗脯氨酸合成的鸟氨酸途径
赵福庚 孙诚 刘友良*

(南京农业大学农学系,农业部作物生长调控重点开放实验室,南京210095)

摘要: 200 mmol/L NaCl处理结合14C-Glu和14C-Arg叶面饲喂6 d龄大麦(Hordeum vulgare L.)幼苗,结果证明6 d龄大麦幼苗体内普遍存在Arg(谷氨酸)→Orn(鸟氨酸)→Pro(脯氨酸)途径。盐胁迫明显激活了Arg→Orn→Pro途径,胁迫处理7 d,大麦幼苗叶片和根系中该途径对Pro含量上升的贡献是Glu→Pro途径的1.0~1.5倍。耐盐的“鉴4” 品种Arg→Orn→Pro途径对Pro含量上升的贡献是对盐敏感的“科品7号” 的1.7~2.0倍,结果表明盐胁迫下Arg→Orn→Pro途径的激活对大麦幼苗耐盐性的提高具有重要意义。

关键词: 脯氨酸;鸟氨酸途径;盐胁迫;大麦幼苗

Abstract (Browse 2277)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes in Inhibitory Effect of Vanadate on the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase Under Trypsin Treatment
Author: QIU Quan-Sheng, ZHANG Nan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(1): 24-28
      
    

The changes in inhibitory effect of vanadate on the plasma membrane H + ATPase were studied with mild trypsin treatment using plasma membrane vesicles purified from soybean (Glycine max L.)hypocotyles by sucrose gradient centrifugation. Results showed that under mild trypsin treatment the ATPase ATP hydrolysis activity was increased significantly. It was also found that the inhibitory effect of vandate was reduced after proteolysis. In the presence of 2 mmol/L vanadate, the ATP hydrolysis activity of the cleaved ATPase was inhibited by only 53.49%,while that of the un-cleaved ATPase was inhibited by 64.13%. Kinetic studies indicated that both the Km values and the inhibition type of vanadate were not affected by trypsin treatment. Upon proteolysis, Km remained as 0.34 mmol/L,while vanadate was still an uncompetitive inhibitor. Taking together, the structure and activity of the ATPase phosphatase domain were affected by trypsin treatment, implying that this domain might be regulated by the C-terminal end of the plasma membrane H+ ATPase.

胰蛋白酶处理对质膜H+-ATPase钒酸钠抑制效应的影响
邱全胜* 张楠
(北京师范大学生命科学学院,北京100875)

采用经蔗糖密度梯度法纯化的大豆(Glycine max L.)下胚轴质膜微囊为材料,分析了胰蛋白酶处理对质膜H+-ATPase钒酸钠抑制效应的影响。实验结果显示,温和胰蛋白酶处理显著提高H+-ATPase的ATP水解活力。并且发现酶切处理降低了钒酸钠对ATPase 的抑制效应,当钒酸钠浓度为2 mmol/L时,ATPase活力仅被抑制53.49%,而未经酶切的对照组则被抑制64.13%。ATP水解动力学分析表明,胰蛋白酶酶切处理既不影响ATP水解的Km值也不影响钒酸钠的抑制类型,酶切前后的Km值都等于0.34 mmol/L,并且都属于反竞争抑制。以上结果显示胰蛋白酶酶切处理可能改变了磷酸酶结构域的结构而影响了钒酸钠的抑制效应,暗示C-末端调节着磷酸酶结构域的结构和功能。

关键词: 大豆下胚轴;质膜H+-ATPase C-末端自抑制结构域;磷酸酶结构域;钒酸钠;胰蛋白酶

Abstract (Browse 2184)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Possible Mechanism of Photoinhibition of Purified PSI Complexes
Author: WEI Jie, YU Hui, LI Liang-Bi, KUANG Ting-Yun, WANG Ju-Shuo, GONG Yan-Dao, ZHAO Nan-Ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(1): 18-23
      
    

