June 2001, Volume 43 Issue 6

 

          Research Articles
Effect of Seed Moisture Content on Seed Storage Longevity
Author: WANG Xiao-Feng, JING Xin-Ming, ZHENG Guang-Hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(6): 551-557
      
    

The seed moisture content (MC) is one of the key factors affecting the seed longevity. It was generally recognized that a further reduction in seed MC below the empirical critical MC (5%) could induce harmful effect on seed viability. However, some studies have showed that there is no harmful effect induced by ultradrying in some seeds, and that the storability of ultradried seed is improved during past ten years. It was recently demonstrated that drying seed beyond the optimum MC provided no additional benefit to longevity and may even accelerate the rate of aging. Further researches on the determining of the optimum seed MC might lead to a debate regarding the various parameters involved. Because of the differences in chemical composition of seeds, seed MC can not reflect the actual state of water in seed. Studies on physical state as well as thermodynamic analysis of water in seed would provide theoretical bases for ultradry seed storage.

含水量对种子贮藏寿命的影响
汪晓峰* 景新明 郑光华**

(中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093)
关键词: 种子含水量;超干贮藏;种子活力;种子寿命

Abstract (Browse 2050)  |  Full Text PDF       
Developmental Genetic Analysis of Brown Rice Weight Under Different Environmental Conditions in indica Rice
Author: SHI Chun-Hai, WU Jian-Guo, FAN Long-Jiang, ZHU Jun, WU Ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(6): 603-609
      
    

Analysis of genetic main effects and genotype×environment (GE) interaction effects for brown rice weight (BRW) at four different filling stages in indica rice ( Oryza sativa L.) was conducted for two-year experimental data by using developmental genetic models and corresponding statistical approaches for quantitative traits of seeds in cereal crops. It was indicated that the genetic main effects and their GE interaction effects of triploid endosperm, cytoplasmic and diploid maternal plant genes were important for BRW at different filling stages of rice, especially for endosperm or maternal additive main effects and their additive interaction effects. Because of the higher additive effects and additive interaction effects for BRW at different filling stages, the better improving effects for this trait could be expected by selection in rice breeding. The results of conditional genetic variance components showed that the new expression of quantitative genes in endosperm and maternal plant for BRW was mostly found at all different filling stages of rice. The gene expression, however, was most active at the early filling stages especially for the first (1-7 d) and the second filling stages (8-14 d after flowering). The phenomena that some genes were spasmodically expressible among filling stages of rice were detected for some genetic effects especially for net cytoplasmic main effects or its interaction effects and net dominance main effects. Predicted genetic effects at different filling stages of rice showed that some parents such as V20 and Zuo 5 were better than others for improving the BRW.

不同环境下籼稻糙米重的发育遗传研究
石春海1 吴建国1 樊龙江1 朱军 吴平2

(1.  浙江大学农学系,杭州310029;2.  浙江大学生命科学学院,杭州310029)

摘要:采用包括遗传主效应和基因型与环境互作效应的数量性状发育传模型和统计分析方法,分析了籼稻(Oryza sativa L.)稻米4个发育时期糙米重的两年资料。结果表明,除了三倍体胚乳和二倍体母体植株基因的加性和显性主效应以及细胞质主效应可以控制不同稻米发育时期的糙米重量外,基因型与环境互作效应也可明显影响不同发育时期糙米重量。基因加性主效应和加性×环境互作效应在整个稻米灌浆过程中起着主要作用,对糙米重的选择可以取得良好的改良效果。条件方差分量分析结果表明,不乳和母体植株中控制行糙米重表现的基因在多数稻米发育时期均有新的表达,且以稻米发育早期为主,开花后第1-7天是控制糙米重的基因表达最为活跃的时期,其次为开花后第8-14天。一些基因只在个别发育时期间断表达,这在净细胞质主效应和净细胞质×环境互作效应以及净显性主效应上表现得尤为明显。稻米不同发育时期的遗传效应预测值表明,V20和作5等亲本可以明显提高后代的糙米重量。

关键词:籼稻,发育遗传,糙米重,遗传方差,条件遗传方差,遗传效应
Abstract (Browse 2127)  |  Full Text PDF       
Aphid-resistant Transgenic Tobacco Plants Expressing Modified gna Gene
Author: YUAN Zheng-Qiang, ZHAO Cun-You, ZHOU Yan, TIAN Ying-Chuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(6): 592-597
      
    

gene sequence coding for the precursor of Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) was modified by site-directed mutagenesis to change very low usage bias codons to higher usage bias ones for improvement of the gene expression in transgenic tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants. Results from Western blot analysis of some of the transgenic tobacco plants showed that the expression level of GNA in plants transformed with the modified gene GNA34m reached 0.25% of total soluble proteins, while that of the GNA34 gene transgenic plants was 0.17%. Since the GNA expression level increased, the aphid resistance of GNA34m transgenic plants were also enhanced significantly as judged by a 71.0% aphid population inhibition in insect bioassay of GNA34m transformed plants and 63.7% for the plants transformed with the natural GNA34 gene.

