May 2001, Volume 43 Issue 5

 

          Research Articles
Studies on the Proton Pumping Activity of H+-ATPase in Tonoplast Vesicles of Populus euphratica
Author: LIU Qun-Lu, ZHANG Xu-Jia, LI Yi, WANG Sha-Sheng, JIANG Xiang-Ning
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(5): 495-500
      
    

Tonoplast-enriched vesicles were prepared from suspension-cultured Populus euphratica Oliv. cells by differential centrifugation and discontinuous sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The properties of the proton pumping activity of H+-ATPases in tonoplast vesicles were studied by acridine orange fluorescent quenching measured at 22 ℃. The proton pumping activity of ATPase was ATP-dependent with apparent Michaelis-Menten Constant (Km) for ATP about 0.65 mmol/L. The optimal pH for H+-ATPases activity was 7.5. The proton pumping activity of H+-ATPase could be initiated by some divalent cations, Mg2+ being highly efficient, much more than Fe2+; and Ca2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ were inefficient under the experimental condition. The proton translocation could be stimulated by halide anions, with potencies decreasing in the order Cl-> Br->I->F-. The proton pumping activity was greatly inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), NO-3 and Bafilomycin A1, but not by orthovanadate and azide. These results demonstrated that the H+-ATPase in the tonoplast of Populus euphratica belonged to vacuolar type ATPase. This work was the first time that tonoplast-enriched vesicles were isolated from Populus euphratica cells.

胡杨液泡膜微囊H+-ATPase质子泵活性研究
刘群录1 张旭家2 李义3 王沙生1 蒋湘宁1*

(1. 北京林业大学生物学院森林生物学实验中心,国家林业局树木花卉育种生物工程重点实验室,北京100083; 2.中国科学院生物物理研究所生物大分子国家重点实验室,北京100101;3. 康涅狄克大学植物科学系,康涅狄克州06269-4067,美国)

摘要:将悬浮培养的胡杨(Populus euphratica Oliv.)细胞捣碎后,通过差速离心和不连续蔗糖密度梯度离心获得富集液泡膜的膜微囊。通过连续监测吖啶橙的荧光淬灭研究膜微囊上H+-ATPase的质子转运特性。结果表明,质子转运依赖于ATP,其表观米氏常数Km值为0.65mmol/L。质子泵活性受pH和温度的影响较大。测定液pH值为7.5时,质子泵的活性最高(测定温度选定为22℃)。一些二价阳离子可启动H+-ATPase的质子转运,其中Mg2+的作用远高于Fe2+。在实验条件下,Ca2+、Cu2+和Zn2+均不能启动H+-ATPase的质子转运。质子跨膜转运还可被一价阴离子激活,激活作用的顺序为:Cl->Br->I->F-。质子泵活性受NEM(乙基马来酰亚胺)、DCCD(二环己基碳二亚胺)、NO-3和Bafilomycin A1的强烈抑制,但对Na3VO4和NaN3不敏感。这些性质说明胡杨液泡膜微囊上的H+-ATPase属于囊泡型的ATPase。

关键词: 胡杨;H+-ATPase;质子转运活性

Abstract (Browse 2152)  |  Full Text PDF       
DNA Damage and Repair of Two Ecotypes of Phragmites communis Subjected to Water Stress
Author: WANG Jun-Gang, ZHANG Cheng-Lie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(5): 490-494
      
    

In order to thoroughly understand the mechanism of drought resistance in plants at DNA level, the DNA damage of two ecotypes of reeds ( Phragmites communis T.) stressed by PEG 6000 was analyzed by means of fluorescence analysis of DNA unwinding (FADU). The results showed that the residual double strand DNA percentages (dsDNA%) in dune reed (DR) were significantly higher than those in swamp reed (SR) treated with either 20% or 30% PEG 6000. This meant that the DNA of DR was less damaged in comparison with SR. Similarly, DR resisted DNA damage more strongly than SR as reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased by adding ROS producers diethyldithio carbamate (DDC), H2O2 and Fe2+ of different concentrations. Meanwhile, treating PEG stressed SR with ROS scavengers such as dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and ascorbic acid (Vc) resulted in the reduction of DNA damage, suggesting that ROS could cause DNA damage. In addition, the DNA repair for water-stressed reeds indicated that DR repaired DNA damage much faster and more completely. This might be the first indication that drought stress led to DNA damage in plants and that drought resistance of plants was closely related to DNA damage and repair.

水分胁迫引起的两种不同生态型芦苇的DNA损伤与修复
王俊刚1 张承烈2*

(1. 浙江林学院资源环境系,浙江临安311300;2. 兰州大学生命科学学院,兰州730000)

摘要:利用DNA解链荧光分析 (FADU)法检测两种不同生态型芦苇 (Phragmitescommunis T .)在PEG 6 0 0 0胁迫处理后的DNA损伤。结果表明 :无论是 2 0 %还是 30 %PEG 6 0 0 0胁迫处理 ,耐旱性强的沙丘芦苇的DNA损伤都比耐旱性弱的沼泽芦苇较轻。利用不同浓度的二乙基二硫代氨基甲酸钠 (DDC)、H2 O2 、FeSO4 以增加芦苇的 3种活性氧(O2 -·、H2 O2 、·OH)的实验也同样显示出沙丘芦苇抵抗水分胁迫引起的DNA损伤的能力较强。同时 ,当加入外源活性氧清除剂二甲基亚砜 (DMSO)、抗坏血酸 (Vc)时 ,水分胁迫处理的芦苇DNA损伤表现出不同程度的减轻。当PEG胁迫处理的芦苇复水后 ,DNA损伤随复水时间延长而逐渐减轻 ,但沙丘芦苇的DNA损伤修复较快而完全。实验初步证明 :水分胁迫可引起植物体内DNA损伤且该损伤与活性氧有关 ,植物的抗旱性与DNA损伤及修复密切相关。

