April 2001, Volume 43 Issue 4

 

          Research Articles
Ultrastructural Observation on the Intra- and Intercellular Microtrabecular Network of the Pollen Mother Cells in Onion (Allium cepa)
Author: YANG Jun, YU Chun-Hong, WANG Xin-Yu, ZHENG Guo-Chang (CHENG K C)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(4): 331-338
      
    

Using DGD embedment-free electron microscopy, ultrastructural observation on the intra- and intercellular microtrabecular network (MN) of the pollen mother cells (PMC) of the whole meiotic prophase Ⅰ in onion ( Allium cepa L.) was performed. Complex nuclear MN was observed in the nucleus of PMCs, spreading throughout the nuclear region. The nucleolus and chromosomes were connected with the MN filament network. The uniformity of nuclear MN changed with the development of the PMCs. A lamina-like structure surrounded the nucleus and joined the MN in nucleus and in cytoplasm, but it disassembled at the end of prophase Ⅰ. There was also a complex cytoplasmic MN in PMCs, without obvious variation during the prophase Ⅰ. Furthermore, MN in cytoplasmic connections (plasmodesmata and cytoplasmic channels) was noticed to link the frameworks in two neighboring PMCs into one entity. Cytomixis was observed at synizesis of prophase Ⅰ in this experiment, and MN in cytoplasm and in nucleus was noticed to distribute in these granules which migrated from one PMC into its neighboring cell. At this time the nucleus moved aside from center of the PMC, but the rest of the cell was still fulfilled with MN filaments. The relationships of nuclear MN with nucleolus and chromosomes, lamina with nucleus, as well as intra- and intercellular MN with cytomixis are discussed in this paper.

洋葱花粉母细胞细胞内、细胞间微梁骨架的
超微结构观察
杨军 余春红 王新宇 郑国锠*

(兰州大学细胞生物学研究所,兰州730000)

摘要:以洋葱(Alliumcepa L.)花粉母细胞为材料,采用DGD包埋去包埋原位技术,对花粉母细胞不同发育时期的细胞内、细胞间微梁骨架的超微结构进行了电镜观察。结果发现,花粉母细胞核内存在粗细不等的微梁骨架,与核仁和染色体紧密相连,随着发育的推移,其均一性发生改变。在核周有核纤层样的结构存在,与细胞核和胞质中的微梁骨架紧密相连,到前期结束时解体。洋葱花粉母细胞内具有发达的胞质微梁骨架,这种结构在减数分裂前期Ⅰ变化不明显。在胞间连接(胞间连丝和胞质通道)内,也有精细的微梁骨架分布,并且与两端细胞中的骨架相连。在凝线期的花粉母细胞中观察到细胞融合现象,有胞质或核内微梁骨架与穿壁转移的胞质小球和核小球内骨架相连。此时细胞核偏向一边,但细胞的其余部位仍充满了胞质微梁骨架。初步探讨了核微梁骨架与核仁和染色体之间的关系,核纤层与细胞核之间的关系,以及细胞内、细胞间微梁骨架与细胞融合之间的关系。

关键词: 微梁骨架;细胞融合;花粉母细胞;洋葱
 

Abstract (Browse 2152)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Role of Antioxidant Systems in Cu2+ Stress Resistance in Alternanthera philoxeroides
Author: ZHOU Chang-Fang, WU Guo-Rong, SHI Guo-Xin, LU Chang-Mei, GU Gong-Ping, ZAI Xue-Ming, WEI Jin-Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(4): 389-394
      
    

CuSO4 was added into Hoagland solution to imitate Cu2+ polluted water environment, and the roles of the two antioxidation systems in resisting Cu2+ stress in Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. was studied. The results showed that Cu2+pollution less than 70 mg/L in concentration could stimulate the accumulation of superoxide radical (O-·2), thus lead to lipid peroxidation and increase of membrane permeability. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) were both induced in high level and took important parts in antioxidation at higher concentration of Cu2+ and in middle and late phases of Cu2+ stress. Catalase (CAT) had little effect. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) was induced in lower level and showed its function in lower Cu2+ concentration and in early phase. Ascorbic acid (AsA) could also function at higher Cu2+ concentration by transition from reduced state to oxidized state.

水花生抗氧化系统在抵御Cu2+ 胁迫中的作用
周长芳* 吴国荣 施国新 陆长梅 顾龚平 宰学明 魏锦城
(南京师范大学生命科学学院,南京210097)

摘要:在Hoagland培养基中加入CuSO4以模拟水体Cu2+污染环境,从不同Cu2+浓度和中毒时间两个角度,研究了水花生(Alternantheraphiloxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.)的酶与非酶抗氧化系统在抵御Cu2+胁迫中的作用。实验结果显示,轻—中度污染的Cu2+小于70mg/L)即能刺激水花生超氧阴离子(0 2.)的积累,并导致脂质过氧化和膜透性的改变。在Cu2+胁迫过程中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)能发生大幅度应激性提高,并在实验范围内的较高浓度和中毒中后期起主要抗氧化作用,过氧化氢酶(CAT)在此过程中作用不明显,谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)在较低浓度和中毒早期能被小幅度激活并起作用,抗坏血酸(AsA)通过还原型向氧化型的转变,在较高浓度同样也起到了一定的保护作用。

关键词: 水花生;抗氧化系统;Cu2+ 胁迫

Abstract (Browse 2126)  |  Full Text PDF       
Influence of CO2 Doubling on Water Transport Process at Root/Soil Interface of Pinus sylvestriformis Seedlings
Author: HAN Shi-Jie, ZHANG Jun-Hui, ZHOU Yu-Mei, WANG Chen-Rui, ZOU Chun-Jing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(4): 385-388
      
    

Water transport at the root/soil interface of 1 year old Pinus sylvestris Linn. var. sylvestriformis (Takenouchi) Cheng et C. D. Chu seedlings under CO2 doubling was studied by measuring soil electric conductance to survey soil water profiles and comparing it with root distribution surveyed by soil coring and root harvesting in Changbai Mountain in 1999. The results were: (1) The profiles of soil water content were adjusted by root activity. The water content of the soil layer with abundant roots was higher. (2) When CO2 concentration was doubled, water transport was more active at the root/soil interface and the roots were distributed into deeper layer. It was shown in this work that the method of measuring electric conductance is an inexpensive, non-destructive and relatively sensitive way for underground water transport process.