雪花莲凝集素基因(gna)的改造及其抗蚜性
袁正强 赵存友* 周岩 田颖川**

(中国科学院微生物研究所,北京100080)

摘要:用定点突变方法对编码雪花莲凝集素(Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA)前体蛋白的DNA序列进行了改造和转基因烟草(Nicotiana tabacum L.)抗蚜性的研究.结果表明,将GNA编码序列中含有的稀有密码子改造后,GNA的表达水平从占总可溶性蛋白的0.17% 增加到0.25%,转基因烟草的抗蚜性也随之增强,从平均抑制桃蚜(Myzus persicae (Sulzer))虫口密度63.7%显著地提高到71.0%.

关键词: 雪花莲凝集素基因;定点突变;转基因烟草;抗蚜性

Abstract (Browse 2217)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Salt Stress on the Activity and the Amount of Tonoplast H+-ATPase from Pea Roots
Author: YU He-Fen, CHEN Jia, WANG Xue-Chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(6): 586-591
      
    

To study the function and adaptive mechanism of tonoplast H+ATPase under salt stress, pea ( Pisum sativum L.) seedlings were treated with different concentrations of salt (100-250 mmol/L NaCl) and with 100 mmol/L NaCl for different days (1-3 d). The ATP hydrolytic activity and the proton transport activity and the changes of the amount of tonoplast H+ATPase (subunit A) were measured. ATP hydrolytic activity of H+ATPase prepared from plants treated with 250 mmol/L NaCl was reduced by about 25% compared to that of control plants, but that of stressed plants treated with 100 mmol/L and 200 mmol/L NaCl was unchanged. The activity from plants treated with 100 mmol/L NaCl for up to 3 d was lower than that of control plants by 20%. But the proton transport activity was increased under the same salt stresses as above. These results showed that the changes of the hydrolytic activity and the proton transport activity were not in proportion and salt stress may cause the change of the coupling ratio of H+transport activity to ATP hydrolysis. The protein amount kept unchanged and reduced a little only when pea was treated with 100 mmol/L NaCl for 3 d. These results indicated that salinity stimulated the increase of the pump efficiency of the V-ATPase from pea roots, which was due to the change of the coupling ratio, but not due to the increase of ATP hydrolysis and the amount of V-ATPase.

盐胁迫对豌豆根液泡膜H+-ATPase活性及含量的影响
余和芬1,2 陈珈1* 王学臣1

(1. 中国农业大学生物学院农业部植物生理生化重点开放实验室,北京100094;2.中国科学院生物物理研究所生物大分子国家重点实验室,北京100101)

摘要:为了阐明液泡膜H+ ATPase在盐胁迫下的作用和适应性调节机制 ,对豌豆 (PisumsativumL .)植株进行不同盐浓度和不同盐胁迫时间 (1~ 3d)的处理后 ,分别测定液泡膜H+ ATPase的H+ 转运活性、水解活性和蛋白含量 (A亚基 )的变化。结果表明 ,10 0mmol/L和 2 0 0mmol/LNaCl处理 1dH+ ATPase的水解活性没有变化 ,而 2 5 0mmol/LNaCl处理 1d引起水解活性降低约 2 5 %。 10 0mmol/LNaCl处理 2d内水解活性没有变化 ,而第 3天活性下降约2 0 %。但是上述盐胁迫均能提高液泡膜H+ ATPase的质子转运活性 ,说明盐胁迫后H+ ATPase的水解活性和质子转运活性的变化不成比例 ,盐胁迫可能导致偶联比率的改变。Westernblot研究发现 ,上述盐胁迫对液泡膜H+ ATPase(A亚基 )的含量基本无影响 ,仅 10 0mmol/LNaCl处理 3d后A亚基的量略有下降。这些结果证明 ,盐胁迫能刺激提高豌豆根液泡膜H+ ATPase的H+ 泵效率 ,且泵效率的提高是源于偶联比率的改变 ,而不是由于ATP水解活性的提高和蛋白含量的增加。

关键词: H+-ATPase;液泡膜;盐胁迫;豌豆根

Abstract (Browse 2221)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Methyl Jasmonate on the Germination and the Degradation of Storage Reserve in Rice Seed
Author: BIN Jin-Hua, HUANG Sheng-Qin, HE Shu-Chun, HE Li-Hong, PAN Rui-Chi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(6): 578-585
      
    

