October 2001, Volume 43 Issue 10

 

          Research Articles
Expression Activity of CLCuV Bidirectional Promoter in Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Author: XIE Ying-Qiu, MENG Meng, XU Hong-Lin, WU Qian, CHEN Lei, ZHU Zhen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(10): 1052-1054
      
    

Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) belongs to the subgroup Ⅲ of geminiviruses with single strand DNA genome. Study demonstrated that the bidirectional promoter of CLCuV had activity in Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith et Townsend) Conn. This is the first report for the activity of the bidirectional promoter of geminivirus in A. tumefaciens . Results showed that the activity of the complementary sense promoter was stronger than that of virion sense promoter, and was detected 2-fold higher than that of CaMV 35S promoter in A. tumefaciens . Moreover, the promoter 5′ deletion analysis indicated that the mean GUS activity driven by a 287 nucleotides complementary sense promoter fragment (from -287 to the translation initiation site) is 4 times higher than that driven by the whole complementary sense promoter in A. tumefaciens . This result suggested that there might exist negative regulatory elements in this deleted fragment. The function of other cis- elements included in CLCuV complementary sense promoter was also discussed in this paper.

棉花曲叶病毒启动子在根癌土壤杆菌中的表达活性
谢迎秋*孟蒙* 徐鸿林 吴茜 陈蕾 朱祯**

(中国科学院遗传研究所,北京100101)

摘要:棉花曲叶病毒(CLCuV)是一种单链DNA病毒,属于双生病毒亚组Ⅲ.检测了双生病毒双向启动子在根癌土壤杆菌(Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith et Townsend) Conn)LBA4404中的活性,研究发现在根癌土壤杆菌中CLCuV双向启动子的互补链启动子活性高于病毒链启动子,其在土壤杆菌中驱动的GUS活性为CaMV 35S启动子驱动的GUS活性的2倍.同时,通过对一系列CLCuV双向启动子的互补链5′端缺失体在土壤杆菌中的活性分析表明-287 bp上游可能存在一负调控元件,该元件的缺失可使启动子活性达全长启动子的4倍之多.还讨论了CLCuV互补链启动子所包含的其他顺式元件的功能.

关键词: B-葡萄糖苷酸酶基因;棉花曲叶病毒;启动子;顺式元件

Abstract (Browse 1988)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytodifferentiation of the Seeds (Protocorms) and Vegetative Propagation Corms Colonized by Mycorrhizal Fungi
Author: XU Jin-Tang and FAN Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(10): 1003-1010
      
    

The stipecell, subepidermal parenchyma cells and inner cortical parenchyma cells were differentiated from Gastrodia elata Bl. seed and protocorm cells when they were colonized by the fungal hyphae of Mycena osmundicola Lange and M. orchidicola Fan et Guo. The hyphae aggregated in the suspensor remnant surrounding stipecell, primarily penetrated the stipecell, and then colonized the embryo of seed. Stipecell is the unique invading site of the hyphae. Subepidermal parenchyma cells containing pelotons of hyphae is also a kind of passage cells of hyphae, but, when primarily colonized by hyphae, they can degenerate a little of hyphae. The hyphae colonizing inner cortical parenchyma cells were totally degenerated, and the function of inner ocrtical parenchyma cells is digestive. The vegetative propagation corms, which differentiated from protocorms, were recolonized by Armilariella mellea (Vahl:Fr.) Karst., and the hyphae of A. mellea and M. osmundicola were found in the same cell, but there is a layer of cells uncolonized by mycorrhizal fungal hyphae. This means the two fungal species can not crisscross colonize the cell of G. elata.

天麻种子 / 原球茎和营养繁殖茎被菌根真菌定殖后的细胞分化
徐锦堂 范黎*

(中国医学科学院中国协和医科大学药用植物研究所,北京100094)

摘要:天麻(Gastrodia elata Bl.)种子可与紫萁小菇(Mycena osmundicola Lange)、兰小菇(M. orchidicola Fan et Guo)等一类小菇属真菌共生萌发形成原球茎.侵入种皮的菌丝集结在柄状细胞外周的胚柄残迹中,首先侵入胚的柄状细胞,然后自柄状细胞侵入其他原胚细胞.原胚细胞发生功能分化,形成菌丝结细胞和消化细胞.初被菌丝定殖的原胚细胞具有消化菌丝的功能.随后,部分原胚细胞逐渐被菌丝充满,发育成菌丝结细胞.菌丝由菌丝结细胞进一步侵入消化细胞后最终被消化.由原球茎分化形成的营养繁殖茎(以下简称营繁茎)进一步被蜜环菌(Armilariella mellea (Vahl:Fr.) Karst.)定植,蜜环菌与紫箕小菇的菌丝同时存在于营繁茎中,但两菌相遇时都停止蔓延,互不交错侵染.