The protecting effect of histidine on the photodamage of pigments and proteins of the isolated PSⅠ particles from the chloroplast of Spinacia oleracea L. during the strong illumination (2 300 μmol·m-2·s-1) was studied by spectroscopy and SDS-PAGE. The absorbance of PSⅠ particles decreased during the strong illumination treatment, but the decrease would be slowed down in the presence of externally added histidine after 30 min illumination. The decrease of CD (circular dichroism)signal intensities of PSⅠ particles also was slowed down by the added histidine after about 10 min illumination. The retarded protecting effect of the added histidine on the photobleaching of pigments of PSⅠ complexes implied that the mechanisms of photoinhibition of isolated PSⅠ complexes are different from early stage to later stage during the strong illumination treatment. In addition, the added histidine suppressed the decrease of 77 K fluorescence yield of PSⅠ particles during the illumination. SDS-PAGE showed that the added histidine not only protected the reaction center proteins of PSⅠ particles, but also protected other subunits of PSⅠ particles from degradation.

PS I颗粒光抑制的可能机理
魏捷1余辉1李良璧1 匡廷云1* 王居硕2  公衍道2  赵南明2

(1.中国科学院植物研究所光合作用基础研究开放实验室,北京100093;2.  清华大学生物科学与技术系,北京100084)

摘要:从菠菜 (Spinaciaoleracea L .)叶绿体中提取的PSⅠ颗粒中加入不同浓度的组氨酸 ,利用光谱和SDS_PAGE技术研究了强光 ( 2 30 0 μmol·m-2 ·s-1)处理过程中外加组氨酸对色素和多肽光破坏进程的影响。强光处理可以使PSⅠ颗粒的光吸收减小 ,在照光 30min后外加组氨酸有效地抑制了光吸收减小的趋势。外加组氨酸在照光约 10min后对PSⅠ颗粒CD信号的下降也起到了明显的抑制作用。外加组氨酸对PSⅠ颗粒中色素保护作用的这种延迟现象表明 ,在强光照初期和后期PSⅠ颗粒光抑制的机理可能不同。外加组氨酸还可以有效地抑制光照过程中PSⅠ颗粒 77K荧光产量的下降。SDS_PAGE分析结果发现 ,外加组氨酸在光照过程中不但对PSⅠ颗粒的反应中心蛋白可以起到保护作用 ,对其他多肽组分同样有显著的保护作用
关键词:PS I色素蛋白复合体;光抑制;组氨酸;光谱

Abstract (Browse 2015)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Extracellular Calmodulin on the Cytosolic Ca2+ Concentration in Lily Pollen Grains
Author: SHANG Zhong-Lin, MA Li-Geng, WANG Xue-Chen, SUN Da-Ye
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(1): 12-17
      
    

Using Lilium davidii Duchartre pollen as material, the calcium ion-fluorescence indicator fluo-3AM was loaded successfully into the pollen grains by low temperature loading method. Laser confocal scanning microscopy was used to study the effect of extracellular calmodulin on intracellular calcium. It is found that the purified exogenous calmodulin could elevate the intracellular calcium ion concentration, and the effect was correlated with the concentration of exogenous calmodulin to a certain extent. Cell membrane nonpermeable inhibitor of calmodulin, W 7-agarose, and the anti-serum of calmodulin could decrease the cytosolic calcium level. The results show that the endogenous extracellular calmodulin may play an important role in maintaining and increasing the cytosolic calcium level in pollen grain cell.

细胞外钙调素对百合花粉细胞内钙离子浓度的影响
尚忠林1,2 马力耕1 王学臣2 孙大业1*

(1.河北师范大学生命科学学院,石家庄050016;2. 农业部植物生理生化重点开放实验室,北京1000094)

摘要:以川百合 (Liliumdavidii Duchartre)花粉为材料 ,利用低温装载法在完整花粉粒中成功地装载了酯化形式的钙离子荧光指示剂fluo-3AM ,利用激光共聚焦显微技术研究了细胞外钙调素对细胞内游离钙离子浓度的影响。结果发现外源纯化钙调素可以使细胞内游离钙离子的浓度升高 ,在一定范围内促进效果与钙调素浓度呈正相关。不能透过细胞膜的钙调素拮抗剂W7-agarose和植物钙调素抗血清处理都可以使花粉细胞质中游离钙离子浓度降低 ,表明内源细胞外钙调素可能在维持和促进花粉细胞质中游离钙离子方面具有重要作用

