March 2001, Volume 43 Issue 3

 

          Research Articles
The Influence of Plant Diversity and Functional Composition on Ecosystem Stability of Four StipaCommunities in the Inner Mongolia Plateau
Author: BAI Yong-Fei, LI Ling-Hao, HUANG Jian-Hui, CHEN Zuo-Zhong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(3): 280-287
      
    

The main purpose of this study was to examine the effects of plant species diversity and functional composition (the identity of the plant functional groups) on ecosystem stability of Stipa communities in the Inner Mongolia Plateau. The research work was based on a 12-year study (from 1984 to 1995) of species abundance, diversity, and primary productivity of four Stipa communities, i.e. S. baicalensis Roshev., S. grandis P. Smirn., S. krylovii Roshev., and S. klemenzii Roshev. respectively. The Shnnon-Wiener index was used as a measurement of plant diversity, while functional composition was used to differentiate the functional groups that were included in the communities. The plant species of four Stipa communities were classified into functional groups based on the differences in life forms and ecological groups, which influence their performance in resource requirements, seasonality of growth, tolerance to water stress, and life history. Plant species were classified into five functional groups based on their differences in life form, shrubs and half shrubs, perennial bunch grasses, perennial rhizome grasses, forbs, annuals and biennials. Based on their differences in water requirement these species were classified into four functional groups: xerads, intermediate xerads, intermediate mesophytes, and mesophytes. The results showed: 1) Plant species diversity stabilized ecosystem processes. Shannon-Wiener index were 2.4014, 2.1720, 1.6248, 0.3543 from S. baicalensis community to S. grandis, S. krylovii and S. klemenzii community, respectively. The dynamics of the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) for a 12-year's period showed a reverse pattern, the coefficients of variation of the four communities were 21.94%, 20.63%, 29.21% and 39.72% respectively. 2) The life form functional group component of diversity was a greater determinant of the ecosystem processes than the species component of diversity. The effects of perennial bunch grasses, perennial rhizome grasses and forbs on community stability were highly significant. 3) The ecological group component of diversity was also a great determinant of the ecosystem processes. The effects of xerads, intermediate xerads, and mesophytes on community stability were also very strong.

内蒙古高原针茅草原植物多样性与植物功能群组成对群落初级生产力稳定性的影响
白永飞 李凌浩 黄建辉 陈佐忠
(中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学开放研究实验室,北京100093)

摘要: 内蒙古高原4类地带性草原群落 ,贝加尔针茅 (StipabaicalensisRoshev .)群落、大针茅 (S .grandisP .Smirn .)群落、克氏针茅 (S .kryloviiRoshev .)群落和小针茅 (S .klemenziiRoshev .)群落初级生产力连续 12年的定位研究结果表明 ,在气候波动下群落生产力及其稳定性与群落多样性特征的变化是一致的 ,从贝加尔针茅群落到小针茅群落 ,植物多样性显著下降 ,群落中起重要作用的植物功能群的数量逐渐减少 ,群落初级生产力及其稳定性也逐渐降低。植物生活型功能群组成中 ,多年生丛生禾草、多年生根茎禾草与苔草和多年生杂类草功能群多样性与群落初级生产力稳定性极显著地呈正相关。生态类群组成中 ,旱生植物和中旱生植物功能群多样性也与群落初级生产力稳定性极显著地呈正相关。生态位互补效应 (nichecomplementaryeffect)可能是高植物多样性群落具有高生产力的机制 ,而植物多样性对群落初级生产力稳定性的影响可能是通过不同功能群间的补偿作用来实现的

关键词: 针茅草原;初级生产力;稳定性;植物多样性;功能群组成

Abstract (Browse 2320)  |  Full Text PDF       
Characterization of Fertility Alteration in 8 Environment-sensitive Genic Male-sterile Lines of indica Rice
Author: MOU Tong-Min, CAO Bing, HUANG Zong-Hong, YANG Guo-Cai, Z LIN You-Zhen, XIANG Guan-Lun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(3): 238-242
      
    

Eight indica (Oryza sativa L.) environment-sensitive genic male-sterile (EGMS) lines, 2-2S, K1405S, F131S, 2136S, Pei-Ai 64S, 1290S, GD-1S and N17S, were sequentially seeded with 10-15 d interval at three sites, Wuhan in 1997, Guiyang in 1997 and Sanya in 1997 and 1998, China. The results of investigations on self-sterilities showed that all of eight EGMS lines had stable sterile periods of longer than 30 d at Wuhan. They can be used for seed production of two-line hybrid rice, but can not reproduce themselves. Their stable sterile periods were shorter than 30 d at Guiyang, they can reproduce themselves and can not be used for hybrid seed production. In Sanya, their stable sterile periods were longer than 150 d, all of eight lines can be used for seed production in summer and autumn and reproduce themselves in winter. The fertility of all eight lines were sensitive to temperature. The sensitive stages, sensitive duration and critical point of temperatures (CPT) of fertility alteration in various lines were different. The sensitive stages of 2-2S and K1405S were from 18 d to 9 d before heading, the sensitive durations were 7-10 d and the CPTs were 23.7-24.5 ℃. The sensitive stage, sensitive duration and CPT of F131S were from 17 to 5 d before heading, 13 d and 24.3-24.7 ℃, respectively. The sensitive stage, sensitive duration and CPT of 2136S were from 18 to 12 d before heading, 7 d and 24.6-25.1 ℃, respectively. The sensitive stages, sensitive durations of Pei-Ai 64S, 1290S, N17S and GD-1S were from 24 to 13 d before heading and 10-13 d. And their CPTs were 24.6-25.1 ℃, 25.5-26.2 ℃, 25.4-26.1 ℃, and 24.1-24.7 ℃, respectively.