关键词: 天麻;小菇属;蜜环菌;菌丝通道;共生

Abstract (Browse 2184)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ontogeny and Metamorphic Patterns of Female Reproductive Organs of Ephedra sinica Stapf (Ephedraceae)
Author: YANG Yong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(10): 1011-1017
      
    

Ontogeny and metamorphic development of female reproductive organs in Ephedra sinica Stapf were surveyed. At the end of April, female cones began to initialize from the vegetative buds. Pollination occurred in mid-May and seeds matured at the beginning of July. The ontogenetic pattern of female reproductive organs of E.sinica is basically similar to that of E. distachya L. The foliar nature of the outer envelope of the ovule in Ephedra is corroborated. Reduction of ovule number as a tendency of speciation in the genus is substantiated by the occurrence of tri-ovulate cones coupled with comprehensive characters of the genus. The metamorphic patterns as well as the leaf nature of the outer envelope indicate that female cones of Ephedra are compound while the female reproductive units of the ovulate cone have been reduced from secondary reproductive shoots similar to those of cordaites by phylogenetic transformation, fusion and reduction. Each fertile bract together with its axillary female reproductive unit composed the Bract Scale and Seed Scale Complex of Ephedra .

草麻黄雌性生殖器官的个体发生和畸形式样研究
杨永*

(中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093)

摘要:用扫描电镜观察并分析了草麻黄(Ephedra sinica Stapf)雌性生殖器官的个体发生及畸形式样.该种雌球花个体发生式样与麻黄属其他具双胚珠球果的类群基本一致.外珠被以一对近轴侧突起物出现以及该突起物与苞片成交互排列的发育式样支持前人关于该构造叶性本质的论述,而内珠被与珠心的发育相关,因此可能是真正的珠被.基于返祖性畸形三胚珠球花的出现及其他形态特征,认为麻黄属胚珠数目减少是该属内物种特化的一个趋势;利用雌球花发育的畸形现象及外珠被的形态学本质提出麻黄属的雌球果为复轴性构造,雌性生殖单位是由类似于科达类的次级生殖枝构造经系统发育变态、融合、简化成现存的生胚珠构造式样,每一可育苞片及其腋内雌性生殖单位共同组成了麻黄属的苞鳞-种鳞复合体.

关键词: 麻黄属;雌性生殖单位;个体发生;畸形发育;苞鳞*种鳞复合体

Abstract (Browse 2027)  |  Full Text PDF       
Distribution and Expression of Auxin Binding Protein 1 (ABP1) in the Thin Cell Layers of Tobacco
Author: GAO QiXiang, LI YingZhang, LIU Shu Lan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(10): 1018-1023
      
    

Tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L.) pedicel in the blooming period was used to study the distribution of auxin binding protein 1 (ABP1) in the tobacco tissue and cell at different time in the culture of thin cell layers (TCL). Using the immunofluorescence marker it was indicated that the main ABP1 was distributed in the epidermis and the 1st and 2nd layers of the subepidermis cells. A little ABP1 was distributed in the cortex. Tobacco ABP1 was induced to express in the protoplast of tobacco pedicel TCL cultured in MS culture medium containing IAA and BA. Expression of ABP1 in the protoplast was stronger in the active period of vegetative bud differentiation. ABP1 expression became weaker in later period of differentiation. The result of SDS-PAGE and Western blotting showed the molecular weight of tobacco ABP1 in TCL was 26 kD.

烟草薄层培养生长素结合蛋白ABP1 的定位和ABP1在细胞分化中的变化
高启祥 李颖章*  刘淑兰

(中国农业大学生物学院,农业部植物生理生化重点开放实验室,北京100094)

摘要:以烟草(Nicotiana tabacum L.)盛花期花梗薄层为材料, 研究营养芽分化的不同时期生长素结合蛋白(ABP1)在组织与细胞中的分布变化.免疫荧光标记结果表明,烟草花梗中ABP1主要分布于表皮及亚表皮1~2层细胞内.不同分化期ABP1在烟草花梗薄层原生质体中的表达不同,细胞分化旺盛期ABP1的表达最强,分化后期ABP1的表达有所减弱; Western blotting结果表明,ABP1多克隆抗血清与烟草花梗薄层细胞及分化过程中26 kD蛋白有免疫交叉反应.

关键词: 烟草;原生质体;生长素结合蛋白(ABP1)

Abstract (Browse 2155)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genetic Analysis of Root Growth in Rice Seedlings Under Different Water Supply Conditions
Author: ZHANG Wei-Ping, WU Ping, SHEN Xiao-Ying, WU Yun-Rong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(10): 1024-1030
      
    

To understand the genetic background of root growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings under different water supply conditions, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and epistatic effect on seminal root length, maximum adventitious root length, adventitious root number, total root dry weight and ratio of root to shoot were detected using molecular map including 103 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers and 104 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers mapped on a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population with 150 lines derived from a cross between an lowland rice IR1552 and an upland rice Azucena in both solution culture (lowland condition) and paper culture (upland condition). Six QTLs and twenty-two pairs of epistatic loci for the four parameters were detected. Three QTLs detected for maximum adventitious root length in solution culture (MARLS), total root dry weight in both solution culture and paper culture (TRDWS and TRDWP) accounted for about 20%, 23% and 13% of the total variations, respectively. Only epistatic loci were found for maximum adventitious root length and adventitious root number in paper culture (MARLP and ARNP), and for ratio of root to shoot in both paper and solution culture (R/SP and R/SS), which accounted for about 12%-61% of the total variations in the parameters, respectively. No identical QTL or epistatic loci were found for the parameters in both solution and paper culture. The results indicate that there is a different genetic system responsible to root growth of rice seedlings under lowland and upland conditions and epistasis might be the major genetic basis for MARLP, ARNP, R/SP and R/SS.