关键词: 川百合;花粉;细胞外钙调素;游离钙离子;低温装载;激光共聚焦显微术

Abstract (Browse 2458)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Rewarding Fifteen Years: From SLG to SCR/SP11
Author: CUI Hai-Yang, LAI Zhao, XUE Yong-Biao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(1): 1-5
      
    

Selfincompatibility (SI) is a major genetic mechanism to prevent selffertilization in flowering plants and, in most cases, controlled by a single multiallelic locus, known as the S locus. In Brassica, the genes mediating both stylar (SRK, S receptor kinase) and pollen (SCR/SP11, S locus cystein rich protein/S locus protein 11) expression of selfincompatible reaction have been characterized though the first S locus-encoded gene, SLG (S locus glycoprotein), was isolated nearly fifteen years ago. These findings have finally unveiled the molecular partners in pollen recognition during selfincompatible reaction in Brassica.

值得的十五年———从SLGSCR/SP11

崔海洋 赖钊 薛勇彪*

(中国科学院发育生物学研究所,北京100080)

关键词: 显花植物;自交不亲和性;" 位点基因;芸苔属;花粉识别

Abstract (Browse 2104)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genetic and Microsatellite Analyses of a New Elongated Uppermost Internode Gene Teui2 of Rice
Author: YANG Shu-Lan, YANG Ren-Cui, QU Xue-Ping, ZHANG Qing-Qi, HUANG Rong-Hua, WANG Bin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(1): 67-71
      
    

Two mutants possessing elongated uppermost internode, Xieqingzao eB-1 (XQZeB-1) and Xieqingzao eB-2 (XQZeB-2), were identified from M 2 population of Xieqingzao B-line (XQZB) treated with γ-ray. The proportion of uppermost internode length to entire culm length of XQZeB-2 and XQZeB-1 were 65.3%and 54.8%, respectively. Compared with the original XQZB, the increased length of uppermost internode of XQZeB-2 contributed to the total increased culm length by 90.2% as well as XQZeB-1 by 53.3%. Genetic analysis showed that the characters of elongated uppermost internode in the two mutants were governed by one pair of recessive gene respectively. The recessive gene of XQZeB-1 is allelic to the reported eui , but that of XQZeB-2 is non-allelic to it by allelic test. Therefore, the elongated-uppermost-internode gene of XQZeB-2 is a new gene, designated as eui2. Microsatellite markers RM258, RM269, RM271 and RM304, which were linked with eui2 and located on chromosome 10, were identified. The genetic distances from the four markers to eui2 were 12.0 cM, 12.9 cM, 35.1 cM, 1.4 cM, respectively. It could be concluded that eui2 gene was located on the middle of the long arm of chromosome 10.

水稻长穗颈高秆隐性基因eui2 的遗传及其微卫星分析
杨蜀岚1杨仁崔1* 曲雪萍2章清杞1 黄荣华1王斌2

(1福建农业大学作物遗传育种研究所,福州350002;2. 中国科学院遗传研究所,北京100101)

摘要: 从水稻 (Oryzasativa L .)协青早B的辐射M2 群体中获得以最上节间伸长为特征的长穗颈高秆突变系协青早eB-1和协青早eB-2 ,与原品系协青早B的秆性状相比 ,协青早eB-2的第一节间长占总秆长的 6 5 .3% ,其第一节间的增长量占秆长总增长量的 90 .2 % ;协青早eB-1的第一节间长占总秆长的 5 4.8% ,其第一节间的增长量占秆长总增长量的 5 3.3%。遗传分析表明 :协青早eB_1和协青早eB-2中的长穗颈高秆性状各由一对隐性基因控制 ,二者之间互不等位。与已报道的eui基因的等位性测验表明 :协青早eB_2的eui基因与其不等位 ,为新的长穗颈高秆隐性基因 ,命名为eui2 ;协青早eB-1的eui基因则与其等位。微卫星分析表明 :eui2基因与第 10染色体的RM2 5 8、RM2 6 9、RM2 71和RM30 4连锁 ,其遗传距离分别为 12 .0cM、12 .9cM、35 .1cM、1.4cM。由此推断 ,eui2基因位于第 10染色体长臂的中部

