December 2001, Volume 43 Issue 12

 

          Research Articles
Effects of Photoinhibition and Its Recovery on Photosynthetic Functions of Winter Wheat Under Salt Stress
Author: ZHU Xin-Guang, WANG Qiang, ZHANG Qi-De, LU Cong-Ming, KUANG Ting-Yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(12): 1250-1254
      
    

Effects of photoinhibition and its recovery on photosynthetic functions of winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) under salt stress were studied. The results showed that several parameters associated with PSⅡ functions, e.g. Fv/Fo 、 Fv/Fm and qP were not influenced by lower salt concentration (200 mmol/L NaCl) while CO2 assimilation rate decreased significantly. When exposed to higher salt concentration (400 mmol/L NaCl), PSⅡ functions were significantly inhibited which led to the decrease of carbon assimilation. These results suggest that different concentrations of salt stress affected photosynthesis by different modes. Salt stress made photosynthesis more sensitive to strong light and led to more serious photoinhibition. Under lower concentration of salt stress, the QB-non-reductive PSⅡ reaction centers formed at the beginning of photoinhibition could be effectively used to compose active PSⅡ reaction center (RC) and repair the reversible inactivated PSⅡ RC. Under higher concentration of salt stress, PSⅡ reaction centers were seriously damaged during photoinhibition, the QB-non-reductive PSⅡ RC could only be partly effective at the early time of photoinhibition, thus led to the accumulation of QB-non-reductive PSⅡ RC in the course of restoration under dim light.

在盐胁迫下光抑制及其恢复进程对冬小麦光合功能的影响
朱新广 王强 张其德* 卢从明 匡廷云
(中国科学院植物研究所光合作用基础研究开放实验室,北京100093)

摘要:研究了盐和强光双重胁迫以及在弱光下恢复对冬小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)光合功能的影响.结果表明,单纯用低浓度盐(200 mmol/L NaCl)胁迫时,对反映PSⅡ光合功能的Fv/Fo、Fv/Fm和qP等参数没有什么影响,但已十分明显地抑制光合碳同化能力,而高盐(400 mmol/L NaCl)胁迫损伤PSⅡ功能,从而加剧对碳同化功能的抑制,说明光合作用对不同盐浓度的响应不同.研究结果还表明,盐胁迫能加剧强光对光合功能的损伤,使之受到更加严重的光抑制.在低盐浓度下,光抑制初期形成的QB-非还原性PSⅡ反应中心,在随后的光抑制进程和弱光下恢复期间,能有效的被用来合成有活性的PSⅡ和修复可逆性失活的PSⅡ反应中心.而高盐和强光双重胁迫使PSⅡ遭受严重破坏,QB-非还原性PSⅡ反应中心只有在光抑制初期可部分地用于修复可逆性失活的PSⅡ,随着光抑制的进程,它们不能用于合成有活性PSⅡ和修复受严重破坏的PSⅡ,结果导致它们的含量在弱光下恢复时继续增加.
关键词: 冬小麦;盐胁迫;光抑制
Abstract (Browse 2309)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Spectroscopic Studies on the Photoinhibition Process in Photosystem ¢?Complex from Two Wheat Cultivars
Author: YU Fei, TANG Chong-Qin, XIN Yue-Yong, PENG De-Chuan, LI Liang-Bi, KUANG Ting-Yun and LI Zhen-Sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(12): 1243-1249
      
    

The photodamage processes of PSⅠ particles isolated from two wheat cultivars “Jing 411” and “Xiaoyan 54” were studied by comparing the difference in spectroscopic properties. It was found that high light intensity caused the damage of pigments in PSⅠ, especially Chl a molecules with maximum absorption at 683 nm is very sensitive to high light. The change in fluorescence spectra revealed that photodamage also led to the damage of the process of energy transfer in PSⅠ. In the PSⅠ particles “Xiaoyan 54”, the absorption of Chl a molecules at 683 nm slightly decreased at the beginning of illumination and meanwhile the fluorescence become stronger, but the absorption become stable rather long, and declining after 40 min. On the other hand, PSⅠ particles of “Jing 411” showed no such changes during the process of photodamage. Presumably in PSⅠ of “Xiaoyan 54”, excessive energy was distributed to long wave chlorophyll molecules and the number of antenna pigment molecules was less, so that less energy was transferred to the reaction center P700 and thus it was protected. This is the possible reason why “Xiaoyan 54” was more resistant to photooxidation.

不同品种小麦PSI颗粒光抑制过程的光谱学比较研究
郁飞1  唐崇钦1* 辛越勇1 彭德川1 李良璧1  匡廷云1 李振声2

(1. 中国科学院植物研究所光合作用基础研究开放实验室,北京100093;2. 中国科学院遗传研究所,北京100101)

摘要:用不同品种小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)"京411"和"小偃54"中分离纯化的PSⅠ颗粒为材料,研究了小麦PSⅠ光破坏过程的光谱特性,并比较了两者的异同.结果表明,强光导致PSⅠ中色素的破坏,特别是683 nm状态的Chl a分子对强光敏感.光照过程中,荧光光谱的变化表明,光破坏还导致了PSⅠ中能量传递过程的破坏."小偃54" PSⅠ颗粒在光照初期,长波长状态的Chl a分子的吸收度值略有下降后,可保持较长时间的稳定水平,在40 min后才开始明显下降,同时,在强光照射的初期荧光发射增强;而"京411" PSⅠ颗粒在光抑制过程中没有这些变化.推测"小偃54" PSⅠ可能通过将能量较多地分配给长波长状态的叶绿素分子和保持相对较少的天线色素分子,以避免过多的能量向P700反应中心传递,而起到保护作用.因而具有较强的抗光氧化能力.
关键词: 小麦;光系统!;光抑制;吸收光谱;荧光光谱;长波长叶绿素
Abstract (Browse 1811)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Femtosecond Fluorescence Properties of Light-harvesting Complex in Photosystem ¢ò
Author: REN Zhao-Yu, HE Jun-Fang, WANG Shui-Cai, HOU Xun and KUANG Ting-Yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(12): 1237-1242
      