不同供水条件下水稻幼苗根系形成的遗传分析
张卫萍 吴平*  沈晓莹 吴运荣
(浙江大学生命科学院植物科学研究所,杭州华家池310029)

摘要:利用分子标记图谱对溶液培养与旱作培养(纸培养)下的水稻(Oryza sativa L.)幼苗的种子根与最长不定根长、不定根数、总根干重、根冠比等性状进行了基因定位与遗传分析.4种参数共检测到6个数量性状位点(quantitative trait loci,QTLs)与22对上位性互作位点.其中溶液培养中的最长不定根长、总根干重和旱作培养中的总根干重检测到的QTLs位点对总变异的贡献率分别为20%、23%和13%左右;旱作培养中的最长不定根长、不定根数、根冠比和溶液培养中的根冠比仅检测到上位性位点,对表型变异的贡献率在12%~61%之间.溶液培养与旱作条件下没有一个或一对检测到的QTL或互作位点完全相同,提示溶液培养和旱作条件下影响幼苗根系生长的遗传机制差异.上位性作用对旱作培养条件下的根生长具重要影响.

关键词: 水稻;根系形成;溶液培养;旱作培养;数量性状座位;上位性

Abstract (Browse 2034)  |  Full Text PDF       
Uptake Rate of Tracer MetalIons by a?Lycium barbaruma?Somatic Embryogenesis
Author: LI Shan, XING Geng-Mei, QIN Zhi, SHEN Zheng-Hu and WANG Ya-Fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(10): 1031-1035
      
    

The callus of medical plant Lycium barbarum L. in Ningxia was used as the materials for inducing somatic embryogenesis, and multitracer technique and γ-ray energy spectrum analysis were used for studying the rates of uptake of several tracer metal ions during embryogenesis. The results were: 1) Of 23 radionuclides, only 16 (Mn-52, Zn-65, Co-56, Co-60, As-74, Se-75, mTc-95, Rh-99, V-48, Rb-83, Rb-84, Sr-85, Y-87, Y-88, Zr-88 and Zr-89) were selectively absorbed, the other 7 (Be-7, Tc-96, Ru-97, mRh-101, Sc-46, Ga-67 and Cr-51) were not absorbed. 2) The rates of absorption of different metal ions were different at the same developmental stage. In 10 day culture, the rates of uptake of most metal ions were 5%/g, but that of Se-75, Ab-83, Sr-85 and Zr-89 were 10%-30%/g. The rates of absorption of the same metal ion were different at the same developmental stage, e.g. the rates of uptake of Se-75 were increasing in the course of development, two peaks of absorption appeared in the 5-7th and 15-20th days, being 14%/g and 20%/g. But, around 10th, the uptake rate decreased somewhat. The maximum uptake rate was 20%/g in 20th days. The uptake rates of some metal ions were with the somtimes keeping pace differentiation of embryonic cells. But sometimes not and division. The tendencies of the uptake rates of Se-75, Rb-83, Sr-85, Co-56 and V-48 were similar, indicating that the metal ions were accumulated in the callus during somatic embryogenesis. The uptake rate of Mn-52 was not only similar to other elements, but the variation was like normal distribution.

枸杞体细胞胚发生中对痕量金属离子吸收的动态研究
李杉1 邢更妹1  秦芝2 沈正虎1 王亚馥1*

(1. 兰州大学干旱农业生态国家重点实验室,兰州730000;2. 中国科学院近代物理研究所,兰州730000)

摘要:以药用植物宁夏枸杞(Lycium barbarum L.)愈伤组织为材料,离体培养诱导体细胞胚发生.采用多重示踪技术和γ射线能谱分析法研究枸杞体细胞胚发生中对多种痕量金属离子的吸收动态.结果表明:(1)体胚发生中对多种痕量金属离子的吸收呈选择性.对多重示踪剂溶液中的23种核素,只吸收了其中的16种(Mn-52、Zn-65、Co-56、Co-60、As-74、Se-75、mTc-95、Rh-99、V-48、Rb-83、Rb-84、Sr-85、Y-87、Y-88、Zr-88和Zr-89),而对另7种未吸收(Be-7、Tc-96、Ru-97、mRh-101、Sc-46、Ga-67和Cr-51).(2)吸收呈动态变化,在同一发育期对不同的金属离子吸收率不同,如第10天,大部分金属离子的吸收率在5%/g左右,而Se-75、Rb-83、Sr-85和Zr-89的则是10%~30%/g;在不同发育期对同一种金属离子的吸收率不同,如对Se-75的吸收总体呈上升趋势.第5天达第1峰值14%/g.随后缓慢下降,基本稳定,第15天后急剧上升,至第20天达第2个峰值20%/g;随着胚性细胞的分化与分裂,吸收既存在一致性,也存在非一致性.Se-75、Rb-83、Sr-85、Co-56和V-48等核素的吸收趋势相似,基本上呈上升曲线.而Mn-52的吸收趋势则类似正态分布曲线.