关键词: 沙丘芦苇;沼泽芦苇;水分胁迫;活性氧;植物体内DNA损伤;DNA修复

Abstract (Browse 2144)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparison of Photosynthetic Adaptability Between Kobresia humilis and Polygonum viviparum on Qinghai Plateau
Author: WEI Jie, YU Hui, ZHONG Ze-Pu, KUANG Ting-Yun, BEN Gui-Ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(5): 486-489
      
    

The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Kobresia humilis Serg. and Polygonum viviparum L. grown at two different altitudes (3200 m, 3980 m) were measured and the ultrastructure of chloroplasts were observed for studying the photosynthetic adaptability of plants to the influences of stress conditions in alpine environment. Rfd -values, the vitality index, in leaves of K. humilis and P.viviparum grown at 3980 m were higher than those at 3200 m. The higher ratio of Fv/Fo and Fv/Fm in leaves of K. humilis and P.viviparum indicated that the rate of photosynthetic conversion of light energy increased at higher altitude. Ratios of Fv/Fo and Fv/Fm and Rfd -values in K.humilis were higher than that in P.viviparum grown at the same altitude. There were more irregular chloroplasts in leaves of both species grown at higher altitude. Many irregular chloroplasts such as swollen thylakoid, deformed chloroplast envelope, were observed in P.viviparum grown at 3980 m, but few in K. humilis . These results were discussed in relation to the photosynthetic adaptability of alpine plants and the different adaptive competence between K.humilis and P.viviparum.

青海高原矮嵩草和珠芽蓼的光合适应性比较
魏 捷1余辉1 钟泽璞1*  匡廷云1 贲桂英2

(1. 中国科学院植物研究所光合作用基础研究开放实验室,北京100093;2. 中国科学院西北高原生物研究所,西宁810001)

摘要:对生长在两个海拔地带 (3 2 0 0m ,3 980m)的矮嵩草 (Kobresiahumilis Serg.)和珠芽蓼 (Polygonumviviparum L .)叶片的叶绿素荧光特性及其叶绿体超微结构进行了比较研究。海拔升高 ,矮嵩草和珠芽蓼叶片的Fv/Fo、Fv/Fm和Rfd值均增大 ,且矮嵩草的Fv/Fo、Fv/Fm Rfd值均大于珠芽蓼。叶绿体超微结构的结果显示 ,海拔升高 ,珠芽蓼和矮嵩草的叶绿体都表现出一定程度的变形 ,但珠芽蓼的叶绿体变形和类囊体膜肿胀现象更为显著。研究表明 ,矮嵩草和珠芽蓼光合作用对高山胁迫环境具有很强的适应性 ,且矮嵩草的适应能力比珠芽蓼强。

关键词: 高山植物;矮嵩草;珠芽蓼;叶绿素荧光;叶绿体超微结构

Abstract (Browse 2208)  |  Full Text PDF       
Differential Response of Floret Opening in Male-Sterile and Male-Fertile Rices to Methy Jasmonate
Author: SONG Ping, XIA Kai, WU Chuan-Wan, BAO Dong-Ping, CHEN Li-Li, ZHOU Xie, CAO Xian-Zu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(5): 480-485
      
    

Effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on floret opening were investigated in male-sterile and male-fertile rice ( Oryza sativa subsp. indica ). Excised or intact panicles with several top florets flowered one day before the experiments were soaked in MeJA, salicylic acid (SA), 24-epibrassinolide (24-epiBL) or control solution for 2 min. MeJA at the concentration of 4 mmol/L significantly promoted rice floret opening; the response of floret opening of male-sterile rice to MeJA was more sensitive than that of male-fertile rice (such as maintenance line and conventional variety). The percentage of finally opened-floret per panicle of Zhenshan 97A (cytoplasmic male sterile line) or Pei'ai 64S (thermo-sensitive genic male sterile line) treated with MeJA was over 40% in the day of experiment, that of Zhenshan 97B (maintenance) and Pei'ai 64 (conventional variety) was (21±1.5)% and (25±2.1)%, respectively; floret opening of intact Pei'ai 64S panicles in the field could also be induced by 2-mmol/L MeJA. The percentage of opened floret in all control panicles was 0% or less than 5% in the day of experiment. The percentage of fertilized-grain of Zhenshan 97A and Longtepu A could be increased over 24% by spraying panicles with 2-mmol/L MeJA solution (circa 6.0 μmol per panicle). The lag time (time from the finishing of treatment to first floret opening) of male sterile line responsing to MeJA was 10 min shorter than that of male fertile line. MeJA induction on the rice floret opening could markedly be inhibited by SA solution at the concentration of 1 mmol/L, and the inhibition of SA on MeJA induction on floret opening of male-sterile rice could be nullified by MeJA treatment again. MeJA effect on floret opening of male-sterile rice could be clearly synergized by pretreatment with 24-epibrassinolide (24-epiBL).