8 个籼型水稻环境敏感核不育系的育性转换特性研究
牟同敏1 曹兵2 黄宗洪 杨国才1  林尤珍2 向关伦3

(1. 湖北省农业科学院杂交水稻工程技术研究中心,武汉430064;2. 海南省农业科学院水稻研究所,海口571000
3.  贵州省农业科学院水稻研究所,贵阳550006)

摘要:在武汉、贵阳 (1997年 )和三亚 (1997~ 1998年 ) 3个生态点 ,对 8个籼型水稻 (Oryzasativa L .ssp .indica)环境敏感核不育系 (2-2S、K140 5S、F131S、2 136S、Pei-Ai6 4S、12 90S、GD_1S和N17S)进行分期播种试验 ,每期相隔 10~ 15d ,考察自交不育度的动态变化。结果表明 ,8个不育系在武汉的稳定不育期均长于 30d ,在贵阳的稳定不育期均短于 30d ,在三亚的稳定不育期均长于 15 0d。 8个不育系的育性表达均表现对温度敏感 ,但不同的不育系育性转换的敏感时期、敏感期的长短和临界温度是不同的。 2-2S和K140 5S的敏感时期位于抽穗前的第 18天至第 9天 ,敏感期为 7~ 10d ,育性转换的临界温度为 2 3.7~ 2 4.5℃。F131S的敏感时期位于抽穗前的第 17天至第 5天 ,敏感期为13d ,育性转换的临界温度为 2 4.3~ 2 4.7℃。 2 136S的敏感时期位于抽穗前的第 18天至第 12天 ,敏感期为 7d ,育性转换的临界温度为 2 4.6~ 2 5 .1℃。Pei_Ai6 4S、12 90S、GD_1S和N17S的敏感时期位于抽穗前的第 2 4天至第 11天 ,敏感期为 7~ 13d ,育性转换的临界温度分别为 2 4.3~ 2 4.7℃、2 5 .5~ 2 6 .2℃、2 5 .4~ 2 6 .1℃和 2 4.1~ 2 4.7℃

关键词: 水稻;环境敏感核不育系;育性表达;敏感时期;育性转换临界温度

Abstract (Browse 2082)  |  Full Text PDF       
Agronomic Trait and Protein Component of F2 Hybrid Originated from Intergeneric Somatic Hybridization Between Triticum aestivumand Agropyron elongatum
Author: XIANG Feng-Ning, FENG Bao-Min, XIA Guang-Min, CHEN Hui-Min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(3): 232-237
      
    

Protoplasts derived from common wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. cv. Jinan 177) were fused with UV-treated protoplasts of Agropyron elongatum (Host) Nevski by PEG method, and fertile asymmetric somatic hybrid plants resembling wheat morphology were obtained. The F2 hybrid plants could be divided into 3 types according to their morphology. Type Ⅰ hybrids had high and loosely standing stalks with big spikes and grains. TypeⅡ hybrids were dwarf and compact in shape with high tillering ability and smaller spikes. Type Ⅲ hybrids were similar to typeⅠas a whole but had more compact and erect spikes. All the F2 hybrid lines were superior to wheat in seed protein content, although some difference existed between themselves. Protein analysis of immature embryos and flag leaves from hybrids by two-dimensional electrophoresis showed that they possessed characteristic proteins of both parents and some new proteins. There existed also some different kinds of proteins in different lines.

小麦与高冰草体细胞杂种F2 性状和蛋白质组分
向凤宁 保民夏 夏光敏* 陈惠民
(山东大学生命科学学院,济南250100)

摘要: 普通小麦(Triticum aestvum L.)“济南177”原生质体和经紫外线照射的高冰草(Agropyton elongatum (Host)Nevski)原生质体(供体)用PEG法诱导融合,形成外形偏像小麦的不对称体细胞杂种植株及后代,F2代株系可分为3种类型:1.株型松散、大穗大粒;2.株型直立紧凑、分蘖多、中穗型;3.大穗大粒直立型。蛋白质含量明显优于亲本小麦,株系之间也存在显著差异;采用微IEF/SDS-PAGE双向电泳技术分析杂种F2代植株旗叶及幼胚蛋白质组分可见,杂种不仅含有双亲的蛋白质组,而且还产生了特异的新蛋白;不同杂种株系间蛋白质组分差异明显。

关键词: F2代体细胞杂种后代;小麦;高冰草;双向电泳;粗蛋白含量;蛋白质组分

Abstract (Browse 2198)  |  Full Text PDF       
An Antioxidant Acidic Polysaccharide from Cuscuta chinensis
Author: WANG Zhan, FANG Ji-Nian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(3): 243-248
      
    

An acidic polysaccharide, H2, was isolated from the alkali-extract CHC of seeds of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. with the molecular weight more than 1.0×106. Chemical and spectroscopic studies led to the structure determination as follows: the backbone chain consists of 1,6-linked-β- D Galp, 1,4-linked-β- D Galp, 1,4-linked-β- D GalA and 1,2- or 1,4-linked-β- L Rhap having branching points at position O-3 of some 1,6-linked-β- D Galp residues (one among eight) and O-4 or O-2 of 1,2- or 1,4-linked-β- L Rhap residues to terminal β-D-galactopyranose. The side chains composed of terminal Galp, 1,6-linked-β- D Galp, 1,4-linked β- D Galp and 1,3,6-linked-β- D Galp also linked at position O-3 of 1,6-linked-β- D Galp residues in the backbone chain. β- L -arabinofuranosyl and terminal β- L -rhamnopyranosyl residues existed in the periphery of this polysaccharide linked to O-3 of 1,6-linked-β- D Galp residues in the backbone chain and the side chains. The polysaccharide H2 increased significantly the survival rate of PC12 cells indicating that it had protective effects against H2O2 insult.