关键词: 水稻;eui;遗传;微卫星标记;杂交稻

Abstract (Browse 2433)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Structural Transformation of Nucleolar DNA and Its Arrangement in Nucleolus of Allium cepa Cells
Author: TAO Wei, ZHANG Li-Yong, HUANG Bai-Qu, JIAO Ming-Da, HE Meng-Yuan, HAO Shui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(1)
      
    

By using the DNA specific cytochemical staining method (NAMA-Ur) and conventional electron microscopic technique, the authors examined the configuration of intranucleolar DNA in Allium cepa L. cells and found that nucleolar DNA within the fibrillar center (FC) underwent a structural transformation process from condensed to extended state. The authors' observations also displayed a continuous arrangement process of nucleolar DNA, i.e., the extranucleolar DNA entered FC through the nucleolar organizer region (NOR) channel, then extended to the periphery of FC or to the border between FC and dense fibrillar component (DFC), and distributed along the periphery of FC. Thence, by passing through the NOR channel between FCs, the nucleolar DNA continued to transfer to other FCs and arranged in the same above-mentioned forms.

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Abstract (Browse 2159)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chemical Constituents from Fruits of Rosa davidii
Author: CHEN Feng-Zheng, PENG Shu-Lin, DING Li-Sheng, HE Yong-Hua, WANG Ming-Kui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(1): 101-104
      
    

From the fruit of Rosa davidii Crep., eleven compounds were isolated and identified by spectral evidence, viz. 2α,3β,19β-trihydroxyl-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (1), 2α,3β-dihydroxyl-urs-28(13)-lactone (2), arjunic acid (3), euscaphic acid (4), 2α,3β-dihydroxyl-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (5), oleanolic acid (6), kaempferol (7), tiliroside (8), quercetin (9), daucosterol (10) and β-sitosterol (11). Among them, 1 and 2 were new compounds.

西北蔷薇果实化学成分的研究
陈封政 彭树林 丁立生 何永华 王明奎*

(中国科学院成都生物研究所,成都610041)


摘要:从西北蔷薇(Rosa davidii Crep.)果实中分得11个化合物,经波谱方法鉴定为:2α,3β,19β_三羟基_齐墩果烷-12-烯-28-酸 (1)、 2α,3β-二羟基-乌苏烷-28(13)-内酯 (2)、 arjunic acid (3)、 蔷薇酸 (4)、 2α,3β-二羟基乌苏酸 (5)、齐墩果酸 (6)、山奈素 (7)、 tiliroside (8)、槲皮素 (9)、胡萝卜甙 (10)和β-谷甾醇 (11)。其中1和2为首次发现的新化合物。

关键词: 西北蔷薇;化学成分;2α,3β,19β-三羟基-齐墩果烷-12-烯-28-酸;2α,3β二羟基-乌苏烷-28.(13)-内酯

Abstract (Browse 2211)  |  Full Text PDF       
Influence of Different Stocking Rates on Plant Diversity of Artemisia frigida Community in Inner Mongolia Steppe
Author: WANG Shi-Ping, LI Yong-Hong, WANG Yan-Fen, CHEN Zuo-Zhong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(1): 89-96
      
    

The experiment was conducted in Inner Mongolia steppe located in 43°26′-44° 08′N, 116°04′-117°05′ E in 1989-1997. The grazing experiment design was 5 stocking rates (0.00, 1.33, 2.67, 4.00, 5.33 and 6.67 sheep·hm-2, but 0.00, 1.33, 2.00, 2.67, 3.33 and 4.00 sheep·hm-2 in 1990) with three 1 hm2 rotational paddocks per treatment. The sheep were Inner Mongolia fine sheep and the experiment was performed during warm seasons every year from May 20 to October 5. The objectives were to research the integrated influence of different stocking rates on plant diversity and to provide knowledge of its mechanism by the method of continuous monitoring of 8 years for the same grazing experiment rather than through spatial gradient.The results showed that using the method of 100 m sample line was suitable for estimating the abundance of plant species. Simpson index and evenness were better parameters to measure the influence of different stocking rates on plant diversity for Artemisia frigida community. The plant species abundance almost remained unchanged, but the plant diversity and evenness decreased as the stocking rate increased, and the community dominance increased with stocking rate during the 8 years' grazing under different stocking rates. The interaction of the preferred ingestion of grazing sheep with heavy stocking rate may be one of the key reasons resulting in the decrease of plant diversity and evenness. Grass proportion decreased with the increase of stocking rates and A. frigida community degraded further into Potentilla acaulis community under heavy grazing or over-grazing. The succession and plant diversity of A. frigia community under different stocking rates mainly depend on the dynamics of A. frigida, Cleistogenes squarrosa, Potentilla acaulis, Agropyron cristatum and Carex duriuscula populations; Cleistogenes squarrosa population is one of the 3 populations of maximum abundance under all stocking rates from 1989 to 1997.