    

Fluorescence properties of light-harvesting complex LHCⅡ) in photosystem Ⅱ isolated from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) was investigated with the time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopic technique. The sample was excited by double frequency Ti:Al203 laser with 400 nm wavelength and 120 fs width. Fluorescence signal was detected by Boxcar. Three life-time components (320 fs,4.0 ps and 20.0 ps) were obtained by multi-exponential curve model and nonlinear least-square fitting method. Three fluorescence peaks (652 nm, 672 nm, 691 nm) were obtained by Global analysis and Gauss curve fitting. These components were analyzed according to the structural and fluorescence spectroscopic property of LHCⅡ. The fluorescence ratio of each component to that of all the component was 3.4%, 50% and 46.6% respectively. The possible model of energy transfer in LHCⅡ was discussed.

光系统II捕光复合体飞秒时间分辨荧光特性的研究
任兆玉1,2,3 贺俊芳1,2 王水才1侯洵1,2  匡廷云4

(1. 中国科学院西安光学精密机械研究所瞬态光学技术国家重点实验室,西安710068;
2.  西北大学光子学与光子技术研究所,西安710068;3. 西北工业大学应用物理系,西安710072;
4. 中国科学院植物研究所光合作用基础研究开放实验室,北京100093)

摘要:采用时间分辨荧光光谱技术研究了菠菜(Spinacia oleracea L.)叶绿体中捕光色素复合体 (LHCⅡ) 荧光的时间特性和光谱特性.用脉宽为120 fs、波长为400 nm的倍频钛宝石激光激发LHCⅡ样品;原始荧光信号由Boxcar采集,通过建立多指数模型,用非线性最小二乘法拟合,得到了激发能在LHCⅡ中传递的时间常数分别为:320 fs、4.0 ps和20.0 ps.相对应的各组分荧光占总荧光的百分比分别为:3.4%、50.0%和46.6%.经全局分析,解得荧光强度随波长变化曲线;用高斯3峰解叠得到荧光光谱的峰值波长分别为:652 nm、672 nm和691 nm.通过分析得出了时间常数与LHCⅡ中各色素成分之间的对应关系,并给出了可能的能量传递模型.

关键词: 捕光复合体(LHCII);能量传递;时间常数;荧光特性;Chl a/b

Abstract (Browse 2078)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Growth Characteristics and Dynamic Model of Spirulina Under Continuous Culture Conditions
Author: ZENG Wen-Lu, LI Hao-Ran, CONG Wei, CAI Zhao-Ling and OUYANG Fan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(12): 1233-1236
      
    

The growth behavior, photosynthetic productivity and carbon utilizing characteristics of filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis Geitler were investigated in continuous cultures in a 10 L internalloop airlift photobioreactor. It was found that the cell density and the amount of carbon in the reactor increased and decreased with dilution rate respectively, and the relationships among them could well be expressed by the modified Monod equation. When dilution rate was 0.45/d, the rate of cell growth and that of carbon assumption reached their maximum points 0.362 g/(L·d) and 0.177 g/(L·d) respectively. The cell growth yield against carbon was 2.050 g/g. The proposed model of continuous growth fitted the experimental data quite well.

螺旋藻连续培养与动力学模型
曾文炉*  李浩然 丛威 蔡昭铃 欧阳藩
(中国科学院过程工程研究所生化工程国家重点实验室,北京100080)

摘要:在内循环气升式光生物反应器中,研究了钝顶螺旋藻(Spirulina platensis Geitler)细胞的连续生长及其对碳源底物的利用特性.结果表明:随着稀释率的增大,反应器中碳源浓度和细胞浓度分别呈上升和下降趋势,它们之间的关系可用Monod类型的方程很好地加以关联.细胞产率和碳消耗速率与稀释率的关系存在峰值现象:在本实验条件下,最大细胞产率为0.362 g/(L*d),最大碳消耗速率为0.177 g/(L*d),此时稀释率为0.45/d,细胞浓度为OD560=1.282,细胞对碳的得率系数为2.050 g/g.所提出的连续培养动力学模型与实验数据拟合较好.
关键词: 钝顶螺旋藻;光生物反应器;连续培养;动力学;得率系数
Abstract (Browse 2142)  |  Full Text PDF       
Modulating Effects of Acetylcholine on Permeability and Translocation in Etiolated Mesocotyl of Corn Seedling
Author: LAN Ping and LOU Cheng-Hou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(12): 1229-1232
      
    

Comparison of regional permeability and translocation across the node and the internode in the etiolated mesocotyl excised from corn ( Zea mays L.) seedling was made before and after treatment with different concentrations of acetylcholine (AChs). Regional permeability was determined by electrical resistance measurement; and translocation by detecting the distribution of the fluorescent probe (carboxyfluorescein, CF), fed at the cut end of the etiolated coleoptile. The cells constituting the internode were more or less cylindrical in size and arranged more or less parallel to the long axis, whereas those in the node were shorter in length and arranged irregularly. The results showed that the specific electrical resistance across the node was higher than that across the internode. Consequently, short nodal cells with lower intercellular permeability retained more CF than that in the cylindrical internodal cells. Treatment with 0.1 mmol/L ACh could increase the permeability of both node and internode, thus promoting higher rate of CF translocation than that of the control. Variation in material translocation across the node and the internode, as well as its modulation by ACh treatment, can be largely attributed to differences in their intercellular permeability.