C02倍增对长白赤松幼苗根-土界面水分运输过程的影响
韩士杰 张军辉 周玉梅 王琛瑞 邹春静
(中国科学院陆地生态过程开放实验室,沈阳110015)

摘要:用具有非破坏性的电导率方法测定土壤水分的廓线,与挖掘法(或打孔法)获取的根系分布对比,研究C02倍增条件下一年生的长白赤松(Pinussylvestris Linn. var. sylvestriformis (Takenouchi) Chenget C.D.Chu)幼苗根-土界面的水分运输状态。结果表明:(1)土壤水分廓线由植物的活性所调制,根系分布密集的土层其水分含量也高。(2)CO2倍增,根系-土壤水分运输的活跃层及根系分布都将向土壤深处位移。研究证明,电导率方法能够指示发生于根-土界面上的水分运输状态,方法简单,且对土壤无破坏。
关键词: C02倍增;长白赤松幼苗;根-土界面;水分运输;土壤电导率

 

Abstract (Browse 1975)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Structure and Antifungal Functions of Vegetative Propagation Corm of Gastrodia elata
Author: XU Jin-Tang, LAN Jin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(4): 348-353
      
    

The growth of Gastrodia elata Bl. and Armillaria mellea (Vahl. ex Fr.) Quel. shares a special symbiotic relation. In general, A. mellea invades the G. elata , the epidermal cells, the cortical cells and the large cells of the growing vegetative propagation corm of G. elata . The empty cavity cells, the cork cells of the isolation in the vegetative propagation corms and the large cells of G. elata were the defensive structure, protecting the new G. elata from pathological invasion by A. mellea . In winter, G. elata enters the stage of hibernation. The faulting layer derived from the cork cells of the isolation was the last defensive structure by which new G. elata could safely live through the winter.

天麻的营养繁殖茎及其抑菌功能
徐锦堂 兰进

(中国医学科学院中国协和医科大学药用植物研究所,北京1000094)

摘要:天麻(Gastrodia elata Bl.)与蜜环菌(Armilla riamellea (Vahl.ex Fr.)Quel.)营共生生活,在正常情况下蜜环菌只侵染种麻及分化生长出的营养繁殖茎的表皮、皮层及大型细胞层。种麻的大型细胞层及营养繁殖茎隔离区的空腔细胞层和木栓细胞层,都是种麻与新生麻的防御结构,它们保护新生麻不遭蜜环菌病理侵染而正常生长。冬季,天麻进入冬眠期,隔离区的木栓细胞层形成断裂层,此层细胞是新生麻能够安全越冬的最后一道防御结构。

关键词: 天麻;营养繁殖茎;蜜环菌;大型细胞;空腔细胞;木栓细胞

Abstract (Browse 2010)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytological Study on Acorus L. in Southwestern China, with Some Cytogeographical Notes on A. calamus
Author: WANG Hong,LI Wen-Li,GU Zhi-Jian, CHEN Yong-Yan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(4): 354-358
      
    

Chromosome counts of three Acorus species ( A. calamus L., A. tatarinowii Schott and A. gramineus Soland.) were performed in the Southwestern China. Both A. tatarinowii and A. gramineus shared the same chromosome numbers 2n=24. Populations of A.calamus in South and Southwestern Yunnan are tetraploids (2n=44) while those in the central and northwestern Yunnan being hexaploids (2n=66). The hexaploids are reported here for the first time. Attention was drawn to the ploidy pattern in A.calamus . It seems that the hexaploids were evolved from their ancestors during the early Tertiary as an impact of orogenesis of the Himalayas.

中国西南部菖蒲属的细胞学研究,兼论菖蒲的细胞地理
王红 李文丽 顾志建* 陈永燕
(中国科学院昆明植物研究所,昆明650204)


摘要:通过对中国西南部3种菖蒲属(Acorus L.)植物(菖蒲A.calamus L.、石菖蒲A.tatarinowii Schott和金钱蒲A.gramineus Soland.)的细胞学研究,发现分布在云南及四川的9个菖蒲居群中,有5个居群为四倍体(2n=4x=44),4个居群为六倍体(2n=6x=66)。其中四倍体见于滇南及川西南;六倍体见于滇中及滇西北,并为首次报道。在云南及贵州分布的石菖蒲及金钱蒲5个居群均为二倍体。讨论了菖蒲分布区从二倍体、三倍体、四倍体和六倍体4种不同倍性居群的分布规律和可能的演化关系,六倍体居群的产生很可能与喜马拉雅造山运动有关。

关键词: 菖蒲属;菖蒲;细胞学;细胞地理;中国西南部

Abstract (Browse 2052)  |  Full Text PDF       
Development of Wheat-alien Lines with Added Leymus racemosus Chromosomes and 6VS/6AL Translocation Chromosomes
Author: CHEN Fa-Di, CHEN Pei-Du, WANG Su-Ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(4): 359-363
      
    

By chromosome C-banding and bi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using digoxigenin-labelled total genomic DNA of Leymus racemosus (Lam.) Tzvel. and biotinylated total genomic DNA of Haynaldia villosa (L.) Schur as probes, three wheat-alien lines with L. racemosus Lr.7 addition and H. villosa 6VS/6AL translocated chromosomes, and eight lines with L. racemosus Lr.14 addition and H.villosa 6VS/6AL translocated chromosomes were respectively identified from DALr.7×T6VS/6AL (93G51-4×P64) and DALr.14×T6VS/6AL (94G15×P64)F2 or F3 hybrids. Fluorescein-isothiocyanate-conjugated avidin and rhodamine-conjugated sheep anti-digoxigenin Fab fragment were used in bi-color FISH detection. The chromosomes of L.racemosus and 6VS fragment of H. villosa were simultaneously detected by their red and green fluorescence. Powdery mildew and scab resistance were also evaluated. The result showed that the obtained plants had high resistance to these two diseases. The potential usage of bi-color FISH in identifying chromatin of L.racemosus and H.villosa was discussed.