关键词: 枸杞;植物体细胞胚发生;多重示踪剂;吸收动态;痕量金属离子

Abstract (Browse 2201)  |  Full Text PDF       
RAPD Analysis of 33 Varieties of Banana
Author: DU Dao-Lin, SU Jie, ZHOU Peng, ZHENG Xue-Qin, HUANG Bing-Zhi, LI Feng-Nian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(10): 1036-1042
      
    

RAPD assessment of genetic variations in 33 varieties of banana ( Musa nana Lour.) was carried out. Eighteen primers were screened from 249 10 bp arbitrary primers, and a total of 192 DNA bands were amplified, among which 183 (95.31%) were polymorphic. The average number of DNA bands amplified by each primer was 10.67, and the average genetic distance among 33 varietieswas 0.3412. Based on UPGMA cluster analysis of 192 DNA bands amplified by 18 primers a DNA molecular dendrogram was established for 33 varietiesof banana in China, which divided the 33 varieties into four groups: group A,B,C and D. Group A included 20 varieties, group B included 5 varieties, group C included 2 varieties and group D included 6 varieties. Group A could be divided into 3 sub-groups: A1, A2 and A3. The molecular foundation of genetic diversity of banana was also explored.

香蕉33个品种的RAPD研究
杜道林1,2  苏杰1 周鹏2 郑学勤2 黄秉智3 李丰年3

(1.  海南师范学院生物系,海口571185;2. 中国热带农业科学院热带作物生物技术国家重点实验室,海口571101;3.广东省农业科学院果树研究所,广州%!510640)

摘要:利用RAPD技术对香蕉(Musa nana Lour.) 33个品种的遗传变异进行了研究.从249个随机引物中筛选出18个有效引物,用它们共扩增出192条DNA带,其中183条为多态性带,占95.31%,平均每个引物扩增的DNA带数为10.67条.利用18个有效引物扩增的192条DNA带对香蕉33个品种间的亲缘关系进行UPGMA聚类分析,计算出33个品种间的平均遗传距离为0.341*!2.在此基础上建立了香蕉33个品种的DNA 分子系统树状图.该系统将香蕉33个品种划归A、B、C和D 4个群,其中A群20个品种,B群5个品种,C群2个品种,D群6个品种;A群又可以分为3个亚群.对香蕉遗传多样性分子基础进行了探讨.

关键词: 香蕉;品种;RAPD;遗传多样性

Abstract (Browse 2264)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cloning and Expression Analysis of Two Wheat cDNAs Encoding Cinnamoyl-CoA Reductase
Author: LIN Zhan-Bing, MA Qing-Hu, MA Mi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(10): 1043-1046
      
    

Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) is responsible for the first committed reaction in monolignol biosynthesis, which diverts phenylpropanoid-derived metabolites into the biosynthesis of lignin. To gain a better understanding of the lignin biosynthesis in wheat development, two cDNAs encoding CCR were identified from wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. cv. H4564). DNA sequence analyses indicated that the two cDNAs represent two classes of CCR. RT-PCR and Northern blot hybridization demonstrated that one of them, W-cr6, was expressed actively in stem and leaf tissue, the other one, W-cr19, was expressed in root and stem tissue. The results suggested that there are at least two genes encoded for CCR existing in wheat genome.

小麦中两个肉桂酰辅酶! 还原酶基因的分离和表达分析
蔺占兵 马庆虎* 麻密
(中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093)

摘要:肉桂酰辅酶A还原酶(CCR)负责催化木质素单体生物合成中最重要的代谢反应,它将类苯丙酸类代谢物转移到木质素的合成途径中.为了更好地了解木质素在小麦生长发育中的作用,从小麦(Triticum aestivum L. cv. H4564)中克隆了两个肉桂酰辅酶A还原酶的cDNA.相似性和进化关系的分析表明这两个cDNA片段分别属于不同的肉桂酰辅酶A还原酶,这两个cDNA片段分别命名为W-cr6和W-cr19.RT-PCR和Northern杂交结果证明,W-cr6基因主要在小麦的茎和叶中表达,W-cr19基因主要在根和茎中表达.上述结果表明在小麦的基因组中至少存在两类肉桂酰辅酶A还原酶基因.