雄性不育和可育水稻开颖对茉莉酸甲酯响应的差异
宋 平1,2* 夏凯1 吴传万1  包冬萍2  陈丽莉2 周燮1  曹显祖2

(1. 南京农业大学农学系,南京210095;2. 扬州大学农业部江苏省作物栽培生理重点开放实验室,扬州225009)

摘要:以水稻(Oryza sativa subsp.indica)雄性不育系和可育系为材料,在室内用溶液浸已开过一天花的水稻离体穗2min,发现4mmol/L茉莉酸甲酯(MeJA)能显著诱导水稻开颖,且MeJA诱导水稻雄性不育材料开颖的效应明显强于可育材料(如保持系和常规品种),MeJA使雄性不育系珍汕97A、温敏雄性核不育系培矮64S的当天最后开颖率达到40%以上,保持系珍汕97B、常规品种“培矮64”的当天最后开颖率仅有(21±1.5)%、(25±2.1)%,对照穗在当天始终不开颖或开颖极少(<5%);不育系开颖对MeJA响应的滞后期比可育系短10min左右。在田间,2mmol/LMeJA溶液浸或喷雾水稻连体穗,也同样能明显提高培矮64S的开颖率;辅以人工授粉,MeJA能大幅度提高珍汕97A、龙特浦A的结实率(提高24%以上)。1mmol/L水杨酸(SA)能抑制MeJA诱导水稻开颖,而MeJA的再次处理能解除SA对MeJA诱导雄性不育系开颖的抑制效应,SA抑制MeJA诱导保持系开颖的效应不能被再次使用MeJA所解除。24-表油菜素内酯(24-epiBL)预先处理能显著增强MeJA诱导不育系开颖,而对于保持系,此效应不明显。

关键词: 水稻雄性不育系;保持系;开颖;茉莉酸甲酯;水杨酸;24-表油菜素内酯

Abstract (Browse 2641)  |  Full Text PDF       
Molecular Cytogenetic Analysis of Winter Wheat Germplasm Aimengniu
Author: QI Zeng-Jun, LIU Da-Jun, CHEN Pei-Du, LI Qing-Qi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(5): 469-474
      
    

Chromosome constitution of the major types winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm, Aimengniu derived from Aifeng 3//Mengxian 201/Neuzucht, was examined through mitotic chromosome C-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The results indicated that Aimengniu Ⅱ, Ⅳ, Ⅴ and Ⅵ involved a new wheat-rye complex translocation, which was probably resulted from a second reciprocal translocation between the first translocation chromosome 1RS·1BL and wheat chromosome 7D. It was designated as 1RS·7DS and 1BL·7DL. The results also revealed that Aimengniu Ⅶ contained a usual 1RS·1BL and no translocation between wheat and rye was found in Aimengniu Ⅲ.

冬小麦种质“矮孟牛”的分子细胞遗传学研究
亓增军1  刘大钧1* 陈佩度1  李晴祺2

(1. 南京农业大学农业部作物细胞遗传重点开放实验室,南京210095;2.  山东农业大学农学系,泰安271018)

摘要:利用染色体C分带和FISH(fluorescence in situ hybridization)技术对冬小麦(Triticumaestivum L.)种质“矮孟牛"Ⅱ、Ⅳ、Ⅴ型及其在选育过程中产生而未被生产上利用的Ⅲ、Ⅵ、Ⅶ型进行了鉴定与分析。结果表明,被鉴定的“矮孟牛"6种类型染色体数均为2n=42,其中,“矮孟牛"Ⅶ型为1RS.1BL易位,“矮孟牛"Ⅲ型染色体组成中未发现小麦-黑麦易位,“矮孟牛”Ⅱ、Ⅳ、Ⅴ、Ⅵ型则存在一种新的小麦-黑麦复杂易位,亦即在杂交过程中产生的小麦-黑麦1RS.1BL易位染色体又与另一条小麦染色体7D发生了相互易位,将其确定为1RS.7DS和1BL.7DL。

关键词: 小麦;黑麦;复杂易位;1RS.1BL 分带: fluorescence in situ hybridization;冬小麦种质“矮孟牛”

Abstract (Browse 2014)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plasmodesmata: Dynamic Channels for Symplastic Transport
Author: MA Fengshan, Carol A. PETERSON
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(5): 441-460
      
    

Plasmodesmata (PDs) are cytoplasmic structures that link adjacent cells to form the symplast of a plant. PDs are involved extensively in a plant's life by mediating symplastic transport of a wide range of ions and molecules. Major components of a plasmodesma (PD) include a plasma membrane, a desmotubule, and a cytoplasmic annulus, all of which are readily detectable by electron microscopy. Both the plasma membrane and the desmotubule contain proteinaceous particles, thought to be involved in altering the size of the cytoplasmic annulus. Cytoskeleton elements (actin and myosin) are essential for maintaining the integrity of PDs. Together with these elements, calcium-binding proteins probably play a significant role in regulating PD function. Symplastic transport occurs through the cytoplasmic annulus for the great majority of solutes, while other substances may traverse through the desmotubule internal compartment, the desmotubule shell, or the plasma membrane. The symplast is subdivided into several domains with varying molecular size exclusion limits (ranging from <1 kD to >10 kD). Plasmodesmata can be either primary or secondary; the former are developed during new wall formation and the latter are made in existing walls. The dynamic nature of plasmodesmata is also reflected by their changing frequencies, which, in turn, depend on the developmental and physiological status of the tissue or the entire plant. While diffusion is the major mechanism of symplastic transport, plasmodesmata are selective for certain ions and molecules. Upon viral infection, viral movement proteins interact with PD receptor proteins and, as a result of yet unknown mechanisms, the plasmodesmata are remarkably dilated to allow viral movement proteins and the bound viral genome to enter healthy cells. Some proteins of plant origin are also able to traverse plasmodesmata, presumably in ways similar to viral movement proteins. Some of these plant proteins are probably signal molecules contributing to cell differentiation and other activities. Other proteins move cell-to-cell in a non-specific manner.