乙酰胆碱对黄化玉米幼苗中胚轴通透性与物质运转的调控效应
兰平 娄成后
(中国农业大学生物学院,农业部植物生理生化重点开放实验室,北京100094)

摘要:对乙酰胆碱处理前后的黄化玉米 (ZeamaysL .)幼苗中胚轴切段节和节间的通透性和物质运转进行了比较。用电阻法测定通透性 ;通过加在胚芽鞘切口的经共质体转运的特异荧光物质羧基荧光素 (carboxyfluorescein ,CF)的分布检察物质运转。节间由柱状的、排列方向多少和长轴方向平行的细胞构成 ;而构成节的细胞短、排列不规则。结果表明跨节比电阻比节间的高 ,通透性低的短的节细胞比柱状节间细胞累积更多的CF。 0 .1mmol/L乙酰胆碱 (ACh)处理增加了节和节间的通透性 ,促进了CF的运转。物质在节和节间运转的不同 ,以及ACh对此的调控效应很大程度上可归结于细胞通透性的差异

关键词: 乙酰胆碱;电阻;节;羧基荧光素;运输

Abstract (Browse 1911)  |  Full Text PDF       
Nucleosomal Assembly in Vitro from Crypthecodinium cohnii Chromosomes in the Cell-free System
Author: LIU Xiao-Ling, TAO Wei, GAO Yun-Fei, LU Zhi-Gang and ZHAI Zhong-He
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(12): 1224-1228
      
    

The typical eukaryote interphase nuclei were reconstructed in vitro following incubation of chromosomes of primitive eukaryote dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii E. in extracts of S phase eggs of Xenopus laevis L. Micrococcal nuclease digestion experiments indicated that the reconstructed nuclei contained typical nucleosomes. Since the chromosomes of C. cohnii do not contain histone and nucleosomes, these data suggest that nucleosome assembly is independent of specific DNA sequences, nuclear membranes and Lamin. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that Topoisomerase Ⅱ was partially involved in the process of nucleosome assembly. Taken together, these findings suggest that nuclear assembly is independent of formation of nucleosomes and that histone and non-histone may be the decisive factors in this process.

甲藻染色体在非细胞体系核重建过程中核小体的组装
刘晓玲 陶伟 高云飞 卢智刚 翟中和*

(北京大学生命科学学院,北京100871)

摘要:利用纯化的原始真核生物寇氏隐甲藻(Crypthecodinium cohnii E.)染色体,使之与非洲爪蟾(Xenopus laevis L.)S期卵提取物温育,发现甲藻染色体经历了一系列去凝集、再凝集的形态变化,最后形成类似典型高等真核生物的间期核结构。小球菌核酸酶酶切分析表明,不具备组蛋白和核小体结构的甲藻染色体在非洲爪蟾卵提取物中进行了核小体装配,此过程与DNA序列本身、核膜以及核纤层蛋白(Lamin)是否存在无关,但部分拓扑异构酶Ⅱ(TopoⅡ)参与了这个过程,说明核小体的组装并非为核重建所必需,决定染色体高级结构的因素并不在DNA本身,而可能是非细胞体系中的组蛋白和非组蛋白。

关键词: 甲藻染色体;非细胞体系;核重建;核小体装配

Abstract (Browse 2202)  |  Full Text PDF       
Influence of Low Temperature on Spatial-temporal Changes of Ca2+ in Winter or Spring Wheat
Author: LIU Wei, SUN De-Lan, WANG Hong, JIAN Ling-Cheng, SHANG Zhong-Lin, WANG Xue-Chen and ZHAO Ke-Fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(12): 1218-1223
      
    

Stained with Fluo-3/AM and investigated under the laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM), the spatial-temporal changes of [Ca2+]cyt(the free Ca2+ concentration in the cytoplasm) in the protoplasts of mesophyll cells of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars with different cold-hardiness under resting and temperature decreasing conditions were compared. The results showed that under the resting condition, the fluorescence intensities in the protoplasts of both cold-sensitive and cold-resistant wheat manifested no significant changes, implying that [Ca2+]cyt could keep at a stable level under the resting condition although different wheat cultivars were different. However, different dynamics appeared with temperature decreasing from 15℃ to 2℃. In particular, for the cold-resistant wheat, [Ca2+]cyt level at first increased, followed by drop to the resting level at 2℃, and then increased further when the temperature was below 2℃. On the contrary, the [Ca2+]cyt level of the cold-sensitive spring wheat increased continuously to the maximal level within the whole range of temperature changes. Based on the above observations, it could be reasonably inferred that different dynamics of [Ca2+]cyt determines decisively different cold acclimation abilities of plants. Furthermore, the results provide a new supporting evidence for the hypothesis that Ca2+ plays a key role as a primary physiological transducer upon chilling”.