具有抗氧化活性的酸性菟丝子多糖H2的研究
王展 方积年*

(中国科学院上海药物研究所,上海200031)

摘要: 从药用植物菟丝子 (Cuscutachinensis Lam .)的种子中经碱液提取所得的粗多糖CHC ,经进一步分离纯化得一酸性纯多糖H2 ,其分子量大于 1.0× 10 6,利用化学方法和光谱分析方法对其结构进行了研究。多糖H2由 1,6-linked-β-DGalp、1,4-linked-β-DGalp、1,4-linked-β-DGalA和 1,2or 4-linked-β-L-Rhap构成主链 ,并在部分1,6-linked-β-DGalp残基的O-3位和 1,2or 4-linked-β-L-Rhap残基的O-4或O-2形成分枝点 ,以末端半乳糖构成末端。侧链由末端半乳糖 ,1,6-linked-β-DGalp、1,4-linked-β-DGalp和 1,3,6-linked-β-DGalp残基构成 ,连接于主链的1,6-linked-β-DGalp残基的O-3位。阿拉伯糖残基 1,5-linkedAra、1,3,5-linkedAra、末端Ara以及末端鼠李糖残基存在于多糖分子H2的外周 ,连接于侧链和主链的 1,6-linked-β-DGalp残基的O-3位。此外 ,药理研究结果显示 ,H2能减少自由基引起的对大鼠成嗜铬细胞瘤PC12神经细胞系的损伤 ,明显提高细胞的存活率
 

关键词: 菟丝子;旋花科;多糖PC12细胞

Abstract (Browse 2061)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Crystalline Growth of O2-susceptible Proteins in Space
Author: DONG Zhi-Gang, WANG Yao-Ping, HAN Yi, GONG Hai-Yun, WANG Dao-Yong, LU Jian-Hua, HUANG Ju-Fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(3): 256-260
      
    

In order to meet the requirement for crystalline growth of O2-susceptible proteins in space, crystallization conditions on the earth was optimized for the proteins using a simple and suitable device for anaerobic addition of the protein samples. Nitrogenase is susceptible to O2. ΔnifZ MoFe protein from a nifZ deleted strain and MnFe protein from mutant strain UW3 grown on a medium containing Mn were crystallized at the first time in the world using an anaerobic device equipped with plastic bags or using a small simplified box, as a replacement for the cumbersome dry box. And the proteins could be also crystallized far from laboratory by sitting-drop method using a much lighter device. It was equipped with a smaller plastic food bag and a first-aid bag filled with Ar, as a substitute for the cumbersome dry box and the Ar cylinder, respectively. The results showed that the device could meet the requirement for studies on crystal growth of the above anaerobic proteins in space.

氧敏感蛋白空间晶体生长的研究
董志刚1 王耀萍2  韩毅2 龚海韵2  汪道涌1 陆建华1 黄巨富1*

(1.  中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093;2. 中国科学院生物物理研究所,北京100101)

摘要: 为适应固氮酶蛋白等厌氧蛋白质空间晶体生长的要求 ,应在地面用简易而适用的厌氧加样装置以优化这类蛋白的结晶条件。用塑料袋或简易箱代替固氮酶实验室常用的笨重厌氧箱 ,获得了缺失nifZ固氮菌 (Azotobactervinelandii Lipmann)突变种的MoFe蛋白和含锰固氮培养基中生长的UW3 的MnFe蛋白晶体。并在远离固氮酶实验室的地方 ,使用由小食品塑料袋和急救用的氩气袋组成的更轻便的厌氧装置 ,用坐滴法也能使这两种蛋白结晶出来。结果表明 ,利用上述简易厌氧装置有望达到以上 2种厌氧蛋白空间晶体生长的要求。

关键词: 氧敏感蛋白;空间晶体生长

Abstract (Browse 1958)  |  Full Text PDF       
Leaf Volatiles Induced by Mechanical Damage from Diverse Taxonomic Tree Species
Author: PING Li-Yan, SHEN Ying-Bai, JIN You-Ju, HAO Jian-Hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(3): 261-266
      
    

Plant volatiles induced by wounding play key roles in plant-insect and plant-plant interactions. To deeply understand the mechanism of their induction by wounding and their functions in interplant communications, four diverse tree species: ashleaf maples ( Acer negundo L.), hankow willow ( Salix matsudana Koidz.), Chinese white poplar ( Populus tomentosa Carr.) and poplar opera 8277 ( P. simonii×P. pyramibalis cv.), were used as materials. The blends of volatiles collected after damage were detected with GC-MS. Most of the induced compounds reach high concentrations in 5 h. They are acyclic monoterpenes, fatty acid derivatives, and aromatic compounds. To authors' knowledge, dimethyl adipate, diisobutyl succinate and benthothiazole have never been reported in previous herbivore insect-plant systems. After being damaged 2 h, green leaf volatiles were released in large amount. The repellents were detected in higher concentration after 24 h. The time of releasing is different within different species, but many kinds of volatiles widely existed in different trees. There were some difference among species. Health ashleaf maple released more terpenoids, but poplars and willow produced more aromatic compounds.