The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA, Nippon Zeon Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan) on germination and the degradation of storage reserve in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds were studied. There were dual effects of MeJA on seed germination and seedling growth of rice, low concentration of MeJA promoted germination and seedling growth whereas high concentration of MeJA inhibited germination and seedling growth. The optimal concentration of promotion was 5×10-7 mol/L. The acid phosphatase activity, α-amylase activity, degradation of starch and salt-soluble proteins were affected same as germination by MeJA. MeJA inhibited the degradation of glutelins, the higher the concentration, the higher the extent of inhibition above 5×10-7 mol/L.The results showed that either promotion or inhibition of germination by MeJA was very close to the effect on the activity of α-amylase. The mechanisms between abscisic acid and MeJA affection on seed germination and seedling growth were compared.

茉莉酸甲酯对水稻种子萌发和贮藏物质降解的影响
宾金华*  黄胜琴 何树春 贺立红 潘瑞炽
(华南师范大学生物系,广州510631)

摘要:茉莉酸甲酯 (methyljasmonate ,MeJA)对水稻 (Oryzasativa L .)种子萌发及幼苗生长的作用表现出“双重性”效应 ,低浓度促进种子萌发和幼苗生长 ,最适浓度为 5× 10 -7mol/L ,高浓度作用相反。MeJA对水稻萌发胚乳酸性磷酸酶、α-淀粉酶、淀粉和盐溶蛋白降解作用也如此 ,但它抑制谷蛋白降解。实验结果表明 ,MeJA促进和抑制水稻种子萌发都与α-淀粉酶活性有关。讨论了MeJA对种子萌发作用与ABA作用的异同
 

关键词: 茉莉酸甲酯;水稻种子;萌发;贮藏物质降解

Abstract (Browse 2753)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Heat Stress on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Green Organs of Winter Wheat During Grain-filling Stage
Author: XU Xiao-Ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(6): 571-577
      
    

Four winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) varieties (“JD 8”, “Jing 411”,“Centurk” and “Tam 202”) were used to study the effect of heat stress on photosynthetic characteristics of flag leaf blade, flag leaf sheath, peduncle, glume, lemma and awn during grain-filling stage. The results showed that heat acclimation during grain-filling stage increased thermotolerance of wheat with significant differences among different green organs. During heat stress, the decreases of the efficiency of primary light energy conversion ( Fv/Fm ) of PS and pigment (chlorophyll and carotenoid) content were much slower in peduncle, flag leaf sheath and glume than in flag leaf blade, lemma and awn; and the percentage of decrease in net photosynthetic rate ( Pn ) of ear was lower than that of the flag leaf blade. The measured photosynthetic parameters ( Fv/Fm , Pn and pigment content) of “JD 8”, a relatively heat tolerant variety, declined more slowly than those of the other three varieties during the whole heat stress period. 

灌浆期热胁迫对小麦不同绿色器官光合性能的影响
徐晓玲* 王志敏 张俊平
(中国农业大学作物学院,北京100094)

摘要:以4个冬小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)品种(“JD 8”、“Jing 411”、“Centurk”和 “Tam 202”)为材料,研究灌浆期热胁迫对旗叶叶片、旗叶鞘、穗下节间、护颖、外颖和芒 的光 合性能和籽粒产量的影响。结果表明: 灌浆期对小麦进行热锻炼也能增加其耐热性且各绿 色器官间耐热性差异显著。耐热性较强的器官为穗下节间、旗叶鞘和护颖;热敏感器官为旗 叶叶片、外颖和芒。热胁迫条件下,穗下节间、旗叶鞘和护颖的细胞膜热稳定性强,光系统 Ⅱ原初光能转换效率(Fv/Fm)下降速率以及叶绿素和类胡萝卜素降解速率均低于 旗叶叶片、外颖和芒,穗的净光合速率下降幅度小于旗叶。热胁迫过程中,相对耐热品种“ JD 8”各器官上述光合参数的下降速率均显著低于其他3个热敏感品种。

关键词: 冬小麦;旗叶;净光合速率;叶绿素荧光动力学参数;耐热性

Abstract (Browse 2292)  |  Full Text PDF       
Analysis of Germplasm of Flue-cured Tobacco by RAPD
Author: HE Chuan-Sheng, HE Xing-Jin, GE Song, LI Tian-Fei, XU Ling-Yun, XU Mei-Ling, XU Jie-Mei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(6): 610-614
      
    

Based on 30 primers selected from 156 random primers, RAPD polymorphism of 31 flue-cured tobacco cultivars from native and abroad, and their relationships were detected. of 246 bands amplified, 127 were polymorphic (52%). The results showed that there were obvious differentiation between different cultivars. Cluster analysis indicated that all of the cultivars could be grouped into four clades, and the largest one (including 19 cultivars) was most likely to originate from Orinoco cultivar which was introduced from USA. This implied that the genetic basis of popularized flue-cured tobacco cultivars in China is rather narrow. In addition, it is feasible to identify the flue-cured tobacco cultivars and their purity with the RAPD technique. The study is also valuable in the choice of parents for the development of the flue-cured tobacco cultivars from hybrids.