低温处理对冬、春小麦细胞Ca2+ 时空变化的影响
刘炜1,3 孙德兰1* 王红 简令成1 尚忠林2  王学臣2 赵可夫3

(1 中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093;2.  中国农业大学生物学院,农业部植物生理生化重点开放实验室,北京100094;3.山东师范大学逆境植物研究所,济南250014)

摘要:用Fluo-3/AM染色,通过激光扫描共聚焦显微镜(LSCM)方法,对静息态及连续降温条件下不同抗寒性小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)叶肉细胞原生质体[Ca2+]cyt (the free Ca2+ concentration in the cytoplasm)的时空变化进行了比较.结果表明,静息态下小麦原生质体整体荧光强度基本不变,暗示[Ca2+]cyt能维持在一稳定水平;同时,不同品种小麦间也显示了[Ca2+]cyt水平荧光强度的不同.温度由15 ℃连续降至约2 ℃时,抗寒冬小麦[Ca2+]cyt出现升高后的回复,2 ℃之后逐渐升高;冷敏感春小麦则无此回复过程,而是一直升高到最大值.推测这一不同的动态变化最终决定了植物在低温下产生冷适应的不同能力.这进一步为"Ca2+是低温下生理信号的传导者"这一假说提供了新的证据.

关键词: Flou-3/AM;小麦原生质体;静息态;[Ca2+]cyt时空变化

Abstract (Browse 1915)  |  Full Text PDF       
Photoinhibition in Shaded Cotton Leaves After Exposing to High Light and the Time Course of Its Restoration (in English)
Author: YANG Xing-Hong, ZOU Qi and WANG Wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(12): 1255-1259
      
    

Chlorophyll fluorescence emission, pigment composition and photosynthetic rate of shade-grown cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants were measured immediately after suddenly exposing to full sunlight and at regular intervals there after within 15 d. Photoinhibition occurred in shade-grown cotton leaves immediately after exposed to full sunlight. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv / Fm and ΦPSⅡ , which reflect the efficiency of PSⅡ, obviously decreased in shade-grown leaves, much lower than that of the full sunlight-grown leaves. On the contrary, Fo value was sharply increased. Neither of these parameters could completely recover till next morning. The photoinhibition was chronic and continued for about 4 d, while the Fv / Fm and the net photosynthetic rate ( Pn ) continued to decline, then began to increase gradually 6 d later and turned stable after 10-12 d, appearing as an acclimation phenomenon. However, the final value of Fv / Fm and Pn did not reach the level as in those leaves grown in the full sunlight ever before. The final Pn was higher by 60% than that before exposure, but lower for more than 40% than that of the full sunlight-grown leaves. The most notable response of chloroplast pigment composition was a pronounced increase in the pool size of carotenoids in xanthophyll cycle over a period of 3 d. The results indicated that when shade-grown cotton seedlings were suddenly transferred to the full sunlight, the decline of Fv / Fm and Pn might associate with the damage of the PSⅡ reaction center. During the light acclimation, photoprotective mechanisms such as the xanthophyll cycle-dependent energy dissipation were increased, so that photodamage in leaves transferred from low to high light might be reduced.

遮荫棉花转入强光后光合作用的光抑制及其恢复
杨兴洪1,2 邹琦1* 王玮1

(1. 山东农业大学生命科学学院,泰安"271018;
2.  中国科学院植物研究所光合作用基础研究开放实验室,北京100093)

摘要:研究了遮荫棉花(Gossypium hirsutum L.)突然由遮荫条件暴露在自然强光下时,叶绿素荧光发射、叶绿体色素组成、净光合速率(Pn)等在光照转换当天以及随后的适应过程中(光照转换后15 d内)的变化.遮荫棉花突然转到强光下,叶片发生了严重的光合作用光抑制,叶绿素荧光参数Fv/Fm和ΦPSⅡ急剧降低,且明显低于自然光照下生长的叶片,而Fo值却明显升高.这些参数即使在光照转换的次日清晨也不能完全恢复.Fv/Fm和Pn在光照转换以后的4 d内持续降低,在第6天以后开始逐渐升高,在10~12 d达到稳定值,表现出遮荫棉花叶片对光强变化的一定适应性,但Fv/Fm和Pn均未达到自然光照条件下生长的棉花叶片的相应值.最后的Pn值较遮荫下叶片增加60%,但同自然光照下生长的叶片相比只有后者的40%.试验结果还表明,光照转换以后叶片内叶黄素循环库逐渐增大,在较短的时间内(3 d)即可达到较高的水平.遮荫棉花突然转到自然强光下,叶片Fv/Fm及Pn的降低与PSⅡ反应中心的破坏有关,在对强光的适应过程中依赖叶黄素循环的热耗散等保护机制增强.光保护机制的逐渐完善有助于减轻叶片由遮荫转到强光下遭受的光破坏.