普通小麦-大赖草-簇毛麦异附加、易位系的选育和鉴定
陈发棣 陈佩度* 王苏玲
(南京农业大学农业部作物细胞遗传重点开放实验室,南京210095)

摘要:利用根尖细胞(RTC)有丝分裂中期染色体和花粉母细胞减数分裂中期Ⅰ(PMCMⅠ)染色体C分带和以生物素标记的簇毛麦基因组DNA及以地高辛标记的大赖草基因组DNA为探针的双色荧光原位杂交(bi-colorFISH),从DALr.7×T6VS/6AL(93G51-4×P64)F 2和F3群体中筛选出3株普通小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)-大赖草(Leymus racemosus (Lam.) Tzvel.)Lr.7二体附加、普通小麦-簇毛麦(Haynaldia villosa (L.)Schur)6VS/6AL易位系;从DALr.14×T6VS/6AL(94G15×P64)F2和F3群体中选出8株普通小麦-大赖草Lr.14二体附加、普通小麦-簇毛麦6VS/6AL易位系。通过温室白粉病抗性鉴定和单花滴注赤霉病抗性鉴定,结果表明:所选育的普通小麦-大赖草-簇毛麦异附加、易位系对白粉病表现免疫,对赤霉病有较高抗性。还对利用双色FISH鉴定大赖草和簇毛麦染色质的某些技术问题进行了讨论。

关键词: 小麦;大赖草;簇毛麦;易位系;异附加系;双色荧光原位杂交;白粉病抗性;赤霉病抗性

Abstract (Browse 2100)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Flexistyly Pollination Mechanism in Alpinia Plants (Zingiberaceae)
Author: LI Qing-Jun, XU Zai-Fu, XIA Yong-Mei, ZHANG Ling, DENG Xiao-Bao, GAO Jiang-Yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(4): 364-369
      
    

Temporal dioecy, a flowering mechanism of synchronous alternation of pistillate and staminate phases in hermaphroditic (bisexual) flowers or monoecious individuals, decreases the probability of self-fertilization in self-compatible (SC) species. The authors report the prevalence of flexistyly in native species of Alpinia Roxb. in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China, resulted in dimorphism with two temporal dioecious floral phenotypes that facilitates out-crossing. Populations of ginger plants Alpinia have two specific phenotypes that differ in flowering behavior: (1)“cataflexistyle”individuals with the stigma held erect beyond dehiscent anther when anthesis begins in the morning and becoming decurved under the anther at noon; (2)“hyperflexistyle” individuals with the receptive stigma decurved under the indehiscent anther first and moving into a reflexed superior position above the anther as it begins to shed pollen at midday. The stigmatic movements in the two floral phenotypes, which occur in a ratio of 1∶1 in natural populations, are synchronous and pollination is effected only between floral forms. Field experiments indicate that species of Alpinia are self-compatible and insect dependent fertilization plants.

 

山姜属植物花柱卷曲性传粉机制的研究
李庆军 许再富*  夏永梅 张玲 邓晓保 高江云
(中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园,云南勐腊666303)

摘要:暂时性雌雄异株是一种在两性花或雌雄同株植物个体上表现出的雄蕊和雌蕊成熟时间不同而形成的暂时性雄性阶段和雌性阶段不重叠的现象。这种现象减少了自交亲和的雌雄同株和两性花种类发生自交的可能性。作者系统研究了花柱卷曲性传粉机制在西双版纳姜科山姜属 (Alpinia Roxb .)植物中的普遍性 ,这一机制使得植物通过完全的暂时性雌雄异株达到了异交的目的。这类植物的种群中具有两种独特的表现型 ,其差异表现在开花行为的不同 :柱头下垂型个体在刚开花时其柱头向上反卷 ,位于已开裂的花药上方 ,到中午开始向下运动 ,下午则位于花药下方 ;柱头上举型个体的柱头在开花初期向花冠内卷曲 ,位于未开裂的花药和唇瓣之间 ,中午开始向上运动 ,当柱头上举到花药上方后 ,花药开裂 ,花粉开始散发。两种个体的开花行为是同步的 ,通过两种柱头反向运动这一独特的开花行为 ,植物成功地避免了同种表型内的自交。野外实验表明 ,山姜属植物是自交亲和类群 ,不同的授粉方式 (不同时间的自花和异花授粉 )具有相同的结实率 ,但套袋的花序几乎不结实。两种表型在自然种群中的比例为 1∶1

关键词: 山姜属;花柱卷曲性;柱头上举型;柱头下垂型;传粉生物学

Abstract (Browse 2467)  |  Full Text PDF       
Relieving Effects of Oligoglucosamine on the Inhibition Induced by Deoxynivalenol in Wheat Embryo Cells
Author: LIU Xiao, DU Yu-Guang, BAI Xue-Fang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(4): 370-374
      
    

The growth of etiolated wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. cv. Lumai No.22) seedlings and the activation of the cell cycle in embryo cells were estimated by flow cytometric analyses in wheat after the seeds being treated with oligoglucosamine and deoxynivalenol (DON). The results indicated that both the root number in etiolated wheat seedlings and the activation of the cells which had been arrested at G1 phase of the cell cycle in wheat embryos were enhanced by oligoglucosamine, suggesting that the mitosis in wheat embryo cells could be promoted by oligoglucosamine. The inhibition of DON on the growth of etiolated wheat seedlings and on the activation of the cell cycle in wheat embryo cells were relieved when the seeds were immersed in oligoglucosamine solution for 12 h before DON treatment. The results indicated that oligoglucosamine increased the hardiness to the poisoning of DON in wheat embryo cells. This might be the reason why such oligosaccharide elicits the resistance of plants to pathogen infection.