关键词: 小麦;cDNA 克隆;肉桂酰辅酶% 还原酶;木质素

Abstract (Browse 2154)  |  Full Text PDF       
Expression of Human Intestinal Trefoil Factor (hITF) Gene in Lettuce
Author: ZUO Xiao-Feng, ZHANG Xiao-Yu, SHAN Long, XIAO Chuan-Ying, HE Du-Xiu and RU Bing-Gen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(10): 1047-1051
      
    

The vector pGPTVd35S-ITF containing human intestinal trefoil factor (hITF) cDNA under control of the double CaMV-35S promoter and a Nos terminator was constructed and introduced into Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith et Townsend ) Conn strain LBA4404 by triparental mating using helper pRK2013 in  Escherichia coli . Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa  L.) leaf disks were infected with Agrobacterium , and transformants were selected on a MS medium containing phosphinothricin (PPT) (1.0 μg/mL). Integration of the hITF cDNA into the genome of lettuce plants was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. hITF cDNA was shown to be expressed as the protein in lettuce plants by Western blot analysis. The highest hITF protein content in the total soluble protein of young (upper) leaves was about 0.1% according to the ELISA analysis.

人小肠三叶因子(hITF)基因在生菜中的整合与表达
左晓峰 张晓钰 单龙 肖传英 何笃修 茹炳根*

(北京大学生命科学学院蛋白质工程和植物基因工程国家重点实验室,北京100871)

摘要:用根癌土壤杆菌 (Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith et Townsend ) Conn)介导的叶盘法,将人小肠三叶因子(hITF)导入生菜(Lactuca sativa L.)中,在含有除草剂的培养基上筛选,获得抗性植株.通过PCR和 Southern印迹分析证明,hITF cDNA已整合到生菜基因组中. Western印迹分析证明hITF在生菜中的表达.ELISA检测表明,hITF在生菜新鲜叶片中的表达量为200~300 ng/g,最高达700 ng/g,约占总可溶性蛋白的0.1%.

关键词: 人小肠三叶因子(hITF);生菜;转基因植物

Abstract (Browse 2254)  |  Full Text PDF       
Phospholipases in Signalling Transduction of Higher Plants
Author: LIN Fang, XU Zhi-Hong and XUE Hong-Wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(10): 991-1002
      
    

Phosphotidylinositol (PI) can be hydrolyzed into inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate/diacylglycerol (IP3/DAG), the second signalling messengers which can be further phosphorylated by phospholipases to other signalling molecules, and phosphatidic acid (PA) and lysophosphoglyceride (lysoPI) involved in many signalling cascades. It has been shown that PI signalling pathway and the involved enzymes are critical for plant development and response to environmental factors. Three classes of phospholipases, named PLA2, PLC and PLD, were classified based on their cleavage sites, and the presence of variants of isoforms indicating their different functions in plant growth/development. The update information of phospholipases with focus on the interaction of plant hormone and environmental factors has been provided.

植物信号传导中的磷脂酶
林芳* 许智宏 薛红卫**

(中国科学院上海生命科学研究院植物生理生态研究所植物分子遗传国家重点实验室,
马普分子植物生理研究所植物分子生理和信号传导伙伴实验室,上海200032)
关键词: 高等植物;磷脂酰肌醇;磷脂酶;信号传导

Abstract (Browse 1921)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study of the Short-time Eco-physiological Response of Plant Leaves to Dust
Author: CHEN Xiong-Wen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(10): 1058-1064
      
    

The short-time eco-physiological response to dust was measured for the leaves of 22 local popular plant species including roadside trees, fruit trees, forest trees and crop species in Beijing. The dust did affect the eco-physiology of leaves of these species. After being covered by dust the instant net photosynthetic rates of most plant species changed insignificantly, but it decreased by more than 35% for 5 species, and it increased by more than 57% for Ginkgo biloba L. The respiration rates of 12 plant species increased significantly, but it decreased significantly for Malus pumila Mill. (M. communis D C.) and Cotinus coggygria (L.) Scop., and it changed insignificantly for the other 8 species. The transpiration rates of 5 plant species increased significantly, however, they decreased for 9 species, and changed insignificantly for the other 8 species. Platanus occidentalis L. had highest dust carrying capacity. After 2 h the physiological indices did not change significantly for Diospyros kaki L.f., G. biloba and Populus tomentosa Carr. The implications of the research are that Ulmus laevis Pall., M. pumila (M. communis ), D. kaki and G. biloba are suitable for amelioration of dust storm damage and increase in local economical development near the sources of dust storms in western China. And in the cities, such as Beijing and other dust areas, the plants have high dust-carrying capacity can be planted for air cleaning.