关键词: 棉花;遮荫;光抑制;光保护;叶黄素循环

Abstract (Browse 2097)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ecological Restoration and Sustainable Agricultural Paradigm of Mountain-Oasis-Ecotone-Desert System in the North of the Tianshan Mountains
Author: ZHANG Xin-Shi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(12): 1294-1299
      
    

The mountain-basin system(MBS) in the north of the Tianshan Mountains consists of mountain vegetation vertical belt system and concentric circular vegetation (geologic and geomorphic) system of desert basin. The MBS contains three “circles”: montane, piedmont fan and alluvial plain, including nine belts, viz. alpine belt, montane forest-grassland belt, low-mountain desert belt, gravel gobi desert belt, agricultural oasis, marginal belt of diluvial fan, alluvial desert plain, sandy desert belt, and lake. The above-mentioned zonation is the most essential existence and functional pattern of those precious natural resources. It is the representation of an irresistible rule of the nature and, also, the guidance system of ecological conservation and land use. Basing on this foundation, a “mountain-oasis-oasis/desert ecotone-desert eco-productive paradigm”is proposed. The MBS is its basic frame. Its driving forces are the biogeochemical cycles, biogeophysic process, and biogeosocial interaction, which run through the whole system. Thus, the establishment of a sustainable agricultural system and an optimized land use and land cover structure and pattern, which aimed at ecological conservation, may be possible.

天山北部山地-绿洲!过渡带-荒漠系统的生态建设与可持续农业范式
张新时
(中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学开放研究实验室,北京100093;北京师范大学资源科学研究所,北京100875)

摘要:天山北部的山盆系统由山地植被垂直带系统和荒漠盆地的同心环形(地质-地貌)植被地带所构成.该系统包括:山地、山前倾斜平原和古老冲积平原3个"圈"和其下的高山带、山地森林-草原带、低山荒漠带、砾石戈壁荒漠带、农业绿洲带、扇缘灌草带、冲积平原带、沙漠带和湖泊等9个"带".这些地带是干旱区最本质和弥足珍贵的自然资源的存在和作用方式,也是指导干旱区生态保育和土地利用的、不可违抗的大自然规律的宏观展现.在此基础上所提出的"山地-绿洲-过渡带-荒漠生态-生产范式"以山地和荒漠盆地的植被地带为框架,以贯穿和联系着这一系列环带的生物地球化学循环、生物地球物理过程和生物地球社会经济关系为驱动因素,建立起以可持续农业与生态保育为目的的、优化的土地覆盖与土地利用结构和格局.

关键词: 绿洲;绿洲-荒漠过渡带;荒漠;山盆系统;可持续农业;生态(生产范式

Abstract (Browse 2177)  |  Full Text PDF       
Secretion of Calmodulin in Transgenic SCaM-GFP Tobacco
Author: ZHOU Hua-Lin, MA Li-Geng, LIU Man, MAO Guo-Hong and SUN Da-Ye
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(12): 1300-1302
      
    

The binary vectors which respectively contain chimeric genes ( SCaM1-GFP,SCaM4-GFP ) were constructed and used to transform tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L.), pGTV-GFP was used as control. The plasmolyzed cells of transgenic callus treated with CBW were investigated under the laser scanning confocal microscope. Green fluorescence was found in the cell wall of transgenic SCaM1-GFP callus. However there was no green fluorescence in the cell wall of SCaM4-GFP or GFP transgenic callus. These results indicate that SCaM1 can be secreted into the apoplast of plant cells, while SCaM4 does not exist in the apoplast of plant cells.

转SCaM-GFP融合基因烟草中钙调素分泌特性的研究
周华林 马力耕 刘曼 毛国红 孙大业*

(河北师范大学分子细胞生物学实验室,石家庄050016)
关键词: 大豆钙调素亚型;绿色荧光蛋白;分泌

Abstract (Browse 2059)  |  Full Text PDF       
Distribution and Conservation of an Endangered Wild Rice Oryza granulata in China
Author: QIAN Wei, XIE Zhong-WEN, GE Song and HONG De-Yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(12): 1279-1287
      
    

Nearly Twenty years after the first large-scale field survey on wild rice in China during 1978-1982, we have recently made an extensive survey on Chinese Oryza granulata (Nees et Arn. Ex Watt.), including its current distribution, population characteristics and status of endangerment. Because of the change in the division of administrative areas, the number of counties or cities where the wild rice grows has reached up to 30. Oryza granulata grows normally under the coverage of 90%-210% in the tropical forest with resistance to drought and moderate disturbance. The measurement of aggregation showed that it maintains a colony pattern in the community. Oryza granulata scatters seeds mainly by gravity and animals, causing limited scale of gene flow between local populations and attaining a typical metapopulation structure of the distributional pattern. Our survey revealed that 12.9% of the populations had been extinct, and 83.9% were endangered. The extent of disturbance varied in different areas. Up to date, the majority of the populations grow in the mountainous areas of southwestern Hainan and drainage area of Nanding river, Lancang river of Yunnan, under the threat of human activity. A total DNA bank was established that consists of 1109 individuals from 49 populations. In the practice of conservation, difficulties such as lacking immediate utility and scattered distribution impeded the conservation efficient. However, owing to its characteristics of population genetics, sustainable and ex situ conservation strategies are appropriate in some places to salvage this important rice germplasm.

中国疣粒野生稻的分布、濒危现状和保护前景
钱韦* 谢中稳 葛颂**  洪德元
(中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学开放研究实验室,北京100093)

摘要:继1978~1982年全国野生稻普查后,又一次对中国疣粒野生稻(Oryza granulata (Nees et Arn. Ex Watt.))主要分布点的居群特征、濒危现状和破坏情况进行了野外生态学研究.由于行政区划的改变,目前疣粒野生稻在中国分布的市(县)达30个.它在群落盖度为90%~210%下生长良好,具有抗旱和适应中度干扰的能力.聚集参数分析表明在群落中居群以集群分布为主.该物种主要通过重力和动物传播种子,居群间的基因流有限,形成了典型的集合种群 (metapopulation)结构.生境丧失对疣粒野生稻的生长造成非常严重的后果,已有12.9%的疣粒野生稻居群灭绝,83.9%的居群处于中度和重度的干扰之下.由于各地区的破坏程度不平衡,目前疣粒野生稻的分布被压缩到海南省的西南部山区和云南省的澜沧江中下游、南汀河流域,面临热区开发的巨大威胁.研究中建立了中国疣粒野生稻的总DNA库,作为易位保护的手段之一和开展保护遗传学研究的基础;并讨论了居群遗传结构与居群分布格局之间的相互关系和保护中需注意的问题.