壳寡糖诱导小麦种胚细胞抗脱氧雪腐镰刀菌
烯醇抑制的效应
刘晓* 杜昱光** 白雪芳
(中国科学院大连化学物理研究所,大连116023)

摘要:用壳寡糖和脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇(DON)以不同方式处理小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)种子,测定从G 1期启动进入S期和G 2-M期的胚细胞百分率和小麦黄化苗的生长。结果表明:壳寡糖可促进小麦种胚细胞周期启动并促进小麦根数目增加,说明壳寡糖对小麦种子的胚细胞分裂有促进作用;壳寡糖预处理小麦种子可解除DON对小麦黄化苗生长及胚细胞启动的抑制作用,表明寡聚糖可提高植物对病原菌毒素的抗耐性,这可能是寡聚糖诱导植物提高抗病性的重要机制之一。

关键词: 壳寡糖;脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇(DON);小麦;细胞周期

Abstract (Browse 2316)  |  Full Text PDF       
Growth of the Crystals of Nitrogenase MnFe Protein (in English)
Author: HUANG Ju-Fu, DONG Zhi-Gang, WANG Dao-Yong, L Yu-Bing, ZHANG Hua-Feng, WANG Yao-Ping, HAN Yi, DAI Xiao-Hu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(4): 375-379
      
    

Under a suitable condition of crystallization, dark brown short rhombohedron crystals could be obtained from nitrogenase MnFe protein purified from a mutant UW3 of Azotobacter vinelandii Lipmann grown in Mn-containing but Mo- and NH3-free medium. The possibility of crystallization, and number,size and quality of crystals were obviously dependent on concentrations of NaCl,MgCl2, PEG 8000,Tris and Hepes buffer and on methods for crystallization. PEG concentration affected on the shape of the crystals.The optimal concentrations of the chemicals for crystallization of MnFe protein were slightly different from those for crystallization of ΔnifZ MoFe protein from a nifZ deleted strain of Azotobacter vinelandii . SDS-PAGE showed that the protein from the dissolved crystals was almost the same as MnFe protein before crystallization, indicating that the crystal was formed from MnFe protein.

固氮酶锰铁蛋白的晶体生长
黄巨富1董志刚1汪道涌1吕玉兵1 张华峰1王耀萍2韩毅2 代小虎2

(1. 中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093;2.  中国科学院生物物理研究所,北京100101)

摘要:从以Mn代钼的固氮培养基中固氮生长的固氮菌(Azotobacter vinelandii Lipmann)突变种UW3中分离纯化的MnFe蛋白,在一定的结晶条件下,可从溶液中析出深棕色的短斜四棱柱晶体。Tris和Hepes缓冲液、NaCl、MgCl2和PEG的浓度及结晶方法等,对该蛋白的出晶率、晶核数目、晶体大小和质量均有明显的影响,PEG浓度的改变还可使该蛋白晶体的晶型发生变化。MnFe蛋白结晶所需的上述化合物的最适浓度与缺失nifZ固氮菌突变种ΔnifZ MoFe蛋白结晶所需的最适浓度有所不同。SDS凝胶电泳表明,晶体溶解后的蛋白与结晶前的MnFe蛋白基本相同。结果表明,该晶体为MnFe蛋白的晶体。

关键词: 固氮菌突变种UW3;含锰培养基;固氮酶锰铁蛋白;晶体生长

Abstract (Browse 2151)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Studies on the Development of Oil Cells in Litsea pungens
Author: CHU Qing-Gang, HU Zheng-Hai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(4): 339-347
      
    

The developmental process of oil cells in the shoot of Litsea pungens Hemsl. has been studied with transmission electron microscopy. According to the development of the three layers of cell wall, the developmental process could be divided into 4 stages. In stage 1, the cell wall consisted only of a primary (the outmost) cellulose layer, which might further be divided into two substages, the oil cell initial, and the vacuolizing oil cell. During this stage, there were some small electron translucent vesicles and dark osmiophilic droplets of variant sizes in the different-shaped plastids. It was observed that some dark and gray osmiophilic materials coalesced to vacuoles in the cytoplasm. In stage 2, a lamellated suberin layer accumulated inside the primary cellulose layer. In stage 3, a thicker and looser inner cellulose wall layer was formed gradually inside the suberin layer. Some dark osmiophilic droplets have been observed in this loose inner cellulose wall layer. The plasmodesmata were blocked up and became a special structure. Then, the big vacuole, which is the oil sac, was full of osmiophilic oil. In stage 4, the oil cell became matured and the cytoplasm disintegrated. The oil sac enveloped from plasmalemma was attached to the cupule, which was formed by the protuberance of the inner cellulose wall layer into the lumen. After the maturity of oil cell, the ground cytoplasm began to disintegrate and became electron opaque or exhibited in a disordered state, and the osmiophilic oil appeared light gray.