不同放牧率对内蒙古冷蒿草原植物多样性的影响
汪诗平 李永宏 王艳芬 陈佐忠
(中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学开放实验室,北京100093)

摘要: 以 8年 ( 1989~ 1997)定位的放牧试验数据为基础 ,较全面分析了不同放牧率对冷蒿 (Artemisiafrigida)草原植物多样性和草场异质性的影响 ,并从内蒙古细毛羊选择性采食和植物适应策略的角度探讨其影响机制。研究发现 ,在进行冷蒿小禾草草原的物种丰富度调查时 ,10 0m的样线法是可行的 ;在探讨放牧对群落多样性的影响时 ,Simpson多样性指数和均匀度指数对放牧率大小的变化更敏感。经过连续 8年的放牧 ,不同放牧率对物种丰富度的影响不大 ,但植物多样性和均匀度随放牧率的增大而下降 ,群落优势度却随放牧率增大而增大 ;内蒙古细毛羊的选择性采食和较高放牧率的互作是导致植物多样性和均匀度下降及群落优势度上升的主要原因。冷蒿、糙隐子草(Cleistogenes squarrosa)、星毛委陵菜(Potentilla acaulis)、冰草( Agropyron cristatum)和寸草苔( Carex duriusula)在不同放牧率下的种群消长决定了冷蒿草原的放牧演退规律和植物多样性大小;尽管内蒙古细毛羊较喜食糙隐子草,但其种群在所有放牧率下均是多度最大的$ 个种群之一。

关键词: 内蒙古草原;冷蒿群落;放牧率;植物多样性

Abstract (Browse 2336)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Water Balance in Three Dominant Plants with Simulated Precipitation Change in Maowusu Sandland
Author: XIAO Chun-Wang, ZHOU Guang-Sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(1): 82-88
      
    

The distribution pattern and productivity of Maowusu sandland terrestrial ecosystem are greatly affected with the future severe global change, especially global precipitation change. Considering the predicative global precipitation change and the appropriate relevant strategy for the sustainable development of the China dry territory, the authors have investigated the response of water balance to global precipitation change by creating an artificial control of four levels of water supply treating 3 dominant plants in Mauwusu sandland. The results showed that the seasonal changes of water storage and moisture of different sandland layer depths were affected by different water supply treatments and different plants. The water storage of the three plant growing sandlands and the moisture of different sandland layer depths increased as water supply was increased. The moisture of different water supply treatments and plants increased with the increase of sandland layer depth. The water storage and moisture of the same layer depth of Hedysarum mongolicum Turcz. growing sandland were larger than that of Salix psammophila C. Wang et Ch. Y. Yang growing sandland, which were in turn higher than that of Artemisia ordosica Krasch. growing sandland in the same water supply treatment. Water supply significantly affected the seasonal changes of evaporation and transpiration of the three plant growing sandlands. With the increased levels of water supply, viz. 157.5 mm, 315.0 mm, 472.5 mm and 630.0 mm, the total evaporation was 123.66 mm, 258.68 mm, 376.30 mm, 458.57 mm, respectively, and the total transpiration of A. ordosica was 50.80 mm, 68.93 mm, 108.39 mm, 163.36 mm, respectively, and that of S. psammophila , 47.37 mm, 68.17 mm, 93.65 mm, 135.97 mm, respectively, and that of H. mongolicum 46.73 mm, 67.37 mm, 86.07 mm, 109.64 mm, respectively. Evaporation was significantly higher than transpiration in the experiment.