植物叶片对沙尘的短时间生理生态反应
陈雄文
(中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学开放研究实验室,北京100093)

摘要:通过对在北京分布普遍的包括行道树、果树、林木、庄稼等的22种植物对模拟的沙尘在短时间的生理生态指标变化测定,表明沙尘在瞬时内确实影响各种植物叶片的生理生态过程.5种植物的净光合速率降低超过35%,但是银杏(Ginkgo biloba L.)的净光合速率增加超过57%.12个物种的呼吸速率显著增加,但是苹果(Malus pumila Mill.)(M.communis D C.)和黄栌(Cotinus coggygria(L.)Scop.)的呼吸速率显著降低,另外8个种变化不大.5个种的蒸腾速率显著增加,9个种蒸腾速率显著降低.美国梧桐(Platanus occidentalis L.)有较大的附尘力.还对3个种柿(Diospyros kaki L.f.)、银杏和毛白杨(Populustomentosa Carr.)在沙尘覆盖2 h后测定生理生态指标.本研究表明在沙尘源附近种植欧州白榆(Ulmus laevis Pall.)、苹果、柿和银杏等比较适合阻挡沙尘还有利于当地经济,而在离沙尘源较远的城市(如北京)种植具有较大附尘力的植物有利于净化空气.

关键词: 叶片;生理生态反应;沙尘

Abstract (Browse 2515)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Correlation Between the Volatile Organic Compound Emissions and the Vegetation Succession of the Ecosystems in Different Climatic Zones of China
Author: LI Qing-Jun and Lee F. KLINGER
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(10): 1065-1071
      
    

Isoprene and stored volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions along the succession of ecosystem in tropical, subtropical and temperate areas were characterized using a portable hydrocarbon detector and GC-MS-AED analysis. Isoprene emissions were observed to exhibit an ecological pattern whereby emissions were highest in early to middle successional (developmental) woodland and forest communities, and relatively low in late successional forest and peatland communities. This pattern may result from the ability of isoprene to enhance the availability of nitrogen that is deposited in the strongly nitrogen limited ecosystems. These findings from China along with the similar findings from North America, Puerto Rico, central Amazon, and central Africa point to characteristic growth form structure and VOC chemistry that ecosystems may share globally. This successional pattern would be useful in building a simple ecosystem-based, instead of painstaking species-based, model of VOC emission.

中国不同气候带植被挥发性有机化合物通量与生态系统演替的相关性
李庆军1,2  Lee F.KLINCER 2
(1. 中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园,云南勐腊666303;2.The National Center for Atmospheric Research,Boulder,CO80307,USA)

摘要:从群落水平和生态系统演替的角度对中国热带、亚热带和温带生态系统植物挥发性有机化合物(VOC)通量的研究表明,异戊二烯通量呈现出在生态系统演替的早期到中期阶段随着演替的进行而升高,在先锋性灌木和乔木阶段达到高峰,然后又随着演替的发展而逐渐下降的演替格局,而其他VOC通量则有随着演替的进行而上升的趋势.生态系统不同演替阶段异戊二烯通量的变化可能与植物获取养分氮有关;根据植物VOC释放通量的生态演替格局,可以建立全球陆地生态系统的VOC模型,对大气化学过程中的VOC时空动态进行很好的模拟.

关键词: 西双版纳;哀牢山;长白山;生态系统演替;挥发性有机化合物通量;异戊二烯

Abstract (Browse 2135)  |  Full Text PDF       
New Discoveries of Phaeophycean Fossils in the Early Cambrian, Haikou, Kunming,Yunnan, Southwest China
Author: XU Zhao-Liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(10): 1072-1076
      
    

The paper deals with the new phaeophycean fossils in the Early Cambrian from Chengjiang Biota at Ercai Village of Haikou, Kunming, Yunnan, Southwest China. Three new taxa, Punctariopsis latifolia gen. et sp. nov., P.simplex gen. et sp. nov. and Vendotaenia cf. antiqua Gnilovskaya are described here in detail. These new findings show that the Chengjiang Biota is high in species diversity of fossil algae and might offer new evidence for a better understanding of the Cambrian explosive biological evolution. The fossil genus described here is found to have a close relationship with the living Punctaria based on similar morphology. The results suggest that the Chengjiang Biota in Haikou area of Kunming was living in an intertidal and subtidal seawater environment.

云南海口早寒武世褐藻化石新知
徐兆良
(中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093)

摘要:主要报道了产自云南海口耳材村早寒武世筇竹寺组玉案山段澄江生物群中的褐藻化石——拟点叶藻(Punctariopsis latifolia gen. et sp. nov.)、简单拟点叶藻(Punctariopsis simplex gen. et sp. nov.)和古文德带藻(Vendotaenia cf. antiqua Gnilovskaya) 3种.这些化石丰富了澄江生物群物种的多样性,为研究该群生物爆发性演化提供了新的证据.同时通过对现生褐藻和褐藻化石形态学的比较研究,表明化石属和现代属在系统演化上可能有较密切的亲缘关系,并进一步证明了澄江生物群在云南海口地区发生于一个潮间带和亚潮带的海水环境.

关键词: 云南海口;早寒武世;褐藻化石

Abstract (Browse 2368)  |  Full Text PDF       
Three Salts of Labdanic Acids from Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae) (in English)
Author: ZHONG De-Xin£? XUAN Li-Jiang£? XU Ya-Ming and BAI Dong-Lu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(10): 1077-1080
      
    

Three salts of labdanic acids, named as magnesium andrographate, disodium andrographate and dipotassium andrographate 19-O-β-D-glucoside were isolated from the hydrophilic extract of Andrographis paniculata Nees. (Acanthaceae), together with guanosine, uridine, 6-epiharpagide, procumbide, violanthin and apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucoside. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis and chemical transformation.