几个树种机械损伤诱导挥发物的比较初报
平立岩1  沈应柏1*  金幼菊1 郝建华2

(1. 北京林业大学生物学院,北京10008;2.  北京林业大学资源与环境学院,北京100083)

摘要: 植物创伤诱导挥发物在植物与昆虫、植物与植物之间的相互关系中起着非常重要的信号作用。为了深入了解其诱导机制并探讨植株间信号传导 ,选择了复叶槭 (Acernegundo L .)、旱柳 (Salixmatsudana Koidz.)、毛白杨(Populustomentosa Carr.)、合作杨 (P .simonii×P .pyramibalis cv .)等 4个树种 ,利用气相色谱质谱联用技术对人为损伤后的挥发物变化情况进行了研究。多数诱导挥发物在 5h左右达到高峰 ,主要是开环单萜、脂肪酸衍生物和芳香族化合物。己二酸二甲酯、丁二酸二异丁酯、苯骈噻唑在以前的昆虫 草本植物系统中未见报道。损伤 2h后绿叶气味即已大量产生 ,其他化合物变化不大。驱避物质 2 4h后挥发量很大。不同树种在释放时间上也存在明显差异 ,但有些化合物广泛存在于不同树种。挥发物在种间存在差异 ,正常的复叶槭挥发大量的萜烯 ,而杨柳产生苯系物较多。

关键词: 挥发物;损伤;气相色谱质谱联用技术;萜烯化合物;脂肪酸衍生物;芳香族化合物
 

Abstract (Browse 1999)  |  Full Text PDF       
Phylogenetic Relationship ofPopulusSections by ITS Sequence Analysis
Author: SHI Quan-Liang, ZHUGE Qiang, HUANG Min-Ren, WANG Ming-Xiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(3): 323-325
      
    

ITS sequences of 15 representative species of five sections in the genus Populus L. were determined. By using direct sequencing of PCR product, it was found that the fragments of internal transcribed spacers (ITS) are about 594 bp in length. The length of ITS-1 and ITS-2 is about 220 bp and 210 bp, respectively, while that of 5.8s is 164 bp. Its G+C content is about 69.0%. The number of phylogenetically informative loci is higher in ITS-2 than in ITS-1. Transversion and transition are two main factors that drive the ITS evolution, and more insertions and deletions occurred in ITS-2. Taking Salix matsudana Koidz. and Salix suchowensis Cheng as outgroups, phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences using PAUP 4.0 software indicated that Populus is monophyletic group and can be divided into two main clades. One is the section Leuce , and the other is the remaining sections.

用ITS序列研究杨属各组之间的系统发育关系
史全良 诸葛强 黄敏仁*王明庥
(南京林业大学林木遗传和基因工程国家林业局重点实验室,南京210037)
关键词: 杨树;内转录间隔区(ITS)序列;系统发育

Abstract (Browse 1978)  |  Full Text PDF       
Transformation of Pea Lectin Gene and Parasponia Haemoglobin Gene into Rice and Their Expressions
Author: ZHANG Jing-Xian, WANG Yi-Ping, SHEN Shi-Hua, WANG Yi-Qun,GAO Yue-Feng, SHAN Xue-Qin, JING Yu-Xiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(3): 267-274
      
    

Lectin and leghemoglobin in legumes play the important roles, respectively, in recognition of host plants to their rhizobial bacteria, and lowering the oxygen partial pressure around bacteroids and protecting nitrogenase from oxygen in symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodules. In order to extend the host range of the rhizobial bacteria and to make them fix nitrogen in non-legumes, pea lectin gene ( pl ) and Parasponia hemoglobin gene ( phb ) have been constructed into a plant expression vector (pCBHUL) and the vector pCBHUL was introduced into rice calli from immature young embryos by particle bombardment. After the calli were regenerated into plantlets on the resistant-selecting media containing hygromycin, they were identified by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. It was indicated that the pl and phb genes were integrated into nucleic genome of the transformed rice plants. GUS activity and the product of the pl gene were determined by GUS staining, Western blot and in situ hybridization at translational level. Eighteen out of 40 plants resistant to hygromycin were positively identified by PCR analysis with the rate of 45%. The pl gene was expressed in 3 out of 18 plants with 17% and 7.5%in 40 plants. The results may provide a clue for exploring whether Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae could extend its host range and make the transgenic rice plants have the possibility of being symbiotic, or associative to nitrogen fixation.