胞间连丝:共质体运输的动态通道
马丰山1,2* Carol A.PETERSON 1

(1. Department of Biology, Unixersity of Waterloo, Waterloo,Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada;2.Department of Biology, Unixersity of  Guelph,Guelph,Ontario N1G2W1,Ganada)

摘要:胞间连丝作为一种细胞质结构将相邻的细胞连系起来而形成植物的共质体。胞间连丝通过调控许多离子和分子的共质体运输而广泛地参与植物的生命活动。胞间连丝的主要构成部分是细胞质膜、连丝小管、以及位于二者之间的环层细胞质。这三者都很容易在电子显微镜下观察到。细胞骨架的成分(肌动蛋白和肌球蛋白)起到稳定胞间连丝的作用。同时,钙结合蛋白可能具有调节胞间连丝功能的作用。在胞间连丝里,环层细胞质为大多数溶质提供共质体运输的通道,而有些物质的共质体运输则可能是通过连丝小管的内腔、连丝小管的壳层、甚或是细胞质膜来实现的。共质体可以细分为数个区块,它们各自允许不同大小的分子(从低于1000到高于10000道尔顿)通过。从发生上看,胞间连丝可以是初生的,也可以是次生的。前者是伴随着新细胞壁的形成而产生的,而后者则是在已有的细胞壁上产生的。胞间连丝的动态性质还表现在它们的频率是处于变化之中的,这是由组织或植物整体的发育和生理状态决定的。虽然共质体运输的基本形式是扩散,但胞间连丝对于某些离子和分子却是有选择性的。在病毒感染细胞时,病毒的移动蛋白作用于胞间连丝的受体蛋白,结果,胞间连丝被显著地扩张(其机理尚不清楚)。于是,病毒的移动蛋白连同与之结合在一起的病毒基因组进入毗邻的健康细胞。一些植物源性的蛋白质也能够通过胞间连丝来运输;推测其方式类似于病毒的移动蛋白。有些植物蛋白质本身就是信号分子,它们调节分化和其他活动。与此相反,还有一些植物蛋白质的共质体运输却并不是通过特异的方式来实现的。

关键词: 细胞骨架;移动蛋白;韧皮部;胞间连丝;蛋白质;可过分子限度;共质体运输;病毒

Abstract (Browse 2545)  |  Full Text PDF       
In Vitro Regeneration of Style-stigma-like Structure from Stamens of Crocus sativus
Author: ZHAO Jun, CHEN Fang, YAN Fang, TANG Lin, XU Ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(5): 475-479
      
    

Style-stigma-like structures were regenerated from stamens of Crocus sativus L. The age of the stamen explant has an obvious effect on the induction rate. Auxin NAA has larger effect on the induction of filament style-stigma-like structure. Auxin NAA of higher concentration can lead to higher induction rate. Temperature and light have different effects on the induction of style-stigma-like structure from anther's filament of C. sativus with exogenous hormones at different levels. Ultraviolet tests show that style-stigma-like structure from anther's filament of C. sativus contains crocin, safranal and picrocrocin, contents of which are obviously more than those contained in the style-stigma-like from style. Floral reversion was observed in the induction of style-stigma-like structure from petals, ovaries and styles.

番红花雄蕊柱头状物的离体再生
赵军 陈放* 颜钫 唐琳 徐莺
(四川大学生命科学学院,成都610064)

摘要:以番红花(Crocus sativus L.)雄蕊为材料诱导培养出花柱柱头状结构,诱导率可达30%,起源于花丝基部。影响雄蕊柱头状物诱导的主要因素为外植体的发育期和生长素NAA的使用浓度。幼嫩浅黄色雄蕊适于诱导柱头状物。温度和光照在不同激素水平下对雄蕊柱头状物诱导的影响不同。紫外检测表明,由雄蕊诱导出的柱头状物含有番红花甙、番红花醛和番红花苦甙。其含量明显高于由花柱诱导出的柱头状结构。在诱导花柱、子房、花瓣的柱头状物的过程中,观察到成花逆转现象。

关键词: 番红花;雄蕊;柱头状物;离体再生

Abstract (Browse 2226)  |  Full Text PDF       
Role of Wall-bound β-Glucanases in Regulating Tip-growth of Lilium longiflorum Pollen Tubes
Author: LI Yi-Qin, KOTAKE Toshihisa, SAKURAI Naoki, ZHAO Nan-Ming, LIU Qiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(5): 461-468
      
    

β-Glucanases were found in the cell wall of Lilium longiflorum Thunb. pollen tubes grown in vitro . The activity of β-glucanases was, in a certain extent, decreased by nojirimycin, an inhibitor of glucosidase. Pollen germination percentage reduced dramatically when nojirimycin was applied in the culture medium. In case that nojirimycin was added at 0 or 1 h after the onset of incubation, the inhibition rate was 99.6% and 91.4%, respectively. When 3 mmol/L of nojirimycin was applied in the liquid medium at 0, 1, 1.5 and 2 h after the onset of incubation, the growth of pollen tubes was interrupted, which resulted in the morphological change of the pollen tubes such as the newly grown portion of pollen tubes being bent, curved and swollen. Tracing the growth pattern of the individual pollen tube grown in semi-solid medium by video microscopy, the authors demonstrated that pollen tube growth rate was strongly inhibited by nojirimycin at concentrations ranged from 0.003 to 3 mmol/L. Moreover, the cytoplasmic arrangement and the morphology of the pollen tubes were also affected by nojirimycin. The growth inhibition brought about by nojirimycin was reversible. These results indicated that β-glucanases, which degrade 1,3-β-glucan and/or 1,4-β-glucan or 1,3:1,4-β-glucan constructed in the cell wall, are involved in pollen germination and pollen tube growth. It provides new insight into an understanding of the contribution of β-glucanases to the cell wall extensibility and the crucial role of cell wall in regards to the regulation of pollen tube growth.