毛乌素沙地3种优势植物对模拟降水量变化的水分平衡研究
肖春旺 周广胜
(中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学开放研究实验室,北京100093)

摘要:未来全球变化,尤其降水变化的进一步加剧,将对毛乌素沙地陆地生态系统分布格局和生产力带来巨大影响。为了预测未来变化,提出合理的对应策略,实验选择毛乌素沙地3种优势灌木、半灌木为研究对象,人工控制4种降水量水平来探讨水分平衡对全球降水量变化的响应。结果表明,沙地蓄水量和不同沙层深度含水量季节变化明显受到不同施水量和3种植物种类的影响。3种植物沙地蓄水量和不同深度沙层含水量随着施水量的增加逐渐增大,并且不同施水量和植物沙地含水量随深度增加逐渐增大。在同一施水量处理下的蓄水量和同一深度含水量均大体为杨柴(Hedysarum mongolicum Turcz.)>沙柳(Salix psammophila C.Wang et Ch.Y.Yang)>油蒿(Artemisia ordosica Krasch.);3种植物的蒸发量和蒸腾量季节变化明显受到施水量的影响。随着施水量的增加,即157.5、315.0、472.5和630.0 mm,蒸发总量依次为123.66、258.68、376.30、458.57 mm;蒸腾总量,油蒿分别为50.80、68.93、108.39、163.36 mm;沙柳分别为47.37、68.17、93.65、135.97 mm;杨柴分别为46.73、67.37,86.07、109.64 mm。蒸发量显著大于蒸腾量。

关键词: 全球变化;模拟降水量;毛乌素沙地;优势植物;水分平衡

Abstract (Browse 2206)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Genetic Analysis of Arabidopsis Mutants with Low-K+ Tolerance
Author: ZHAO Shu-Qing, LIN Chun, YANG Xiao-He, WU Wei-Hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(1): 105-107
      
    

Ethyl methane-sulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized Arabidopsis M2 populations were screened in low-K+ medium using the root-bending assay. Forty-two putative low-K+-tolerant ( lkt ) mutants were selected from 150?000 tested M2 seedlings, and two of these mutants maintained their low-K+-tolerant phenotype in their M3 generations, respectively. Genetic analysis showed that either one of these two mutants has a monogenic recessive mutation in a nuclear gene, and that the two mutations in two independent mutants are allelic to each other.

拟南芥耐低钾突变体的筛选及遗传分析
赵淑清* 林春* 杨小贺 武维华**

(中国农业大学生物学院植物科学系,农业部植物生理生化开放实验室,北京100094)

摘要: 利用乙酰甲基磺酸(EMS)诱变方法,以幼苗根在重力作用下的弯曲生长为指标,筛选得到了拟南芥(Arabidopsis thaliana)耐低钾突变体。经过对突变体杂交后代的遗传分析证明,其中两株突变体的耐低钾性状为隐性单基因突变所致。鉴定、分离与植物耐低钾性状连锁的基因将有可能对培育钾高效作物品种有重要意义。

关键词: 拟南芥;耐低钾;突变体

Abstract (Browse 2143)  |  Full Text PDF       
New Steroidal Glycosides from Ophiopogon japonicus
Author: DAI Hao-Fu, ZHOU Jun, TAN Ning-Hua, DING Zhong-Tao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(1): 97-100
      
    

Two new C 27 steroidal glycosides, named ophiopojaponin A (1) and B (2), together with two known ones, were isolated from the tubers of the famous traditional Chinese herb Ophiopogon japonicus Ker-Gawl. The spectroscopic and chemical evidence revealed their structures to be pennogenin 3-O-[2′-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→2)]-β-D-xylopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(22ξ, 25R)-3β,14α,22ξ, 26-tetrahydroxyfurost-5-ene 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside(2), diosgenin 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→2)]-β-D-xylopyrano-syl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranoside (3) and ruscogenin 1-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→2)]-β-D-xylopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-fucopyranoside (4).