木姜子油细胞发育的超微结构研究
初庆刚1,3 胡正海2*

(1.  莱阳农学院基础部植物研究室,山东莱阳265200;2.  西北大学植物研究所,西安70069;
3. 西北农林科技大学植物保护学院,陕西杨凌712100)

摘要:利用超薄切片法和透射电镜研究了木姜子(Litsea pungens Hemsl.)油细胞的发育过程。油细胞3层细胞壁的发育可分为4个阶段。阶段1:油细胞仅有初生纤维素壁层,又可分为原始细胞和细胞液泡化两个时期。此阶段质体具透明小泡和黑色嗜锇滴,细胞质中也存在嗜锇物质,并与液泡融合。阶段2:木栓质化壁层的形成,片层状木栓质不断叠加在初生纤维素壁内侧,其细胞结构与前期相似。阶段3:内纤维素壁层的形成,较厚而松散的内纤维素壁层叠加在木栓质化壁层的内侧,在内纤维素壁层中可见黑色嗜锇物质,胞间连丝成为被阻塞的特化结构,此时大液泡被嗜锇油脂充满,成为油囊。阶段4:油细胞成熟及细胞质解体,杯形构造由内纤维素壁层向细胞腔内突起形成,油囊由液泡膜包被连接到杯形构造上,油呈浅灰色嗜锇状态,其细胞质和细胞器解体,变得电子不透明或呈杂乱状态。

关键词: 木姜子;油细胞;发育;超微结构;木栓质化壁层;杯形构造

Abstract (Browse 2168)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New Cyclic Octopeptide from Schnabelia oligophylla
Author: ZHOU Yan, WANG Ming-Kui, PENG Shu-Lin, DING Li-Sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(4): 431-434
      
    

From the methanol extract of the whole plant of Schnabelia oligophylla Hand.-Mazz. (Lamiaceae), a new cyclic octopeptide, named schnabepeptide (1), was isolated by silica gel chromatography. Its structure was elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and the absolute configuration of the amino acid units, except for proline and glycine, were assigned by chiral HPLC analysis. Bio-assay showed that schnabepeptide (1) exhibited an immunosuppression activity on T/B lymphocytes. Along with the new compound, seven known compounds, octadeca-9,16-dioxo-10(E),12(Z),14(E)-trienoic acid (2), 12,16-epoxy-11,14-dihydroxy-17(15→16),18(4→3)-diabeo-abieta-3,5,8,11,13,15-hexene-2,7-dione (teuvincenone F, 3), abscisic acid (4), β-sitosterol (5), daucosterol (6), stigmasteryl 3-O-β- D -glucopyranoside (7) and palmitic acid (8), were also isolated from this plant.

四棱草中的一个新环八肽
周燕 王明奎 彭树林 丁立生*

(中国科学院成都生物研究所,成都610041)

摘要:从四棱草(Schnabelia oligophylla Hand.-Mazz.)全草的甲醇提取物中分离得到一个新的环八肽,命名为四棱草环肽(1)。用波谱方法鉴定了1的结构,并通过HPLC手性柱分析指定了除脯氨酸和甘氨酸外的氨基酸的绝对构型。活性实验显示,四棱草环肽(1)对T/B淋巴细胞有免疫抑制作用。另外,从该植物中还分离鉴定了7个已知化合物。

关键词: 唇形科;四棱草;四棱草环肽

Abstract (Browse 2045)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plant Functional Types and Biomes of China at a Regional Scale
Author: NI Jian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(4): 419-425
      
    

Thirty-nine dominant plant functional types (PFTs) of China were identified based on the present Chinese vegetation types and their distributional pattern using the “eco-physiognomy" principle. They are alpine evergreen conifer, boreal evergreen conifer, boreal summergreen conifer, cool temperate evergreen conifer, temperate evergreen conifer, warm temperate evergreen conifer, tropical evergreen conifer, boreal summergreen broadleaf, cool temperate summergreen broadleaf, temperate summergreen broadleaf, cold warm-temperate evergreen broadleaf,intermediate warm-temperate evergreen broadleaf, southern warm-temperate evergreen broadleaf, warm-temperate schlerophyllous broadleaf, warm temperate summergreen broadleaf, tropical evergreen broadleaf, tropical raingreen broadleaf, tropical deciduous broadleaf, warm temperate bamboo, alpine/subalpine shrub, temperate steppe shrub, temperate desert shrub, cool temperate shrub, temperate shrub, warm temperate shrub, tropical shrub, xeric shrub, alpine forb, desert forb, temperate steppe grass, temperate grass, sedge, mangrove, boreal crop, cool temperate crop, temperate crop, warm temperate crop, tropical crop, and bare land. Twenty-one potential biomes were then assigned on the basis of dominant PFTs. They are boreal deciduous forest, boreal evergreen forest, cold temperate mixed coniferous-broadleaf forest, temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest, warm temperate mixed deciduous-evergreen broadleaf forest, warm temperate broad-leaved evergreen forest, warm temperate broad-leaved evergreen monsoon forest, tropical rain forest, tropical seasonal forest, tropical deciduous forest, mangrove forest, xeric woodl and/savannas, temperate meadow/savannas, temperate steppe, temperate semi-steppe, temperate desert, temperate semi-desert, alpine/subalpine coniferous forest, alpine/subalpine shrub/meadow, alpine/subalpine steppe, and alpine/subalpine desert. If the agricultural vegetation was taken into account, twenty-five actual biomes including one crop per year, three crops per two years, two crops per year, and three crops per year were assigned. These studies were attempted to lay a foundation of Chinese PFTs and biome classifications at a regional scale for the studies of global ecology and palaeoecology.

区域尺度的中国植物功能型与生物群区
倪健
(中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学开放研究实验室,北京10093)