细胞壁结合的β-葡聚糖酶对百合花粉管顶端生长的调节作用
李一勤1 小竹敬久2 樱井直树2  赵南明3 刘强3

(1. 清华大学生物科学与技术系,北京100084;2.  广岛大学总和科学部环境研究系,东广岛739 ,日本;
3. 清华大学生物科学与技术系生物膜与膜生物工程国家重点实验室,北京100084)

摘要:从离体培养的麝香百合(LiliumlongiflorumThunb.)花粉管细胞壁中分离纯化出β-葡聚糖酶。抑制剂野尻酶素(nojirimycin)使该酶活性明显降低。若在百合花粉培养的初始或培养1h时加入3mmol/L野尻酶素,与对照相比较,花粉的萌发率分别被抑制99.6%和91.4%。若把3mmol/L野尻酶素分别在培养的不同时刻(0、1、1.5和2h)加入到液体培养基中,花粉管的生长都即刻受阻。此后,花粉管生长方向稍有改变,且花粉管直径略增,呈弯曲的非正常形态。用视频显微术跟踪记录在正常或含有不同浓度野尻酶素(0.003、0.03、0.3和3mmol/L)的半固体培养基中培养的花粉管的生长变化模式,发现该抑制剂明显降低花粉管的生长速率并影响其生长方向,而且花粉管直径、胞质内细胞器及囊泡的分布和顶端生长区的区域范围也呈现异常。野尻酶素对花粉管生长的抑制是可逆转的。这些结果表明,β-葡聚糖酶参与百合花粉的萌发和花粉管生长的调节。结合我们已报道的该酶的性质及作用方式,进而推测该酶通过降解1,3-/1,4-或1,3:1,4-β-葡聚糖,影响细胞壁的延展性,从而对花粉管顶端生长显示调节作用

关键词: 细胞壁;β-葡聚糖酶;麝香百合;花粉管;顶端生长;野尻酶素

Abstract (Browse 2177)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Trichosporon sp. in Combination with Calcium and Fungicide on Biocontrol of Postharvest Diseases in Apple Fruits
Author: TIAN Shi-Ping, FAN Qing, XU Yong, WANG Yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(5): 501-505
      
    

The capability of yeast Trichosporon sp., an antagonist isolated from peach fruit, in biological control was evaluated in apple ( Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Fuji) fruits, when inoculated with different concentrations of Botrytis cinerea Pers. and Penicillium expansum (Link) Thom, as well as in combination with calcium and fungicide. The concentrations of the yeast cells and pathogen spores obviously influenced disease incidence and lesion development in apples. There was a significant negative correlation between concentrations of the yeast cells and infectivity of the pathogens. When the yeast cell suspensions reached the concentration of 108 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL, there was no infection caused by B. cinerea and P. expansum with spore concentrations below 106 spores/mL in apple fruits. The yeast at concentrations of 106-107 CFU/mL in combination with fungicide (iprodione at 50 μL/L) provided control of decay caused by B. cinerea and P.expansum better than separate application. Effect of controlling gray mould and blue mould rots was enhanced when Trichosporon sp., even at low concentration of 105 CFU/mL, was applied in the presence of 1%-2% CaCl2 in an aqueous suspension.

丝孢酵母与钙和杀菌剂配合对苹果采后病害的抑制效果
田世平* 范青 徐勇 汪沂
(中国科学院植物研究所,北京1000093)

摘要:研究一种从桃果实上分离获得的拮抗菌——丝孢酵母(Trichosporon sp.)对苹果(Malus domestica Borkh.)采后病害的防治效果,包括接种不同浓度的拮抗菌与不同病菌之间的拮抗作用,以及拮抗菌与钙或与杀菌剂配合对苹果灰霉病和青霉病的抑制效果。结果表明,拮抗菌和病菌孢子的浓度都明显地影响其抑菌效果。拮抗菌的使用浓度越大,病菌孢子的接种浓度越低,其抑病效果越好。当丝孢酵母菌的使用浓度达到10 8 colony-forming units(CFU)/mL时,可完全抑制接种在苹果上的灰霉菌(Botrytis cinerea Pers.)和青霉菌(Penicillium expansum (Link) Thom)(<106 spores/mL)的致病力。用106 ~107 CFU/mL的丝孢酵母与50μL/L的扑海因配合对苹果采后灰霉病和青霉病的抑制效果明显地好于单独使用相同剂量的拮抗菌或杀菌剂。在丝孢酵母的悬浮液中加入1%~2% CaCl2可显著地提高拮抗菌对灰霉病和青霉病的抑制效果。

关键词: 丝孢酵母;钙;扑海因;采后病害;苹果

Abstract (Browse 2284)  |  Full Text PDF       
Molecular Cloning and Construction of agp Gene Deletion-mutant in Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803
Author: Lü Jin-Shun, SHEN Tong, GUO Zhen, SHEN Xu-Wei, ZHENG Shang-Zhen*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(5): 545-550
      
    

Nine compounds were isolated from Elsholtzia blanda (Benth.) Benth. Their structures were identified with spectral and chemical methods as follows: 5,6-dihydro-6-styry-2-pyrone (1), friedelin (2), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene (3), 5,2′-dimethoxy-6,7-methylene dioxyflavanone (4), 5-hydroxy-7-methoxy-6-O-[α- L -rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)-β- D -fucopyranosyl] flavone glycoside (5), 5,5′-dihydroxy-7-acetoxyl-6,8,3″,3″-tetramethylpyran (3′,4′) flavone (6), 5,5′-dihydroxy-7-(α-methyl) butyroxyl-6,8,3″,3″-tetramethylpyran (3′,4′) flavone (7), 5,5′-dihydroxy-6,7-methylenedioxy-8,3″,3″-trimethylpyran (3′,4′) flavone (8), glucosyringic acid (9). Among them, 6, 7 and 8 are new compounds, named as sifanghaoine Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ, respectively.