豌豆凝集素和血红蛋白基因对水稻的转化和表达
张静娴1王忆平2沈世华1 王逸群1 高越峰1 单雪琴1 荆玉祥1*

(1. 中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093;2.  北京大学生命科学学院,北京100871)

摘要:为了扩大根瘤菌的宿主范围和试探根瘤菌在非豆科植物上的固氮作用 ,将豌豆凝集素基因 (pl)和Parasponiaandersonii 血红蛋白基因 (phb)构建在同一个植物表达载体上 ,用基因枪法将其导入水稻 (OryzasativaL .ssp .japonica)。经PCR扩增和Southern杂交分析 ,证明外源目的基因已整合到水稻基因组中。GUS组织化学染色及豌豆凝集素基因的Western印迹实验和表达产物的原位杂交 ,证实外源基因在转基因水稻中表达。在 40个转化植株中 18株有pl和phb基因的PCR产物 ,得率为 45 %。再用 18株植物做pl基因的Westernblot检测 ,有 3株有翻译表达 ,占 40株的 7.5 % ,18株的 17%。为水稻与根瘤菌的相互作用和固氮作用的可能性研究奠定了一定的基础

关键词: Parasponiaandersonii 血红蛋白基因;豌豆凝集素基因;基因枪;转化作用;基因表达;转基因水稻

Abstract (Browse 2262)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes in Physiological Properties and Respiratory Pathway of the New Lines of Wheat Introduced Exogenous DNA Under Salt Stress
Author: KONG Ying-Zhen, ZHOU Gong-Ke, CUI Kai-Rong, WANG Ya-Fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(3): 249-255
      
    

New lines of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was obtained by introducing the DNA of sorghum ( Sorghum vulgare Pers.) into wheat cultivar “Longchun 13”. The changes of respiratory pathway, contents of protein, Na+ and K+ in the leaves and roots of the new lines of wheat under salt stress were determined and compared with the control cultivar, “Longchun 13”. The decrease of the content of K+ was observed with the increase of NaCl concentrations, but the decrease was more in the control than that in the new lines, and more in roots than in leaves. Content of proline and Na+ in both two wheats lines increased greatly, but the former increased more significantly in the new lines and the latter more significantly in control both in leaves and roots. The operation of the cyanide-resistant pathway of respiration was enhanced at different degrees after salt stress and it increased much more in roots and leaves of the control plant than that in the new lines, but the cytochrome pathway of electron transport was still the main one consistently. The possible significance of these changes was discussed.

盐胁迫下导入外源DNA小麦新品系生理特性与呼吸途径的变化
孔英珍 周功克 崔凯荣 王亚馥*
(兰州大学干旱农业生态国家重点实验室,兰州730000)

摘要:测定了将高粱(Sorghum vulgare Pers.)DNA导入小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)“陇春13号”后得到的耐盐新品系根和叶中不同盐浓度胁迫条件下呼吸途径、脯氨酸、Na+和K+含量的变化,并以“陇春13号”作为对照进行比较。结果表明:K+含量均随盐浓度的提高而不断下降,但新品系与对照相比,叶的下降速率明显低于根;脯氨酸和Na+的含量则均呈持续上升趋势,且对照叶和根中脯氨酸增加幅度不及新品系,但其叶和根中Na+积累显著地高于新品系;抗氰呼吸实际运行均不同程度地加强了,但对照的叶和根的运行程度分别强于新品系,且在整个胁迫过程中细胞色素途径仍是线粒体呼吸中电子传递的主要途径。

关键词: 盐胁迫;耐盐小麦;呼吸途径

Abstract (Browse 2015)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cloning of cDNA Encoding COMT from Chinese White Poplar (Populus tomentosa), Sequence Analysis and Specific Expression
Author: WEI Jian-Hua, ZHAO Hua-Yan, ZHANG Jing-Yu, LIU Hui-Rong, SONG Yan-Ru
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(3): 326-328
      
    

cDNA encoding caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) from Chinese white poplar ( Populus tomentosa Carr.) was cloned by RT-PCR and sequenced. Northern analysis displayed that the CCoAOMT was expressed specifically in the developing secondary xylem and its expression was coincident with lignification. The antisense CCoAOMT cDNA was transformed into P. tremula×P. alba mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith et Townsend) Conn. Transgenic plants were identified with PCR, PCR-Southern and Southern analysis. Lignin content in 5- to 6-month-old transgenic plants was measured. One of the transgenic lines had significant reduction of 17.9% in Klason lignin content as compared with that of untransformed poplar. The results demonstrate that antisense repression of CCoAOMT is an efficient way to reduce lignin content for improving pulping property in engineered trees.

毛白杨COMT 基因cDNA的克隆、序列与特异性表达分析
魏建华 赵华燕 卢善发 王台 马庆虎 宋艳茹*

(中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093)
关键词: 毛白杨;COMT 基因RT-PCR;特异性表达

Abstract (Browse 2123)  |  Full Text PDF       
Pollination Ecology of a Pioneer Species: Musa itinerans (Musaceae) in Xishuangbanna, South Yunnan, China
Author: LIU Ai-Zhong, LI De-Zhu, WANG Hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(3): 319-322
      
    

Pollination ecology of Musa itinerans Cheesman (Musaceae), a pioneer species in the tropical rain forest, was explored in Xishuangbanna, South Yunnan, China. This research involved flowering phenology, nectar production, visitation patterns of pollinators and bagging experiments. It was found that (1) flowering of M. itinerans occurred a whole year round with a peak at the early dry season (Nov.) and the daily flowering pattern had two obvious peaks in the early morning and in the late evening, respectively; (2) nectar production occurred at two obvious peaks, during the day and in the night-time (from 8 am to 12 pm, and from 8 pm to 12 am, respectively), which allowed the two different foragers to visit at specific times; and (3) long-tongue fruit bats ( Macroglossus sobrinus ) and sunbirds ( Arachnothera longirostris ) were both effective pollinators of Musa itinerans.