川麦冬中的新C27甾体甙
戴好富1 周俊1*  谭宁华1丁中涛2

(1. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所植物化学开放实验室,昆明650204;2.  云南大学化学系,昆明650091)

摘要: 从百合科植物川麦冬(Ophiopogon japonicus Ker_Gawl.)块根中分离得到4个C27甾体甙类化合物,其中两个为新化合物:ophiopojaponin A (1)和B (2)。它们的结构通过波谱和化学方法鉴定为:pennogenin 3-O-[2′-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→2)]-β-D-xylopyranosyl (1→3-β-D_glucopyranoside (1), 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(22ξ, 25R)-3β, 14α, 22ξ, 26-tetrahydroxyfurost-5-ene 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), diosgenin 3-O-[α-L_rhamnopyranosyl (1→2)]-β-D-xylopyrano-syl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranoside (3) and ruscogenin 1-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→2)]-β-D-xylopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-fucopyranoside (4)。

关键词: 川麦冬;百合科;C27甾体甙

Abstract (Browse 2004)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Expression Analysis of Two cDNAs Encoding C4H Homologues from Gossypium arboreum
Author: LUO Ping, WANG Guo-Dong, CHEN Xiao-Ya
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(1): 77-81
      
    

Two cDNAs encoding cinnamate 4-hydroxylase homologues were isolated from Gossypium arboreum L. by PCR-mediated method using a primer based on a conserved region of plant cytochrome P450. The two cotton P450s belong to the subfamily of CYP73A, and were named CYP73A25 and CYP73A26, respectively. Both the cDNAs encode proteins of 505 amino acid residues, showing 91.3% sequence identity with each other. Their sequence identities with C4Hs of other dicotyledon plants may be as high as 90%. RT-PCR analysis indicated that CYP73A26 was clearly expressed in sepals, petals, peels and seeds during development. For CYP73A25, while a significant level of transcripts was detected in sepals, petals and peels, the level in developing seeds was either weak, or undetectable.

亚洲棉C4H同源cDNA的分离和表达特征分析
骆萍 王国栋 陈晓亚*

(中国科学院上海生命科学研究院植物生理生态研究所,植物分子遗传国家重点实验室,上海200032)

摘要: 根据P45 0保守序列设计简并引物 ,从亚洲棉 (Gossypiumarboreum L .)cDNA文库中分离到两个肉桂酸-4-羟化酶 (C4H)同源cDNA克隆。这两个棉花P45 0被划分到CYP73A亚族中 ,分别被命名为CYP73A2 5和CYP73A2 6。它们各编码 5 0 5个氨基酸残基 ,彼此之间的氨基酸序列同源性为 91.3%。它们与其他植物C4H的同源性高达 90 %以上。RT_PCR分析表明 ,CYP73A2 6在棉花的花瓣、花萼果皮及发育种子中均有较高水平的表达。CYP73A2 5在花瓣、花萼和果皮中有较强表达 ,而在种子中表达很弱
 

关键词: 肉桂酸-4-羟化酶;棉花;亚洲棉;P450

Abstract (Browse 2108)  |  Full Text PDF       
Obtainment of Transgenic Tobacco Harboring phbA, phbB and phbC Genes by Twice Transformation
Author: ZHANG Jing-Yu, YE Liang, LI Li, SONG Yan-Ru
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(1): 59-62
      
    

To avoid the long time required for conventional sexual crossing, transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants harboring phbA gene (encoding 3-ketothiolase) were used as the target plant for the second transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith et Townsend) Conn LBA4404 containing pZCB which was constructed by linking phbB (encoding acetoacetyl-CoA reductase), phbC (encoding PHB synthase) and ctp sequence to pBIB-HYG under the control of CaMV 35S promoter. The hygromycin resistant transformants were morphologically normal and stable integration of phbB and phbC was confirmed by PCR and PCR-Southern. Moreover, RT-PCR-DNA hybridization analysis showed that 6.67% of the transformed tobacco plants could express both phbB and phbC at transcriptional level.

二次转化获得整合phbA、PhB、phbC 基因的转基因烟草
张景昱 叶梁 李丽 宋艳茹*

(中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093)

摘要: 有导肽序列的phbB(编码乙酰乙酰CoA还原酶)和phbC(编码PHB合酶)连入pBIB_HYG得到组成型表达载体pZCB, 用冻融法转入根癌土壤杆菌(Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith et Townsend) Conn)并由其介导转化已整合且表达phbA(编码3-硫裂解酶)基因并具有卡那霉素抗性的转基因烟草(Nicotiana tabacum L.)。通过二次转化可避开传统杂交育种,在5个月内获得整合PHB合成所需3个基因的转基因烟草。所获转基因植株表型正常, 经PCR、PCR-outhern、RT-CR-NA杂交检测确定有50株烟草稳定整合phbB、phbC基因,其中6.67%的植株可在转录水平表达双基因。