四方蒿的化学成分
吕金顺1 沈彤2 郭珍2 沈序维 郑尚珍2*

(1. 天水师范学院化学系,甘肃天水741001;2.  西北师范大学化学化工学院,兰州730070)

摘要: 从唇形科植物四方蒿(Elsholtzia blanda (Benth.)Benth.)中分离得到9个化合物,用光谱分析、化学方法及与已知化合物对照,分别鉴定为:5,6-二氢-6-苯乙烯吡喃-2-酮(1)、木栓酮(2)、4-羟基-3-甲氧基苯乙烯(3)、5,2′-二甲氧基-6,7-二氧亚甲基双氢黄酮(4)、5-羟基-7-甲氧基-6-O-[α-L-鼠李糖(1→2)-β-D-岩藻糖]黄酮甙(5)、5,5′-二羟基-7-乙酰氧基6,8,3″,3″-四甲基吡喃(3′,4′)黄酮(6)、5,5′-二羟基-7-(α-甲基)丁酰氧基-6,8,3″,3″-四甲基吡喃(3′,4′)黄酮(7)、5,5′-二羟基-6,7-二氧亚甲基-8,3″,3″-三甲基吡喃(3′,4′)黄酮(8)和丁香酸葡萄糖甙(9)。其中,6、7、8为新化合物,分别命名为四方蒿素Ⅰ、Ⅱ和Ⅲ。

关键词: 四方蒿;唇形科;四方蒿素

Abstract (Browse 2294)  |  Full Text PDF       
Transfer of Lysine-rich Protein Gene into Rice and Production of Fertile Transgenic Plants
Author: GAO Yue-Feng, JING Yu-Xiang, SHEN Shi-Hua, TIAN Shi-Ping, KUANG Ting-Yun,Samuel S.M. SUN
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(5): 506-511
      
    

Lysine-rich protein gene (lys) was cloned from Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC. A plant expression plasmid was constructed and lys gene was under the control of maize ubiquitin promoter which is the highest efficient monocotyledon promoter. The plasmid was introduced into rice embryogenic calli by microprojectile bombardment. The regenerated fertile plants were obtained by effective selection for hygromycin B resistance. Genomic PCR and Southern blotting analyses showed that the lys gene has been integrated into rice genome. Simultaneously, the results of GUS histochemical assay demonstrated the transgenic rice plants. Data analysis showed that lysine content in most of the 11 transgenic plants is differently improved, and in one of them increased by 16.04%.

高赖氨酸蛋白基因导入水稻及可育转基因植株的获得
高越峰1 荆玉祥1*  沈世华1 田世平1 匡廷云1 Samuel S.M.SUN 2
(1. 中国科学院植物研究所,北京1000093;2.( 香港中文大学)

摘要:构建了一个植物高效表达质粒,使来源于四棱豆(Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.)DC)的高赖氨酸蛋白基因(lys)受控于单子叶植物ubiqutin强启动子下表达。用基因枪法将其导入水稻(Oryza sativa L.)幼胚诱导的愈伤组织,经潮霉素抗性筛选,得到可育的再生植株。经PCR和Southern blotting检测,表明该基因已整合到水稻的基因组中。GUS组织化学染色表明转基因水稻植株的叶、茎和根中均有gus基因的表达。测定11株转基因水稻叶片中赖氨酸含量,大部分植株有不同程度的提高,最高幅度为16.04%。

关键词: 高赖氨酸蛋白基因;基因枪;转基因水稻;赖氨酸含量

Abstract (Browse 2236)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cyclopeptides from Polycarpon prostratum (Caryophyllaceae)
Author: DING Zhong-Tao, ZHOU Jun*, TAN Ning-Hua, CHENG Yong-Xian, DENG Shi-Ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(5): 541-544
      
    

Two new cyclic peptides, polycarponin B and C (1, 2), were isolated from the whole plants of Polycarpon prostratum (Forssk.) Aschers. et Schwein. ex Aschers. By detailed spectroscopic analysis, their structures were determined as cyclo(-Gly1 -Ile-Val1 -Leu1 -Val2 -Gly2 -Leu2 -Pro) and cyclo(-Pro1-Thr-Leu1- Pro2-Pro3-Val-Leu2-Phe), respectively.

多荚草中的新环肽
丁中涛1,2 " 周俊1*  谭宁华1 程永现1  邓世明1

(1.中国科学院昆明植物研究所植物化学开放实验室,昆明650204;2. 云南大学化学系,昆明560091)

摘要: 从石竹科植物多荚草(Polycarpon prostratum (Forssk.)Aschers. et Schwein. exAschers)中分离得到2个新的环肽化合物polycarponin B和C(1,2)。它们的结构通过波谱方法分别鉴定为:cyclo(-Gly1-Ile-Val1-Leu1-Val2-Gly2-Leu2-Pro)和cyclo(-Pro1-Thr-Leu1-Pro2-Pro3-Val-Leu2-Phe)。

关键词: 多荚草;石竹科;环肽;多荚草环肽

Abstract (Browse 1975)  |  Full Text PDF       
Characteristics and Quantitative Analysis of Elements in Plants in Alashan Area, Nei Mongol
Author: KONG Ling-Shao, WANG Qi-Bing, GUO Ke
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(5): 534-540
      
    

The mean element concentration of 37 plant species followed an order as Na>K>Ca>P>S>Al>Fe>Mn in Alashan region, Nei Mongol. The greatest variation was found in Na concentration among species with variation coefficient of 1.378. Kalidium spp. plants had the highest Na concentration, while Stipa glareosa Smirn. and Cleistogenes songorica (Roshev.) Ohwi had the lowest among the species studied. The intraspecific variation coefficient was less than the interspecific variation coefficient of most elements in the same species at different sites, although the reverse was seen in a few species. Variance of concentration ratios, viz K to Ca, K to P and Ca to P was minimally, while that Na to K, Na to Ca, Na to S and S to P was greater, and the ratios of desert plant were minimal, and those of salt desert plants were maximal. The correlation analysis of element concentration in plant revealed that Fe and Al, Na and ash, and S and ash correlated at the level of 0.001, Na and S correlated at the level of 0.05. The results of clustering and ordination of 8 element concentration in 37 species showed that quantitative analyse methods can distinguish the characteristics of elements concentration in different plant families and show the characteristics of their ecological groups.