关键词: 疣粒野生稻;濒危现状;保护;集合种群

Abstract (Browse 2148)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structure and Dynamics of Abies fabri Population Near the Alpine Timberline in Hailuo Clough of Gongga Mountain
Author: SHEN Ze-Hao, FANG Jing-Yun, LIU Zeng-Li and WU Jie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(12): 1288-1293
      
    

Through a detailed field study on a 1.0 hm plot at 3 580 m a.s.l. in Hailuo clough of Gongga Mountain, the characteristics of individual growth, population structure and dynamics, natural disturbance and gap regeneration of the timberline population of Abies fabri Craib were analyzed. The results suggested that, while apparent stresses on the development of configuration, and growth of height and diameter were shown in A. fabri individuals, the effect on regeneration was undetected. An intensive environmental selection and competitive self-thinning were detected at the age of 0-20 a and 60-140 a respectively through the specific-time life table and the survivorship curves of the timberline population. The fluctuation of death rate in the later stage was also shown to be relative to environmental variation. The life limit of A. fabri is 400 a or so near the upper timberline. The A. fabri population near timberline is disturbed by the gaps in a high frequency and small scale. Although 86.4% of the gaps are induced by more than one gap-maker, most of them are small as the major gap-maker A. fabri died standing. Disease, ice and snow, and hitting by the dead trees are the main causes of gaps, whereas wind is not an important disturbance agent near the timberline. The seedling of A. fabri is fairly shade-tolerant, although the regeneration of the species shows dependence on the existence of gaps. More than one factor on different spatial scales should be responsible for the regeneration pattern of A. fabri.

贡嘎山海螺沟林线附近峨眉冷杉种群的结构与动态
沈泽昊1 方精云1  刘增力1 伍 杰2

(1. 北京大学城市与环境学系,北京100871;2.  四川省甘孜州林业科学研究所,四川姑咱626001)

摘要:通过对贡嘎山海螺沟海拔3 580 m处1.0 hm2峨眉冷杉(Abies fabri Craib)林的定位调查,分析了峨眉冷杉的个体生长、种群结构与动态、干扰及更新特征.结果表明:1)林线附近的环境胁迫影响了个体的形态发育和高、径生长,但对其更新繁殖无明显影响;2)静态生命表和种群生存曲线反映了20 a以前和60~140 a分别经历的强烈环境筛选和竞争自疏,以及后期与环境变化相关的死亡率波动,峨眉冷杉寿命极限为400 a左右.3)林线种群遭受高频率、小规模的林隙干扰.尽管86.4%的林隙由多木形成,但死亡的峨眉冷杉以枯立为主导致林隙较小;病害、冰雪和死树的打压是林隙形成的重要因素,而风不是这里林线环境的主要自然干扰.4)峨眉冷杉的幼苗表现了相当的耐荫性,尽管其更新依赖林隙的存在,但更新格局存在多尺度的成因.

关键词: 贡嘎山;峨眉冷杉;林线;种群动态;更新;干扰

Abstract (Browse 2292)  |  Full Text PDF       
Variation of Breeding Systems in Populations of Caragana intermedia (Leguminosae ) in Maowusu Sandy Grassland
Author: ZHOU Yong-Gang, WANG Hong-Xin and HU Zhi-Ang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(12): 1307-1309
      
    

Maowusu sandy grassland locating at an ecotone between typical desert and typical grassland contained several landscape ecotypes or elements where Caragana intermedia Kuang et H.C.Fu naturally distributed as a dominant species in shrub ecosystems. Based on a phenomenon of gene segregation of open-pollinated seeds within each plants similar to Mendel's segregation in F2, a study on testing the breeding systems of populations under 4 landscape ecotypes was conducted. Statistical data showed its availability in estimation of breeding system parameters when isozymes were used as genetic markers. Nei's genetic differentiation GST among 4 ecotypes in Maowusu was estimated at 0.07 from lap loci close to a GST =0.076 reported in the authors' laboratory. The results indicated that breeding systems of populations gradually changed from total outbreeding to partial inbreeding when water conditions worsened. Therefore, the former RAPD data, especially the cline of frequencies for a few polymorphic DNAs in different landscapes can be partially explained by gene fixation caused by selfing or inbreeding probably induced by drought. It was difficult to assess breeding system parameters by using one dimensional SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of seed proteins of C. intermedia simply due to a difficulty of genetic analysis of seed protein subunits.