西双版纳先锋植物野芭蕉的传粉生态学研究
刘爱忠 李德铢*  王红
(中国科学院昆明植物研究所,昆明650204)
关键词: 野芭蕉;先锋植物;传粉生态学;西双版纳

 

Abstract (Browse 2235)  |  Full Text PDF       
Phytoecdysterones from Cucubalus baccifer(Caryophyllaceae)
Author: CHENG Yong-Xian, ZHOU Jun, TAN Ning-Hua, DING Zhong-Tao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(3): 316-318
      
    

Six phytoecdysterones have been isolated from the n -BuOH portion of Cucubalus baccifer L., a Chinese folk medicinal plant. Their structures were elucidated as ecdysterone (1), 24(28)-ecdysterone (2), 22-deoxyecdysterone (3), 25-hydroxypanuosterone (4), rubrosterone (5) and 2,22-dideoxyecdysterone 3β-O-β- D -glucopyranoside (6) respectively on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods. Among them compound 6 was a new phytoecdysterone glycoside and 1-5 were first obtained from this plant.

狗筋蔓中的植物蜕皮甾酮类化合物
程永现1 周俊1*  谭宁华1  丁中涛2

(1. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所植物化学开放实验室,昆明650204;2. # 云南大学化学系,昆明650091)


摘要:从我国民间草药狗筋蔓(Cucubalusbaccifer L.)全草的乙醇提取物的正丁醇萃取部分分离得到6个化合物,通过波谱及化学方法鉴定了它们的结构,分别为ecdysterone(1),24(28)-ecdysterone(2),22-deoxyecdysterone(3),25-hydroxypanuosterone(4),rubrosterone(5),2,22-dideoxyecdysterone3β-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(6)。其中化合物6为新化合物;化合物1~5为首次从该植物中分得。

关键词: 石竹科;狗筋蔓;植物蜕皮甾酮;2,22-dideoxyecdysterone3β-O-β-D-glucopyranoside
 

Abstract (Browse 2446)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Structural Determination of a Glucan from the Spores of Ganoderma lucidum
Author: BAO Xing-Feng, FANG Ji-Nian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(3): 312-315
      
    

A water soluble, (1→6)-branched, (1→4)linked D-glucan (LB-B1),[α]21D=+174.2° (c 0.87, H2O), was obtained from a hot-water extract of the sporoderm-broken spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst by HPSEC, with 0.001 mol/L sodium hydroxide as the eluant, the molecular weight ( Mw ) of LB-B1 was estimated to be 9.3×103. From the results of total hydrolysis, methylation analysis, acetolysis and 1D, 2DNMR experimentation, it was concluded that LB-B1 was composed of repeating units with the following structure:α-D-Glcp-(1→6)-α-D -Glcp-(1→6)-α-D-Glcp 1↓6→4)-α- D -Glcp-(1→4)-α- D -Glcp-(1→4)-α- D -Glcp-(1→4)-α-D-Glcp-(1→4-)-α-D-Glcp-(1→)n

赤芝孢子粉中一个葡聚糖的分离纯化与结构鉴定
鲍幸峰 方积年*

(中国科学院上海药物研究所,上海200031)

摘要:从破壁的赤芝(Ganodermalucidum(Fr.)Karst)孢子粉中分离纯化到一个水溶性的、以1,4连接的D-葡萄糖为主链、在6位接1,6连接葡萄糖的α-D-葡聚糖。高效分子排阻色谱测定,重均分子量为9.3×103,[α]21D=+174.2°(c0.87,H2O)。通过糖组成分析,甲基化反应,乙酰解及一维和二维核磁等光谱解析,确定其结构如下:

关键词: 葡聚糖;多糖;破壁赤芝孢子粉

Abstract (Browse 2176)  |  Full Text PDF       
New Microorganisms from the Gaoyuzhuang Formation of Northern Taihang Mountains, China
Author: XU Zhao-Liang, S. M. AWRAMIK
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(3): 295-311
      
    

A new diverse assemblage of microorganisms has been discovered in black bedded, nodular and lenticular cherts and dark chert of domical stromatolites in dolostone of the Gaoyuzhuang Formation in Lingqiu County, northern Taihang Mountains. The geologic relationships, biostratigraphic correlations, and available radiometric age determinations place the age of the Gaoyuzhuang Formation at approximately 1 400-1 600 million years in age. Eight new species, three unnamed species, and two emended genera of oscillatoriacean, nostocacean, and chroococcacean cyanobacteria are described. These data coupled with reports of others indicate that the diversity of taxa in the Gaoyuzhuang Formation reaches 100 species. The Gaoyuzhuang Formation contains one of the richest Mesoproterozoic communities of microfossils. The following new and emended taxa are described: Oscillatoriaceae: Eophormidium orculiformis sp. nov., E . sp., Siphonophycus caudataceous sp. nov., Palaeolyngbya complanata sp. nov., P. capitata sp. nov., P . sp. and Oscillatoriopsis sp..Nostocaceae: Veteronostocale vaginata sp. nov.. Chroococcaceae: Maculosphaera giganta sp. nov. and Gloeotheceopsis grandis sp. nov. Incertae sedis: Myxococcoides limpida sp. nov.