摘要: 利用“生态%外貌”原则,根据中国的现状植被类型及其分布,确定中国的39 种优势植物功能型:高山常绿针叶、北方常绿针叶、北方夏绿针叶、冷温带常绿针叶、温带常绿针叶、暖温带常绿针叶、热带常绿针叶、北方夏绿阔叶、冷温带夏绿阔叶、温带夏绿阔叶、冷暖温带常绿阔叶、中暖温带常绿阔叶、南暖温带常绿阔叶、暖温带硬叶阔叶、暖温带夏绿阔叶、热带常绿阔叶、热带雨绿阔叶、热带落叶阔叶、暖温带竹、高山/ 亚高山灌木、温带草原灌木、温带荒漠灌木、冷温带灌木、温带灌木、暖温带灌木、热带灌木、干旱灌木、高山草、荒漠草、温带草原草、温带草、沼泽草、红树、北方农作物、冷温带农作物、温带农作物、暖温带农作物、热带农作物和裸地。再依据优势植物功能型归并中国的21类潜在生物群区:北方(寒温带)落叶林、北方(寒温带)常绿林、冷温带针阔叶混交林、温带落叶阔叶林、暖温带(亚热带)落叶常绿阔叶混交林、暖温带(亚热带)常绿阔叶林、暖温带(亚热带)常绿阔叶季风林、热带雨林、热带季雨林、热带落叶林、红树林、干旱疏林/稀树草原、温带草甸/ 稀树草原、温带草原、温带半草原、温带荒漠、温带半荒漠、高山/亚高山针叶林、高山/亚高山灌丛/ 草甸、高山/亚高山草原和高山/ 亚高山荒漠。如果考虑现状农业植被类型:一年一熟农作物、二年三熟农作物、一年二熟农作物和一年三熟农作物,可归并为’( 类现状生物群区。这是全球生态学和古生态学研究中区域尺度上我国植物功能型和生物群区分类的一次尝试。
关键词: 生物群区;优势植物功能型;生态外貌;全球生态学;古生态学

Abstract (Browse 3504)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Chemical Constituents of Amoora yunnanensis
Author: LUO Xiao-Dong, WU Shao-Hua, MA Yun-Bao, WU Da-Gang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(4): 426-430
      
    

Two new sterols, 3β,7α,16β-trihydroxy-stigmast-5,22-diene (1), 3β,7α,16β-trihydroxy-stigmast-5-ene (2), were isolated together with six known compounds, ergosta-5,24(28)-dien-3β,7α-diol (3), ergosta-5,24(28)-dien-3β,7β,16β-triol (4), β-amyrone (5), β-amyrin (6), 11α,12α-epoxy-14-taraxeren-3-one (7), and 6-guaiene-4α,10α-diol (8) from the EtOH extract of the bark of Amoora yunnanensis (H. L. Li) C. Y. Wu. Their structures were deduced on the basis of spectral data.

云南崖摩的化学成分研究
罗晓东 吴少华 马云保 吴大刚*

(中国科学院昆明植物研究所植物化学开放实验室,昆明650204)

摘要: 从云南崖摩(Amoora yunnanensis (H.L.Li)C.Y.Wu.)树皮的乙醇提取物中分离得到8个化合物,通过波谱方法鉴定它们分别是:3β,7α,16β-trihydroxy-stigmast-5,22-diene(1)、3β,7α,16β-trihydroxy-stigmast-5-ene(2)、ergosta-5,24(28)-dien-3β,7α-diol(3)、ergosta-5,24(28)-dien-3β,7β,16β-triol(4)、β-amyrone(5)、β-amyrin(6)、11α,12α-epoxy-14-taraxeren-3-one(7)和6-guaiene-4α,10α-diol(8)。其中1和2为新化合物。

关键词: 云南崖摩;楝科;3β,7α,16β-trihydroxy-stigmast-5,22-diene;3β,7α,16β-trihydroxy-stigmast-5-ene

Abstract (Browse 2084)  |  Full Text PDF       
Production of Active Oxygen Species from Taxus cuspidata Induced by Far-UV Radiation (in English)
Author: JIN Yue-Hua, DU Ying-Jun, LIU Gui-Zhen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(4): 380-384
      
    

In order to understand the role of active oxygen species in mediating plant injuries induced by far-UV radiation, seedlings of Taxus cuspidata Sieb. et Zucc. were irradiated by far-UV rays in laboratory for 4 weeks. The production of organic free-radicals in detached needles, and the production of O-·2 and 1O2 in isolated chloroplasts were detected weekly by electron spin resonance (ESR) to evaluate their relative importance. The results show that the cumulative effect of far-UV irradiation, is best indicated by the production of organic free radicals in the needles, O-·2 production in chloroplasts is the next. The enhancement of 1O2 production in chloroplasts by the cumulative far-UV irradiation seems to be not so important as O-·2 in mediating injuries induced by far-UV radiation because of its high background value.

远紫外辐射诱导紫杉产生的活性氧
靳月华1 杜英君1 刘桂珍2

(1. 中国科学院沈阳应用生态研究所,沈阳110015;2.  中国科学院长春应用化学研究所,长春1

30022)

摘要:为了解活性氧和自由基在介导远紫外辐射对植物伤害上的作用 ,在实验室内用远紫外线源对紫杉 (Taxuscuspidata Sieb .etZucc .)苗进行了 4周的辐射处理。每周取样 ,对针叶的有机自由基及离体叶绿体的O-·2 和1O2 分别进行了电子自旋共振 (ESR)检测 ,以了解它们各自的相对重要性。结果表明针叶的有机自由基水平最能说明远紫外辐射剂量的积累效应。其次是叶绿体产生的O-·2 。叶绿体产生的1O2 也随辐照时间的增加而略有增加 ,但由于本底数值过高 ,它在介导远紫外辐射引起的伤害上可能不如O-·2 重要

关键词: 远紫外辐射;紫杉;活性氧;自由基

Abstract (Browse 1895)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on Over-compensation Growth of Cleistogenes squarrosa Population in Inner Mongolia Steppe
Author: WANG Shi-Ping, WANG Yan-Fen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(4): 413-418
      
    

Cleistogenes squarrosa ((Trin.) Keng) is a C4 plant and a short, perennial grass with drought tolerance that tends to occupy the medium degradation grassland in Inner Mongolia steppe. It is an ideal plant suitable for the studies on compensation or over-compensation growth because its important value of population is the maximum in the medium disturbance in Inner Mongolia steppe. The results showed that the over-compensation existed for net primary productivity (NPP) of Cleistogenes squarrosa population because the plant morphotypes remaining in the population were characterized by a higher density with small individual plant in moderate stocking rate (1.33 sheep·hm-2 during 138 days of growth seasons). As for an individual plant, grazing reduced the height and biomass per plant, but the above-ground net photosynthesis efficiency or above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) was increased and it almost did not affect the below-ground net primary productivity (BNPP) in the moderate stocking rate. However, the lower compensation of ANPP was a greater cost with BNPP in heavy stocking rate (>4.00 sheep·hm-2 during 138 days of growth season). From this study, it appears that the plant-herbivore association might be regarded as mutualistic in moderate grazing because not only the ANPP of the population was increased, but also was the efficiency of herbage utilization. However, the compensation of ANPP was attained at the cost of BNPP, therefore, the association between plant and herbivore might trade-off in heavy grazing because the temporary higher efficiency of herbage utilization could not keep the sustainable development of the population. The results support the grazing optimization hypothesis.