毛乌素沙地中间锦鸡儿群体繁育系统的变化
周永刚 王洪新 胡志昂*

(中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093)
关键词: 中间锦鸡儿;生态过渡带;繁育系统;基因随机固定;水分胁迫

Abstract (Browse 1919)  |  Full Text PDF       
Action of Reactive Oxygen Species in Laminaria japonica Against Infection by Alginic Acid Decomposing Bacteria
Author: TANG Xue-Xi, WANG You, HUANG Jian, YANG Zhen and GONG Xiang-Zhong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(12): 1303-1306
      
    

With highly infective activity, and the production and role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Laminaria japonica Aresch against infection by five strains of alginic acid decomposing bacteria were investigated. The results were as follows: 1. The production of reactive oxygen species in L. japonica during infection of alginic acid decomposing bacteria was an universal response. 2. The massive production of reactive oxygen species occurred only at early stage of infection and decreased gradually accompaning with the decrease of photosynthesis. 3. The notable decline of ROS production occurred earlier than that of photosynthesis. 4. The rate of production of ROS at early infective stage was related to the resistance of L. japonica against infection.

活性氧在海带抗褐藻酸降解菌感染中的作用
唐学玺 王悠 黄健 杨震 宫相忠
(青岛海洋大学海洋生命学院,青岛266003)
关键词: 活性氧;海带;褐藻酸降解菌;感染

Abstract (Browse 2058)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Phylogenetic and Biogeographic Study of Cercis (Leguminosae)
Author: HAO Gang, ZHANG Dian-Xiang, GUO Li-Xiu, ZHANG Ming-Yong, DENG Yun-Fei and WEN Xi ang-Ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(12): 1275-1278
      
    

Cercis (L.) (Leguminosae) consists of approximately 8 species, disjunctly distributed in eastern and western Asia, southern Europe, and North America. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The two North American and one Southern European and Western Asian species consistently form a clade, nesting within the eastern Asian species, suggesting a slightly closer relationship between the North American and Southern Europe-Western Asian species than each with the Eastern Asian species of Cercis . A close relationship between the eastern and western North American species is furthermore demonstrated, although with weaker support. The possibilities of migration via either the Bering land bridges or the North Atlantic land bridges could not be precluded; it suggests that the biogeographic patterns in the Northern Hemisphere are complex.

紫荆属的系统发育和生物地理学研究
郝刚 张奠湘* 郭丽秀 张明永 邓云飞 文香英
(中国科学院华南植物研究所,广州51065)

摘要:紫荆属 (CercisL .)约含 8种 ,间断分布于亚洲东、西部 ,欧洲南部和北美。应用核糖体DNA的ITS基因序列研究紫荆属的系统发育关系。在最简约性分析中 ,北美的两个种和南欧、西亚的一个种构成一单系群而隐藏于东亚的种类中。这表明紫荆属北美的种类和南欧、西亚的种类之间的关系比它们各自与东亚的种类的关系要密切。研究还发现北美洲东、西部的种类可能具较近亲缘。紫荆属以白令陆桥或北大西洋陆桥为迁移途径的可能性似乎都不能排除 ;北半球的生物地理分布式样可能具有复杂的起源

关键词: 紫荆属;豆科;系统发育;ITS;生物地理;亚洲;北美洲;间断分布

Abstract (Browse 2292)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation of Lycopene |?-Cyclase cDNA from Daucus carota and Its Differential Expression in Roots
Author: CHEN Da-Ming, XUE Ying, LIU Jing-Mei, WANG Yong-Jian and CHEN Hang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(12): 1265-1270
      
    

A full-length cDNA for lycopene β-cyclase (LYC-b) was isolated from carrot ( Daucus carota L.) roots by 5′ and 3′ RACE. The cDNA is 2 089 bp long with an open reading frame of 1 515 bp, which encodes a polypeptide of 505 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA is significantly conserved as compared with those of LYC-b from tomato ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.), tobacco ( Nicotiana rustica L.) and pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.), but with difference from those of the bacteria such as Agrobacterium aurantiacum Conn and Erwinia uredovora (Pon et al .) Mergaert et al . In contrast to orange roots of the variety CA201 which contains rich α- and β-carotene, and shows rather high level of the level of LYC-b mRNA, expression of the LYC-b is suppressed severely in purple roots of the variety “Qitouhong" containing high level of lycopene and low level of α- and β-carotene, leading apparent accumulation of the lycopene in “Qitouhong" roots due to low transcriptional activity of the LYC-b gene.

胡萝卜茄红素B-环化酶cDNA的分离及其在肉质根中的差异表达
陈大明*  薛颖 刘敬梅 王永健 陈杭
(北京市农林科学院蔬菜研究中心,北京100089)

摘要:利用 5′和 3′RACE技术从胡萝卜 (DaucuscarotaL .)肉质根中分离了茄红素 β_环化酶基因的全长cDNA。该cDNA长 2 0 89bp ,包含一个 15 15bp的开放阅读框架 ,所编码的肽链长 5 0 5个氨基酸 ,其一级结构与番茄 (Lycoper sicumesculentum Mill.)、烟草 (Nicotianarustica L .)和辣椒 (Capsicumfrutescens L .)等植物的茄红素 β-环化酶高度同源。茄红素 β-环化酶在胡萝卜肉质根中的表达受品种特异性的调控 ,在CA2 0 1胡萝卜肉质根中表达十分活跃 ,而在“齐头红”胡萝卜肉质根中该基因的表达受到了强烈的抑制 ,导致茄红素在细胞中大量积累

关键词: 胡萝卜;茄红素β-环化酶;类胡萝卜素生物合成;基因表达

Abstract (Browse 2077)  |  Full Text PDF       
Expression of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Gene in Cyanobacteria
Author: DAI Wei, SHI Ding-Ji, ZHANG Hui, ZHONG Hui, RAN Liang, PENG Guo-Hong, GAN Ren-Bao, CHEN Su-Juan, LIAN Mu-Lan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(12): 1260-1264
      