华北太行山北段高于庄组微古植物的新发现
徐兆良1 S.M.AWRAMIK

(1. 中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093;2. Department of Geological Sciennces,Preston Cloud Research Lboratory,University of California,Santa Barbara,CA  93106,U.S.A)

摘要:长城群高于庄组主要分布于我国华北地区 ,地质年龄约在 14~ 16亿年。主要描述了华北太行山北段灵邱县境内高于庄组白云岩中的层状和扁豆状透镜体燧石及穹隆式叠层石的黑色燧石中的颤藻、念珠藻和色球藻植物的 8个新种和 3个未定种 ,其中还有两个新修订属。这些新的种群再加上前人在高于庄组地层中已报道的汇成了近 10 0个种生物组合 ,进一步证明高于庄组是地球上中元代微化石类群最丰富的产地之一。以下是该组新发现和新修订的分类类群 :颤藻科 (Oscillatoriaceae) :Eophormidium orculiformissp .nov.,E .sp .,Siphonophycuscaudataceous sp .nov.,Palaeolyngbyacomplanata sp .nov.,P .capitatasp .nov.,P .sp .,Oscillatoriopsissp .;念珠藻科 (Nosto caceae) :Veteronostocalevaginatasp .nov.;色球藻科 (Chroococcaceae) :Maculosphaeragiganta sp .nov .,Gloeotheceopsisgrandis sp.nov,;分类位置未定的类群:Myxococcoides limpida sp.nov.

关键词: 华北;太行山;高于庄组;微化石

Abstract (Browse 2376)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Dendroclimatic Study of Relic Picea meyeri in Inner Mongolian Steppe
Author: LIANG Er-Yuan, SHAO Xue-Mei, HU Yu-Xi, LIN Jin-Xing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(3): 288-294
      
    

Dendroclimatic methods were used to investigate the fundamental relationships between the temperature variables and the growth of climatically relic Picea meyeri Rehd. et Wils. on sandy land of Inner Mongolian grasslands in the Xilin River Basin. The annual mean temperature and accumulated temperature (above 5 ℃, 10 ℃) respectively showed no significant correlation with the spruce growth relative to summer mean temperature, which displayed strong coherence with tree growth ( P <0.01). The mean temperature in May showed significantly negative correlation with spruce growth ( P <0.05). Furthermore, it was revealed that the negative influence of May temperature was due to monthly mean maximum temperature ( T max) ( P <0.01) other than monthly mean minimum temperature ( Tmin) values ( P <0.1), which indicated that the use of Tmin and T max separately can allow much more insights on the temperate influence. In addition, extreme maximum temperature in May and June might impose the most detrimental influence on tree growth in semi-arid Inner Mongolian grassland. The analysis of the recorded meteorological data demonstrated that the increases in temperature were synchronous with slight decreases in precipitation in the growing season, which suggested that P. meyeri may reduce growth due to temperature-induced drought. On the other hand, the analysis for decadal periods explored that trees appeared to reduce the sensitivity to the warming, and consequently increased sensitivity to rainfall. This may serve as a baseline for more accurate predictions of the potential impacts of altered climate regimes on tree growth.

内蒙古草原残遗白木千的树木年轮气候学研究
梁尔源1 邵雪梅2 胡玉熹1 林金星1*

(1. 中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093;2. 中国科学院地理研究所,北京100101)

摘要:运用树木年轮气候学的方法研究了内蒙古锡林河流域典型草原上残遗白木 千(Picea meyeri Rehd.etWils.)的生长与气温要素间的关系。每年5月份的平均温度(P<0.05)和平均最高温度(P<0.01)与白的生长关系密切,而近40年来的年平均气温以及高于5℃、10℃的积温与白木 千的生长间无显著的相关关系。另外,5、6月份的极端最高温度对树木的生长也具明显的负效应(P<0.05)。从1954年至1994年来,锡林河流域典型草原增温明显,其中以10年段资料的相关分析则表明,随气温的升高,白的生长对温度的敏感度有下降的趋势,揭示的这一现象,对于更准确地预测未来环境变化对森林分布和生产力的影响,以及环境模式参数的优化等均具一定的指导意义。

关键词: 白木千;树轮气候学;气温变量

Abstract (Browse 2109)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New Sesquiterpenoid from Russula lepida
Author: TAN Jian-Wen, DONG Ze-Jun, LIU Ji-Kai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(3): 329-330
      
    

A new aristolane sesquiterpenoid named rulepidol was isolated from the fruiting body ofRussula lepida Fr. Its structure was elucidated as (1aa,5a,7a,7aa,7b)-1,1a,4,5,6,7,7a,7b-octahydro-5-hydroxy-1,1,7,7a-tetramethyl-5H-cyclopropa[α]naphthalen-2-one mainly by 1D and 2D-NMR techniques.