不同放牧率下糙隐子草种群补偿性生长的研究
汪诗平 王艳芬
(中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学开放研究实验室,北京100093)

摘要:糙隐子草(Cleistogeness quarrosa (Trin.)Keng)是研究草原植物在放牧利用条件下补偿性生长及其机制的较理想的实验材料。通过对该草生产力的形成及其构成的研究表明,在适牧条件下,糙隐子草种群明显地存在超补偿性生长。适牧可以刺激糙隐子草个体地上净光合效率,而地下净光合效率不受影响;但在高强度牧食下,糙隐子草个体则通过降低地下生产力的生产来达到地上较低的补偿性生产。糙隐子草种群的超补偿性生长主要是形成小株丛和高密度的种群结构以适应较贫瘠的生境条件。因此,糙隐子草与食草动物的关系,在适牧条件下可能是互惠的,即既可提高牧草的光合效率和利用效率,又可提高动物的生产;而在重牧条件下,可能是交换的,对牧草是以降低地下生产而获得地上生产的;对食草动物,也只能是暂时较高比例的利用牧草。这种“互惠”和“交换”的关系较好地支持了放牧优化假设。

关键词: 糙隐子草;种群;补偿性生长

Abstract (Browse 2085)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on Population Genetic Structure in Castanopsis fargesii with Microsatellite Markers
Author: XU Li-An, LI Xin-Jun, PAN Hui-Xin, ZOU Hui-Yu, YIN Tong-Ming, HUANG Min-Ren
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(4): 409-412
      
    

Genetic structure of four populations in Castanopsis fargesii Franch. in Fujian Province was studied with microsatellite (SSR) markers. A high level of genetic variation was detected in the populations of C. fargesii by using SSR with A=9.0, Ne=4.8, He=0.65 and the population differentiation coefficient ( Fst ) was only 0.031. The distributions of alleles of all loci were significantly different among the populations of C. fargesii , and the population differentiation could be found according to the distributions of SSR alleles. Some rare alleles in the populations of C. fargesii were revealed by SSR: Fifteen of 54 alleles appeared in one or two populations with lower frequencies; conservation of these rare alleles is of great importance.

用SSR研究栲树群体遗传结构
徐立安* 李新军*  潘惠新 邹惠渝 尹佟明 黄敏仁*

(南京林业大学林木遗传和基因工程国家林业局重点实验室,南京210037)

摘要:利用微卫星(SSR)分子标记对福建省内4个栲树(Castanopsis fargesiiFranch.)群体遗传结构进行了研究。SSR标记揭示了栲树群体丰富的遗传变异:平均等位基因数A=9.0,平均有效等位基因数N e=4.8,平均期望杂合度He=0.65,而群体具有较低的Fst值(F st=0.031)。SSR每个位点的等位基因频率分布在栲树群体间都存在显著或极显著差异,表明根据SSR等位基因频率分布亦能了解群体的分化。SSR标记使栲树群体中一些稀有等位基因得以表现,54个SSR等位基因中有15个等位基因仅出现在1个或2个群体中,且频率较低,在遗传多样性保护中更应注重保护这些稀有的等位变异。

关键词: 微卫星;栲树;群体遗传结构;等位基因频率

Abstract (Browse 2165)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Influence of Matrix Attachment Regions on Transgene Expression in Transgenic Tobaccos
Author: LI Xu-Gang, LU Zi-Xian, CHEN Lei, XIAO Gui-Fang, ZHU Zhen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(4): 405-408
      
    

To investigate the effect of matrix attachment regions (MARs) on levels of transgene expression in transgenic plants, β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene ( uidA ) was flanked by the MARs isolated from the genome of pea ( Pisum sativum L.) to form plant expression vector. The plant expression vectors with and without MARs were transferred into tobaccos ( Nicotiana tabacum L.) via Agrobacterium -mediated transformation procedure. The results of GUS activity showed that MARs could increase levels of uidA gene expression, the mean GUS activity could be increased two fold compared with that of transformants without MARs, the highest GUS activity of transformant could arrive at five fold.

核基质结合区在转基因烟草中对转基因表达的影响
李旭刚 路子显 陈蕾 肖桂芳 朱祯*

(中国科学院遗传研究所,北京100101)

摘要:为研究核基质结合区 (matrixattachmentregions,MARs)在转基因植物中对外源转基因 (transgene)表达的影响 ,将来源豌豆 (Pisumsativum L .)的MARs序列构建在报告基因 β-葡糖醛酸酶 (β-glucuronidase ,GUS)基因 (uidA)的两侧形成植物表达载体。将此载体与不包含MARs序列的植物表达载体经根癌土壤杆菌 (Agrobacteriumtumefaciens(SmithetTownsend)Conn)介导转化烟草 (Nicotianatabacum L .)。GUS活性检测表明 ,MARs可以提高外源uidA基因的表达水平。和不包含MARs的转化植株相比 ,MARs序列的存在可以使uidA基因的平均表达水平提高 2倍 ,最高的可达 5倍
关键词: 核基质结合区;β-葡糖醛酸酶;转基因;基因表达