内蒙古阿拉善地区植物元素含量特征及数量分析
孔令韶 王其兵 郭 柯
(中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学开放实验室,北京1000093)

摘要:  阿拉善地区37种植物的元素平均含量为Na>K>Ca>P<Al>Fe>Mn。Na含量种间异最大,变异系数为1.378;几种盐爪爪(Kalidium spp.)的含量最高,沙生针茅(Stipa glareosa Smin.)、无芒隐子草(Cleistogenes songorica (Roshev.)Ohwi)等含量最低。同一种植物在不同地点,大多数元素含量内变异系数小于种间变异系数,个别植物的某一元素,大于种间变异系数;Na、S含量的种内变异系数均大大小于种间。植物中K与Ca、P、Ca与P的比值变化最小,而Na与K、Ca、S和S、P的比值变化较大,其中荒漠植物比值最小,盐生荒漠植物比值最大。植物中元素含量之间相关分析表明,Fe、Al之间在0.001水平上相关,Na、S之间在0.05水平上相关,植物中Na、S含量与植物灰分含量之间在0.001水平上相关。利用植物中8种元素含量对37种植物进行分类和排序,结果表明,用数量分析的方法很好地划分出植物种的科属类群的元素含量特征,并显示出它们的生态类群特征。

关键词:阿拉善地区,植物元素含量,数量分析,聚类,排序
Abstract (Browse 2067)  |  Full Text PDF       
Re-discussion About the Forest Vegetation Zonation in Eastern China
Author: FANG Jing-Yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(5): 522-533
      
    

There is a long-standing controversy about division of forest vegetation zonation in eastern China. Recently, Prof. SONG Yong-Chang has summarized the viewpoints of different authors on the division of vegetation zone, discussed the principles of the division, and proposed a new divisional system. In the present paper, based on a historical review on the division of vegetation zonation, the author reconsidered the principles of the division, and proposed a climate-vegetation relation-based divisional scheme involving the following viewpoints: (1) in reality, vegetation zonation division in eastern China is likely a kind of potential vegetation regionalization because little primary vegetation types occur in this region resulted from a long-historical human activities; (2) both characteristic of vegetation types, especially zonal vegetation types, and the climatic factor that delimits the distribution of the vegetation are coequally important in the division of vegetation zonation; and (3) as a reference information, species distribution is important in the division, but not a critical element in some cases. Based on these views, the relationships between distribution of primary vegetation types and climate conditions were analyzed, and then the vegetation-climate relation-based division for vegetation zones of eastern China was made. In the divisional scheme, warmth index ( WI ) and coldness index ( CI ) were used as thermal parameters, and moisture index ( Im ) as indicator of arid/humid climate. As a result, the vegetation zones in the eastern China arranged from north to south as cold-temperate conifer forest zone ( WI <50 ℃·month), temperate conifer and broadleaf mixed forest zone (50 ℃·month < WI <90 ℃·month), warm-temperate deciduous broadleaf woodland zone (90 ℃·month < WI <120 ℃·month, -20< Im <0), warm-temperate deciduous and evergreen mixed broadleaf forest zone (120 ℃·month < WI <135 ℃·month, 0< Im <60), subtropical evergreen broadleaf forest zone (135 ℃·month < WI <240 ℃·month, Im >60), and tropical rain and monsoon forest zone ( WI >240 ℃·month), respectively. In the subtropical zone, three subzones, northern, southern and western parts, were further divided on the basis of an isotherm of WI =175 ℃·month. The present divisional scheme is not only based on the principles mentioned above, but also incorporated with the term usage in vegetation science in China and the convenience for international scientific communications. In addition, it was emphasized that a division of dynamic vegetation zones was an increasing interest because of the changing climate and renewed vegetation information in this region.

也论我国东部植被带的划分
方精云
(北京大学城市与环境学系,北京大学地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室,北京100871)

摘要:

长期以来人们对中国东部森林区的植被带划分存在意见分歧。最近,宋永昌教授对这些意见分歧进行了概括,讨论了中国东部植被带的划分依据,并提出了新的划分方案。为进行交流和讨论,在简要回顾中国东部植被带划分的历史沿革的基础上,再次论及了它的划分依据,提出了新的划分方案。认为在中国特有的植被气候特点以及东部区域遭受长久且深刻的人为影响的现实条件下,中国现行的植被带划分实质上是一种近似潜在的植被带划分;植被本身特征,尤其是地带性植被特征与决定其分布的限制性气候因子作为东部植被带划分的主要依据,同等重要;物种分布是植被分带的参考依据。基于这一思想进行植被分带的通常做法是,根据原生植被类型或其衍生植被类型的分布,确定其所在分布地的限制性气候因子,从而建立植被气候关系,据此进行植被带的划分。这种处理符合植被气候关系的本质,在实践上又便于操作。利用业已确定的植被气候关系,并参考物种的分布,进行了中国东部植被带的划分。划分的具体指标是采用反映热量状况的温暖指数(WI)和冬季低温的寒冷指数(CI)以及体现干湿气候状况的水分指数(Im)。按照这一划分方案,我国东部植被带从北向南依次为寒温带针叶林带(WI<50℃.月)、温带针阔叶混交林带(50℃.月60)和热带雨林季雨林带(WI>240℃.月)。在亚热带常绿阔叶林带中,以WI=175℃.月等温线又将其划分为南部、北部和西部3个亚带。这种新方案除了基于上述划分依据外,也考虑了我国现有植被带名称的使用习惯和便于与国际学术界接轨。此外,还强调了基于最新植被气候资料进行动态植被带划分的必要性。