鳞盖红菇中一个新的倍半萜类化合物
谭建文 董泽军 刘吉开*

(中国科学院昆明植物研究所植物化学开放实验室,昆明650204)

摘要:从鳞盖红菇 (Russulalepida Fr.)的氯仿 /甲醇 (1∶1)部分分离得到一新化合物rulepidol (1) ,其结构经现代波谱技术鉴定为一aristolane型倍半萜

关键词: 鳞盖红菇;担子菌;鳞盖红菇醇

 

 

Abstract (Browse 1860)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on RNA Transcription Activity in Interphase Nuclei in Physarum polycephalum
Author: JIAO Ming-Da, BI Xiao-Hui, ZENG Qing-Hua, WANG Yu-Hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(3): 227-231
      
    

Using BrUTP incorporation and statistical analysis, the authors investigated RNA transcription in the interphase nuclei in Physarum polycephalum Schw. The rRNA synthesis in the nucleolus continued actively throughout the interphase, while in nucleoplasm hnRNA was transcribed at low levels in S phase and actively in G2 phase. The rate of nucleoplasm RNA transcription was doubled between early S phase and late S phase, and a 5-6 folds increase was detected between the early S phase and G2 phase.

多头绒泡菌间期细胞核中RNA 的转录状况
焦明大*毕晓辉 曾庆华 王玉红
(东北师范大学遗传与细胞研究所,长春130024)

摘要:利用BrUTP免疫标记技术 ,研究了多头绒泡菌 (Physarumpolycephalum Schw .)间期细胞核中RNA的转录状况。结果表明 :在整个间期核仁中的rRNA都在活跃转录 ;核质中hnRNA的转录呈逐渐上升趋势 ,早S期转录水平很低 ,晚S期转录活性升高 1倍 ,G2 期转录达到最高水平 ;整个间期核质中RNA的转录水平增加了 5~ 6倍
关键词:rRNA;hnRNA转录;BrUTP;S 期;G2期;多头绒泡菌

Abstract (Browse 1914)  |  Full Text PDF       
Transgenic Maize Plants Obtained by Pollen-mediated Transformation
Author: WANG Jing-Xue, SUN Yi, CUI Gui-Mei, HU Jing-Jing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(3): 275-279
      
    

The genetic transformation was achieved by pollen-mediated approach on maize ( Zea mays L.) inbred lines Tai 9101 and Zong 31. Plasmid DNA of pGLⅡ-RC-1 was mixed with fresh pollen of maize inbreds in sucrose solution. The pollens were treated by ultrasonication and collected, pollinated on silks of maize ears. Transformants were confirmed by dot blot hybridization, PCR amplification and PCR-Southern blot hybridization. The pollen-mediated transformation approach could circumvent the tedious tissue culture procedures like in particle bombardment and Agrobacterium infection, etc. This approach is simple, easy to operate, and could be widely used in practice.

花粉介导法获得玉米转基因植株
王景雪 孙毅* 崔贵梅 胡晶晶
(山西省农业生物技术研究中心,太原030031)

摘要:利用花粉作为外源基因的载体进行遗传转化在玉米(Zeamays L.)上获得了成功。以玉米自交系太9101、综31等为受体,以pGLⅡ-RC-质粒为供体,在玉米开花期,用花粉与质粒DNA混合并附加超声波处理,然后辅以人工授粉的方法将外源基因导入到受体中。DNA斑点杂交和PCR扩增以及PCR_Southernblot杂交检测结果证明,几丁质酶基因确已导入玉米自交系中。所得结果表明:玉米花粉可以介导外源基因的转化。利用花粉作为载体介导外源基因转化,避免了传统的基因枪法和土壤杆菌法转化所要求的组织培养技术,转化方法简单,易操作,具有很强的实用性。

关键词: 玉米;花粉介导法;基因转化

Abstract (Browse 2347)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Studies on the Changes of Microtubule Distribution and Reorganization During the Meiotic Stages of Development in Normal(IR36) and a Temperature/photoperiod Sensitive Male Sterile Line(Pei
Author: XU Shi-Xiong (S. Y. Zee)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(3): 221-226
      
    

水稻激荡IR36 及光温敏核雄性不育系培矮64S 小孢子母细胞减数分裂期间微管骨架的变化
徐是雄1刘向东2冯九焕2 卢永根2

(1. 香港大学植物学系,香港薄扶林道;2. 华南农业大学植物分子育种研究中心,广州510642)


摘要:对水稻(Oryzasativa L.)IR36及光温敏核雄性不育系培矮64S小孢子母细胞减数分裂期间微管骨架的变化的研究显示,微管在小孢子母细胞正常发育的情况下,每一个发育阶段(即造孢细胞时期、细线期、偶线期、粗线期、双线期、终变期、中期Ⅰ、后期Ⅰ)都出现不同的组织结构形态和分布。在IR36中,还发现了一些新的和特殊的微管组织结构和分布。主要包括:(1)在细线期,从核膜向胞质衍射的微管呈螺旋状,显示核具旋转功能;(2)在偶线期,微管的分布呈极性分布现象;(3)在终变期,核被一组微管形成的宽带围绕着(perinuclearbroadband)。而培矮64S小孢子母细胞减数分裂期间,各发育阶段的细胞内的微管骨架结构呈现许多不正常现象。如:(1)在偶线期具极性分布的微管分布不存在;(2)在小孢子母细胞减数分裂期间的细胞内出现许多特别粗的微管束;(3)在终变期围绕核的微管宽带结构松散及内含微管密度低。由于微管骨架的分布变化可以使人们较早地在雄性不育细胞内看到败育现象,故此微管的分布和构型变化应可作为一个早期确立雄性不育现象的视觉标记(visualmarker)或形态指标予以利用。

关键词: 水稻;光温敏核雄性不育系;微管;培矮64S;IR36;小孢子母细胞;减数分裂;小孢子发生

Abstract (Browse 2059)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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