Abstract (Browse 2050)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Integration and Expression of ββ Mutant Gene of Human Liver Metallothionein in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 by Homology Recombination
Author: SONG Ling-Yun, SHI Ding-Ji, NING Ye, LUO Na, SHAO Ning, YU Mei-Min, RU Bing-Gen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(4): 399-404
      
    

The integration plasmid pKSB was constructed by inserting a special recombination target, psbB, into multiple cloning site (MCS) of pBluescript KS. The fragment psbB is part of psbB gene (from #693 bp to #2563 bp) from Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803. Human liver metallothionein mutant gene ββ chemically synthesized was inserted into downstream of the promoter PpsbA on the intermediary vector pRL-439. The expression vector pKSB-ββ was constructed by inserting PpsbA as well as ββ gene into MCS of pKSB and was transferred into Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The stable transgenic strain has been obtained by raising concentration of ampicillin gradually in the process of selection. The results of PCR analysis indicated that ββ gene has been integrated in the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 chromosome DNA by single-crossover events. Western blotting and ELISA analysis showed that the ββgene was expressed in the transgenic strain with an amount of 0.739 mg/g fresh cells. Cu2+ tolerance experiments proved that the transgenic strain had higher Cu2+-resistance. Atomic absorption demonstrated that 82% of Cu2+could be removed by the transgenic strain when cultured in BG11 medium containing 10 μmol/L Cu2+ for 3 d.

用同源重组法将人肝金属硫蛋白突变体ββ 基因
整合在集胞藻6803中表达
宋凌云1,2施定基2  宁叶1  罗娜1 邵宁2 俞梅敏1 茹炳根1

(1. 北京大学生命科学学院,北京100871;2. 中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093)

摘要:将集胞藻 (Synechocystis sp .)PCC 6 80 3上psbB的一段序列 (从 # 6 93bp到 # 2 5 6 3bp)插入pBluescript KS的多克隆位点 ,构建带有整合平台的载体pKSB。再将人工合成的 ββ基因插入中间载体pRL-439上启动子PpsbA的下游 ,并将pRL-ββ上PpsbA和 ββ基因插入pKSB构建成整合表达载体pKSB-ββ。利用自然转化将整合表达载体导入集胞藻 6 80 3,并通过单交换同源重组使 ββ基因整合到集胞藻 6 80 3基因组DNA上。逐步提高氨苄青霉素浓度 ,筛选得到遗传性状稳定的转基因集胞藻 6 80 3。PCR检测转基因集胞藻 6 80 3,结果证实 ββ基因已整合到集胞藻 6 80 3的染色体上 ;Westernblotting结果表明 ,ββ基因在转基因集胞藻 6 80 3细胞中得到表达 ,ELISA测定表明在 5 0 μmol/L的Zn2 +诱导下 ββ在新鲜集胞藻 6 80 3中的蛋白表达量为 0 .739mg/g ;重金属耐受性实验表明 ,得到能耐受Cu2 +的转基因集胞藻 6 80 3。经原子吸收光谱法测定 ,转基因集胞藻6803在含低浓度Cu2+ (10umol/L)的培养液中对Cu2+的去除率可达到82%

关键词: 人肝金属硫蛋白ββ突变体;集胞藻6803;单交换;同源重组;蓝藻基因工程;铜去除

Abstract (Browse 2369)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Resistance Mediated by Three Mutants of TMV 54K Protein Gene
Author: AN Li-Xin, LIU Yi-Fei, CHEN Zhang-Liang, LI Yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(4): 395-398
      
    

Three deletion mutants of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) 54-kD putative replicase gene (54K) were obtained by PCR, and cloned into plant expression vector p208, then transformed into Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. SR1 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith et Townsend) Conn Ti plasmid-mediated transformation. All the transgenic plants with the N-terminal deletion mutant, the C-terminal deletion mutant and the only 261 nucleotides region from the central part of the 54K ORF showed significant resistance against TMV. 

TMV 54K基因的3 个突变体介导抗病性的研究
安利忻 刘一飞 陈章良 李 毅*

(北京大学生命科学学院蛋白质工程和植物基因工程国家重点实验室,北大!耶鲁植物分子遗传农业生物技术联合中心,北京100871)

摘要:利用PCR方法分别构建了烟草花叶病毒(TMV)中一个推测为复制酶的54-kD蛋白基因(54K)缺失N端、C端和仅余基因中部261bp的3个缺失突变体,与野生型54K一起克隆入植物中间载体p208,并通过根癌土壤杆菌(Agrobacteriumtumefaciens (Smith et Townsend) Conn)介导的方法转化烟草(Nicotiana tabacum L.)。用TMV侵染转基因植物的R0代和R1代,结果显示这3个缺失突变体均能介导对TMV的抗病性。

关键词:TMV ;54K突变体;复制酶介导的抗病性

Abstract (Browse 1914)  |  Full Text PDF       
Establishment of in Vitro Regeneration System of Triploid Chinese White Poplar
Author: LU Shan-Fa, ZHAO Hua-Yan, WEI Jian-Hua, SONG Yan-Ru
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(4): 435-437
      
    

三倍体毛白杨组织培养再生系统的建立
卢善 发赵华燕*  魏建华 宋艳茹**

(中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093)

摘要:初步建立了三倍体毛白杨(Populus tomentosa Carr.)组织培养再生系统。组织培养时,外植体最好选用在弱光下从休眠芽上萌发的幼芽或嫩茎,经HgCl2溶液表面消毒后,接种到大量元素减半、含0.25mg/L吲哚乙酸和1.00mg/L玉米素的MS培养基上。试管苗的生根可采用含0.25mg/L吲哚丁酸和10mg/L维生素B1的MS培养基。试管苗茎段的分化依无性系和外源激素条件的不同而异。无性系B19的茎段较易分化,而无性系B304和B331分化较难。最适的分化培养基为大量元素减半、含0.05~0.10mg/L吲哚乙酸和1.00mg/L玉米素的MS培养基。

关键词: 三倍体;毛白杨;组织培养

Abstract (Browse 2166)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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