关键词: 森林植被带;地带性植被;温度指数;水分指数;气候带;中国东部

Abstract (Browse 2232)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preliminary Functional Studies on AC2, a Novel Trans-acting Factor from Cotton Leaf Curl Virus
Author: XIE Ying-Qiu, MENG Meng, ZHU Zhen*, WU Qian, XU Hong-Lin, LIU Yu-Le
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(5): 517-521
      
    

Studies on tomato golden mosaic virus and African cassava mosaic virus suggested that virion sense promoter was trans -activated in transient expression by A C2 encoded by geminivirus. The AC2 gene fragment of cott on leaf curl virus (CLCuV) was obtained from total DNA of CLCuV infected tobacco leaves by polymerase chain reaction, and the amplified DNA fragment was cloned into vector. Transient expres sion vectors were constructed by fusing the AC2 gene fra gment with CaMV 35S prom oter and nopaline terminator. These constructs were delivered into tobacco [ WT(Nicotiana tabacum L.) and cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaf cells for transient expression by particle bombardment. Results indicated that activity of virion sense promoter was activated by AC2 and increased remarkably. However, the activity of trans-activated virion sense promoter was still lower than that of complementary sense promoter. Expression pattern of transactivated virion sense promoter was similar to that of complementary sense promoter with the high activity in both mesophyll and vascular of leaf vein. In this paper, the expression behavior of AC2 in Agrobacterium -mediated transgenic plants was also discussed. 

棉花曲叶病毒反式作用因子AC2 的功能初探
谢迎秋1  孟蒙1 朱祯1* 吴茜1 徐鸿林1 刘玉乐2

(1.  中国科学院遗传研究所,北京100101;2.  中国科学院微生物研究所,北京100080)

摘要:有关非洲木薯花叶病毒(ACMV)、番茄金色花叶病毒(TGMV)的研究表明,双生病毒编码的反式作用因子AC2反式激活病毒链基因启动子的瞬时表达。以棉花曲叶病毒(CLCuV)侵染的烟草叶片组织总DNA为模板,通过聚合酶链反应扩增CLCuV的AC2基因片段并插入克隆载体。将AC2置于CaMV35S启动子下构建了瞬时表达载体。通过基因枪法将质粒载体导入烟草(Nicotianatabacum L.)和棉花(Gossypium hirsutum L.)叶片细胞中进行瞬时表达,结果表明,在反式作用因子AC2的激活下,病毒链基因启动子驱动的GUS活性明显增强,然而激活后的病毒链基因启动子的活性仍低于互补链基因方向启动子;其表达方式与互补链基因启动子相似,即在叶肉及叶脉维管组织均有较高的活性。还探讨了AC2在土壤杆菌介导的转基因植物中的表达行为。

关键词: 双生病毒;启动子;反式作用因子;棉花;烟草;基因枪

Abstract (Browse 2036)  |  Full Text PDF       
Molecular Cloning and Construction of agp Gene Deletion-mutant in Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803
Author: WU Gui-Fang, SHEN Zhong-Yao, WU Qing-Yu, Zhao Nan-Ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(5): 512-516
      
    

The agp gene encoding the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase involved in cyanobacterial glycogen synthesis was amplified by PCR. The resulting agp fragment was cloned in plasmid pUC118 to generate plasmid pUCA. Part of the fragment within the agp DNA was deleted and replaced by an erythromycin resistance cassette to generate plasmid pUCAE, which was used to transform the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 wild-type strain and a mutant with resistance to erythromycin was obtained. PCR analysis of the genomic DNA from the resulting mutant indicated that the appropriate deletion and insertion indeed had occurred. The cell growth and Chla, glycogen content in the mutant showed difference from those in the wild-type strain. The obtained biomass as well as the Chla content in the mutant strain was higher than that of the wild-type strain, which suggested that the photosynthesis efficiency in the agp- strain was higher than that in the wild-type strain. No glycogen was found in the mutant, providing evidence for the correction of the mutant in physiological level.

蓝细菌6803  agp 基因的分子克隆和缺失突变株的构建
吴桂芳1,2 沈忠耀2 吴庆余1*  赵南明1

(1.  清华大学生物科学与技术系,北京100084;2. 清华大学化工系生物化工研究所,北京100084)

摘要:PCR扩增了蓝细菌集胞藻6803(Synechocystis sp. PCC6803)的agp基因(编码ADP-葡萄糖焦磷酸羧化酶),进一步以pUC118为载体将其克隆到大肠杆菌中,构建了pUCA质粒。通过DNA体外重组,以红霉素抗性基因部分取代agp基因片段,构建了既含agp基因上游及下游序列、又携带选择性标记——红霉素抗性的pUCAE质粒。该质粒转化野生型集胞藻6803细胞,获得了能在含红霉素的培养基上正常生长的agp基因缺失突变株。对该突变株基因组DNA进行PCR扩增,验证了其基因结构的正确性。突变株细胞生长速度较野生型细胞快,胞内的叶绿素含量比野生型细胞高,表明该突变株具有较高的光合效率。在突变株中未检测到糖原的存在,进一步从生理水平上验证了突变株构建的正确性。

关键词: 蓝细菌;集胞藻6803 ; agp 基因克隆;缺失突变;糖原合成;光合作用

Abstract (Browse 2185)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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