穿心莲中的三个二萜酸盐
钟德新 宣利江 徐亚明* 白东鲁
(中国科学院上海药物研究所,上海200031)

摘要:从穿心莲(Andrographis paniculata Nees.)水溶性部位分离得到3个新的二萜酸盐:穿心莲酸镁、穿心莲酸二钠和穿心莲酸二钾葡萄糖甙.同时,首次从穿心莲中分得鸟嘌呤核苷、尿嘧啶核苷、6-epiharpagide、procumbide、三色堇黄苷和芹菜素-7-氧-葡萄糖甙.通过波谱解析和化学方法确定了它们的结构.
关键词: 穿心莲;爵床科;二萜酸盐;穿心莲酸
Abstract (Browse 2115)  |  Full Text PDF       
PEG-mediated Transformation of Lentinus edodes
Author: SUN Li, XU Wei-Hong, CAI Hua-Qing, HU Yuan-Lei, LIN Zhong-Ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(10): 1089-1092
      
    

Expression vector p301-bG1 contains a gus gene and a bialaphos resistance gene both driven by glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) gene promoter isolated from Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing. Using p301-bG1, PEG-mediated transformation of protoplast of L. edodes was studied. Mixed with PEG-purified plasmid DNA, the protoplasts of L. edodes were treated with PEG solution and cultured on CYM regeneration plate containing 40 μg/mL bialaphos. Bialaphos-resistant and GUS-positive transformants were obtained using this transformation system. Although the transformation efficiency was relatively low, the protocols release large expenses on expensive instrument and restriction enzymes, providing a simple and economical method for mushroom breeding at the molecular level.

PEG介导下香菇的转化
孙丽 许伟宏 蔡华清 胡鸢雷 林忠平*

(北京大学生命科学学院蛋白质工程和植物基因工程国家重点实验室,北京100871)

摘要:表达载体p301-bG1含有香菇(Lentinus edodes(Berk.)Sing)三磷酸甘油醛脱氢酶启动子驱动下的gus基因和除草剂抗性基因.利用PEG法实现了p301-bG1对香菇原生质体的转化.香菇原生质体与经PEG纯化的质粒DNA混合,用PEG处理后培养于含40μg/mL除草剂的CYM再生平板上,得到了抗除草剂和有GUS活性的转化菌株.虽然这种方法转化效率较低,但不需要昂贵的仪器和限制性内切酶,为蘑菇的分子育种研究提供了一种简便经济的转化方法.

关键词: 香菇;转化;三磷酸甘油醛脱氢酶基因启动子;gus;PEC

Abstract (Browse 2573)  |  Full Text PDF       
Microinjection of Genes into in Vitro Ovaries of Maize and Identification of Transformed Plants
Author: SHEN Shi-Hua, ZHANG Xiu-Jun, GUO Yi-Ming and JING Yu-Xiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(10): 1055-1057
      
    

Transformation of gene into maize ( Zea mays L.) ovaries by microinjection has been successfully achieved. However, this method was laborious and was carried out in the field which led to serious contamination of the ovaries, low ratio of transformation and was significantly influenced by lower atmospheric temperature causing seed immaturity. The method of in vitro injection was used in which the maize ears were removed from the plant after they were pollinated for 24 h, then, the ear coats were stripped off to expose the ovaries in which several μL of transformed gene solution were injected in clean bench area using glass microneedle. After all the ovaries were injected, the ear was cut into several segments, which then were put into a glass bottle containing culture medium and incubated in a growth chamber with fluorescent lamps. Seeds could be directly obtained from the segments in three to four weeks after culture. This method overcomes the shortcomings of the in vivo seed culture and increases the transformation efficiency. Transformed plants after the seed germination were screened by antibiotic selection and identified at molecular levels, indicating that transgenic plants with positive antibiotic resistance, and confirmed by PCR, Southern blotting were obtained.

玉米基因转化的离体子房注射及其转基因植株的鉴定
沈世华 张秀君 郭奕明 荆玉祥*

(中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093)


摘要:用微量注射法对玉米( Zea mays L.)进行基因转化已获得成功, 但这种方法是在田间进行的,污染较大, 操作时劳动强度大,转化率低,而且受气温影响,气温下降则种子不能成熟.采用离体注射培养法,取下授粉24 h后的玉米雌穗,剥去苞叶,在超净工作台进行微量注射,然后切成小块放在培养瓶中,在光照培养箱内培养,3~4周可直接获得种子.这种方法克服了非离体培养的缺点,提高了转化效率.种子萌发后进行植株抗性筛选和分子检测, 得到了具抗性的、PCR 和Southern杂交结果均为阳性的转基因植株.