    

The human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) is a small single-chain polypeptide of 53 amino acid residues. It can stimulate the proliferation of many cell types, mainly those of epidermal and epithelial tissues both in vivo and in vitro . A vector pRL-hEGF was constructed using plasmids pRL-489 and pUC-hEGF. The synthetic hEGF gene was recombined into the downstream of strong promoter psbA in plasmids pRL-489. Then, the vector was introduced into Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 by triparental conjugative transfer. The transformation was confirmed by PCR amplification. The pRL-hEGF is thought to be retained as a plasmid form in the transgenic Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, since it can be recovered. However, it has been integrated into the chromosome of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 as there is no duplication origin in the pRL-hEGF in this cyanobacterium and plasmid cannot be isolated from the Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 either. The radioimmunoassay (RIA) proved that the hEGF gene has been expressed as the protein existed in these two strains of transgenic cyanobacteria, and the hEGF protein in Anabaena sp. PCC 7002 could be secreted into the medium.

人表皮生长因子(hEGF)基因在蓝藻中的表达
戴? 1,2 施定基1* 张卉1,2  钟晖3  冉亮1 彭国宏4 甘人宝5  陈素娟3 连慕兰2

(1.  中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093;2. 北京师范大学生命科学学院,北京100875;3.  解放军301 医院东亚免疫研究所,
北京100853;4.  中国科学院海洋研究所,青岛266071; 5.  中国科学院生物化学研究所,上海200031)

摘要:人表皮生长因子(hEGF)是由53个氨基酸组成的蛋白,在临床上内服与外敷可促进内外表皮细胞的生长.将人工合成的hEGF基因连接到质粒pRL-489上,位于启动子psbA下游.验证连接成功后,用三亲接合转移方法将载体pRL-hEGF导入聚球藻Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002和鱼腥藻Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.由于pRL-hEGF没有能在单细胞蓝藻中自主复制的复制子,通过筛选,hEGF在聚球藻7002中是整合到蓝藻染色体上进行表达的.用PCR扩增的方法在两种转基因藻中均检测到hEGF基因的存在.放射免疫分析证明,hEGF基因在两种转基因藻中均得到了表达.而且,在聚球藻7002中是采用分泌形式将表达产物分泌到培养液中.

关键词: 人表皮生长因子;鱼腥藻Anabaena sp.PCC7120;聚球藻Synechococcus.sp.PCC7002;载体;转基因蓝藻;三亲接合转移

Abstract (Browse 2288)  |  Full Text PDF       
RAPD Detection of Pollen Contamination in Cross Breeding of Liriodendron (in English)
Author: LI Zhou-Qi and WANG Zhang-Rong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(12): 1271-1274
      
    

Based on the biology peculiarity of Liriodendron L., the non-bagged pollination technique was used widely in cross breeding of the genus. Theoretical analysis and indirect detection indicated that the pollen contamination rate of this pollination technique was no higher than 1%. But there is no evidence from direct detection by now. The pollen contamination rate produced in this pollination technique, for the first time, was detected by means of RAPD markers in this study. The results revealed that all the 93 progenies detected, derived from the non-bagged pollination technique, were progenies of the purpose male tree of the cross. No pollen contamination was found. Because the frequency of the 4 paternal marker fragments selected for the detection were relatively low in the population, the reliability of the pollen contamination rate detected was very high (>99%). Therefore, the non-bagged pollination technique is viable in Liriodendron . The authors also considered that RAPD markers had higher potential of use in other fields of botanic study such as pollen competition, pollen flow, pollen contamination of forest seed orchard, etc.

用RAPD标记检测鹅掌楸属种间杂交的花粉污染
李周岐1,2* 王章荣**

(1. 西北农林科技大学林学院,陕西杨凌712100;2. 南京林业大学森林资源与环境学院,南京210037)

摘要:根据鹅掌楸属(Liriodendron L.)的生物学特点,实践上常采用不套袋杂交授粉技术,理论分析和间接检测结果证明这种杂交授粉方式的花粉污染率低于1%,但到目前为止仍缺乏直接的检测证据.本试验首次采用RAPD标记对鹅掌楸属种间不套袋杂交授粉的花粉污染率进行了检测,结果证明93个受检不套袋杂交授粉子代均来自目的父本,而非花粉污染所致.通过对所用4个父本标记谱带在试验群体中出现频率的测定和分析,证明这种检测结果的可靠性大于99%,从而认为对鹅掌楸属进行不套袋杂交授粉是可行的.并就这一方法在植物学研究领域的应用潜力进行了讨论.

关键词: RAPD;花粉污染;鹅掌楸属;杂交育种

Abstract (Browse 2049)  |  Full Text PDF       
Signal Transduction in Pollen Germination and Tube Growth
Author: SUN Ying and SUN Da-Ye
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(12): 1211-1217
      
    

Pollen germination and tube growth are a developmental stage in fertilization of flowering plants during which the complex interactions between female and male cells take place. In this process, extracellular signal molecules are the main regulating factors that can induce signal transduction cascade in the two sexual cells. The present review attempts to summarize the advances in this research field.

花粉萌发和花粉管生长发育的信号转导
孙颖 孙大业*

(河北师范大学分子细胞生物学研究室,石家庄050016)
关键词: 花粉;花粉管;萌发;生长;信号转导

Abstract (Browse 2058)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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