关键词: 聚羟基丁酸酯;二次转化;转基因烟草

Abstract (Browse 2154)  |  Full Text PDF       
Relationship Between Drought Resistance and Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase in the Shoots of Different Genotypic Wheat and Sorghum
Author: ZHAO Shu-Qing, LIN Chun, YANG Xiao-He, WU Wei-Hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(1): 108-110
      
    

Ethyl methane-sulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized Arabidopsis M2 populations were screened in low-K+ medium using the root-bending assay. Forty-two putative low-K+-tolerant ( lkt ) mutants were selected from 150?000 tested M2 seedlings, and two of these mutants maintained their low-K+-tolerant phenotype in their M3 generations, respectively. Genetic analysis showed that either one of these two mutants has a monogenic recessive mutation in a nuclear gene, and that the two mutations in two independent mutants are allelic to each other.

不同基因型小麦和高梁的抗旱性与其种芽甜菜碱醛脱氢酶的关系
骆爱玲1刘家尧1马德钦2王学臣1  梁峥1

(1. 中国科学院植物研究所光合作用研究中心,北京100093;2. 中国科学院微生物研究所,北京100080;
3. 中国农业大学生物学院,北京100094)

摘要: 不同基因型小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)和高粱(Sorghum vulgare L.)的抗旱性与其种芽中的甜菜碱醛脱氢酶 (BADH) 的含量存在密切关系。种芽中的BADH含量可以作为种质资源抗旱性评价鉴定的参考指标。 关键词: 抗旱性;甜菜碱醛脱氢酶;小麦;高粱
 

Abstract (Browse 2044)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Petunia hybrida Transformed with Flower-meristem-identity Gene AP1
Author: AN Li-Xin, LIU Yi-Fei, CHEN Zhang-Liang, LI Yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(1): 63-66
      
    

Three deletion mutants of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) 54-kD putative replicase gene (54K) were obtained by PCR, and cloned into plant expression vector p208, then transformed into Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. SR1 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith et Townsend) Conn Ti plasmid-mediated transformation. All the transgenic plants with the N-terminal deletion mutant, the C-terminal deletion mutant and the only 261 nucleotides region from the central part of the 54K ORF showed significant resistance against TMV.

花分生组织决定基因AP1 转化矮牵牛的研究
安利忻1刘荣维2 陈章良1李毅1*

(1. 北京大学生命科学学院蛋白质工程及植物基因工程国家重点实验室,北京100871;2.  深圳农业科学中心花卉研究所,深圳518040)

利用RT-PCR方法从拟南芥 (Arabidopsisthaliana (L .)Heynh .)中克隆了花分生组织决定基因 (flower_meristem_identitygene)AP1,进行了全序列测定。测序结果显示 ,所得到的基因与发表的序列仅有一个碱基的差异 ,但并不影响蛋白质的一级结构。将AP1基因克隆入植物中间载体p2 0 8,通过根癌土壤杆菌 (Agrobacteriumtumefaciens (SmithetTownsend)Conn)介导的方法转化矮牵牛 (Petuniahybrida Vilm .)。对转基因植株进行了PCR和Southern检测 ,所得到的两个株系的转基因矮牵牛在R0 代即表现出提前且持续不断地开花的特性 ,与对照差异显著

关键词: 拟南芥;花分生组织决定基因;!./;矮牵牛

Abstract (Browse 2064)  |  Full Text PDF       
Agrobacterium -mediated Transformation of Rice with Help of Bombardment
Author: MING Xiao-Tian, YUAN Hua-Yi, WANG Li-Jiang, CHEN Zhang-Liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(1)
      
    Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica cv. Zhonghua 8, which is recalcitrant to infection of Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith et Townsend) Conn strain EHA105 with ordinary binary vector pCambia 1301, was transformed through Agrobacterium mediated transformation with help of bombardment. The transformation efficiency can be raised greatly. Single copy of gene insertion in the genome of transgenic rice plants was proved by Southern analysis and the expression of GUS gene was observed. GUS gene and hygromycin-resistant gene show 3∶1 segregation in progenies of the transgenic rice plants.
Abstract (Browse 2164)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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