关键词: 玉米;基因转化;离体子房注射;基因鉴定

Abstract (Browse 2030)  |  Full Text PDF       
Representative cDNA Library from Isolated Rice Sperm Cells
Author: GOU Xiao-Ping, XU Ying, TANG Lin, YAN Fang, CHEN Fang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(10): 1093-1096
      
    

水稻精细胞cDNA文库的构建及分析
苟小平 徐莺 唐琳 颜钫 陈放*
(四川大学生命科学学院,成都610064)

摘要:利用Percoll密度梯度离心和多次滤膜过滤分离到适于分子生物学研究的水稻(Oryza sativa L.cv.Guichao 2)生活精细胞.借助RT-PCR和SMART技术构建了水稻精细胞的cDNA文库.初级文库的大小为1.58×106pfu,插入片段平均大小为980bp.103个随机挑选的克隆与DIG标记的水稻幼苗根、叶及二细胞时期花粉、成熟花粉、精细胞和授粉5~7 d的子房cDNA探针杂交表明,除少数克隆外,它们在上述器官中的表达情况很相似.10个随机挑选的克隆用来测序及分析,有4个克隆含有完整的开放阅读框.1个克隆与水稻Polyubiquitin(Rubql)mRNA高度同源.Northern杂交表明它在二细胞时期花粉、成熟花粉中的表达显著少于在根、叶和授粉子房中的表达.另一个克隆的开放阅读框编码与拟南芥(Arabidopsis thaliana(L.)Heynh.)AtRAD17同源的蛋白.这是第一次正式报道高等植物精细胞cDNA文库的构建,也是第一次从高等植物精细胞中分离到其表达的基因.
关键词:cDNA文库;精细胞;Rubq1;AtRAD17;水稻
Abstract (Browse 2172)  |  Full Text PDF       
Evidence of Casparian Strip in the Foliar Endodermis of Pinus bungeana
Author: WU Xiao-Qin, ZHU Jin-Mao, HUANG Ru-Zhu, WANG Qin-Li, ZHENG Wen-Ju, HU Yu-Xi, LIN Jin-Xing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(10): 1081-1084
      
    

白皮松针叶内皮层中具凯氏带的证据
吴小琴1,2 朱锦懋2  黄儒珠2 王钦丽1 郑文菊1 胡玉熹1  林金星1* (1.  中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093;2.  福建师范大学生物工程学院,福州350007)

摘要:利用荧光显微镜对白皮松 (Pinusbungeana Zucc.)针叶内皮层结构进行深入观察 ,确认内皮层径向壁和横向壁上具有能够激发荧光的带状结构 ;用纤维素酶和果胶酶对内皮层充分酶解分离后 ,首次从叶中得到类似于根部内皮层特有的网状结构 ;应用傅立叶变换红外光谱分光术 (FTIR)对网状结构进行化学成分鉴定 ,其吸收光谱的分析结果表明 ,针叶内皮层细胞壁带状结构部分含有木质素、木栓质、纤维素和细胞壁蛋白等 ,而这些成分与针叶维管组织的成分不尽相同。上述证据表明 ,白皮松针叶内皮层细胞壁具有与根部内皮层相似的凯氏带结构。

关键词: 白皮松;针叶;内皮层;凯氏带;细胞壁;酶解;傅立叶变换红外光谱分光术

Abstract (Browse 2140)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Patterns of Secretory Structure and Their Relation to Hypericin Content in Hypericum
Author: Lü Hong-Fei, SHEN Zong-Gen, LI Jing-Yuan, HU Zheng-Hai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(10): 1085-1088
      
    

金丝桃属植物分泌结构的类型和金丝桃素含量的相关性
吕洪飞1,2 沈宗根1 李景原1 胡正海1**

(1.  西北大学植物研究所,西安710069;2. 浙江师范大学生命与环境科学学院,金华321004)

摘要:利用整体透明、石蜡制片和半薄切片法,对金丝桃属(Hypericum L.)8组20种1变种植物的分泌结构进行了比较解剖研究,结果表明:该属植物的分泌结构可分为分泌细胞团和分泌囊两种类型.但在不同植物种和不同器官内,分泌结构的类型和分布密度存在差异.对上述植物的提取物进行薄层层析和高效液相层析检测,结果表明:具有分泌细胞团的植物器官含有金丝桃素;而无分泌细胞团的植物器官,则不含金丝桃素,从而证明金丝桃素由分泌细胞团合成和贮藏.在前者中,其金丝桃素的含量与其分泌细胞团密度成正相关.

关键词: 金丝桃属;分泌细胞团;分泌囊;金丝桃素;高效液相层析;薄层层析

Abstract (Browse 2398)  |  Full Text PDF       
Introduction to the Projects Funded in Division of Botany by the National Natural Science Foundation of China in 2000
Author: YAN Zhang-Cai and WEN Ming-Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(10)
DOI: 1097-1100
      
    

2000 年度国家自然科学基金植物学学科资助各类项目介绍
闫章才 温明章
(国家自然科学基金委员会生命学部,北京100093)
 

Abstract (Browse 2338)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
 

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