烤烟品种资源的RAPD分析
何川生1,2 何兴金3  葛颂4  李天飞2  许凌云1 许美玲2 许介眉1

(1.  四川大学生命科学学院,成都610064;2. 中国烟草育种研究南方中心,玉溪653100;3. 四川师范学院生物系,南充637002;4. 中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学开放研究实验室,北京100093)

摘要:从156个随机引物中筛选出30个引物,对来自国内外的31个烤烟品种进行了遗传多样性和亲缘关系的RAPD分析.在检测的246个位点中,127个位点为多态位点(52%).聚类分析表明, 不同烤烟品种之间存在明显差异,31个品种基本上可分为4大类,品种最多的第一大类(19 个)主要由来自美国的Orinoco烤烟选育而成,反映了我国现在推广的烤烟品种遗传基础比较狭窄.研究结果表明,RAPD技术可用于烤烟品种的鉴别和纯度测定.研究为烤烟杂种育种中亲本的选配提供了一定的理论依据.

关键词: 烤烟;品种资源;RAPD分析

Abstract (Browse 2093)  |  Full Text PDF       
Quantum Chemical Studies on Proteins in the Reaction Center of Rhodobacter sphaeroides
Author: XU Hong, MA Shu-Hua, SHEN Ling-Ling, ZHANG Xiao-Dong, ZHANG Xing-Kang, ZHANG Qi-Yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(6): 565-570
      
    

The electronic structure of protein chains L and M in photosynthetic reaction center (PRC) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides (Van Niel) Imhoff, Truper et Pfennig) was studied by using the Overlapping Dimer Approximation method and the Extended Negative Factor Counter method at ab initio level. The result indicated that: (1) Amino acid residues, the molecular orbitals of which composed the main components of frontier orbitals of protein chain L (M ), are located at the random coil areas of chain L (α helix areas of chain M ). Since the random coil is flexible and more easy to change its conformation in the electron transfer process and to reduce the energy of the system, and the structure of the α helix is reletively stable, this difference might be one of the causes for the electron transfer in photosynthetic reaction center (PRC) only takes place along the L branch. (2) The His residues which axially coordinated to the “special pair” P and accessory chlorophyll molecules (ABChls) are essentially important for the ELUMO levels of P and ABChl. But, the corresponding molecular orbitals of these His residues do not appear in the composition of frontier orbitals of protein chains. It means that the interaction between pigment molecules and protein chains do not influence the contribution to the frontier orbitals of protein chains explicitly, but influences the corresponding ELUMO levels significantly.

球形红假单胞菌反应中心中蛋白的量子化学研究
徐红 马淑华 沈玲玲* 张晓东 张兴康 张启元**

(中国科学院化学研究所分子科学中心分子动态与稳态国家重点实验室,北京100080)

摘要:采用重叠二体近似方法和建立在从头算水平上的扩展负本征值因数计算方法 (extendednegativefactorcountermethod)研究了球形红假单胞菌 (Rhodobactersphaeroides (VanNiel)Imhoff,TruperetPfennig)中光合反应中心中蛋白链L及M的电子结构。结果表明 :(1)对组成蛋白链L(M)的前线轨道有重要贡献的氨基酸残基分布在L链的自由螺旋区 (M链的α螺旋区 )。由于自由螺旋是有柔曲性的 ,它易于在电子转移的过程中改变其构象并降低体系的能量 ,而α螺旋结构却相对稳定。这种差别有可能是光合反应中心中电子转移只沿L支进行的原因之一。(2 )与特殊对分子及辅助叶绿素分子形成轴向配位的组氨酸残基对于特殊对P和辅助叶绿素分子的ELUMO有重要影响 ,但此组氨酸的相应分子轨道的贡献并没有出现在蛋白链的前线轨道组成中。这意味着色素分子与蛋白链之间的相互作用对蛋白链前线轨道的贡献没有影响 ,但却能影响相应色素分子的ELUMO能级。
 

关键词: 光合反应中心;球形红假单胞菌;蛋白的电子结构;从头算;扩展负本征值因数计算方法

Abstract (Browse 2074)  |  Full Text PDF       
Photosynthetic Characteristics of Transgenic Rice Plants Overexpressing Maize Phosphoenopyruvate Carboxylase
Author: CHI Wei, JIAO De-Mao, HUANG Xue-Qing, LI Xia, KUANG Ting-Yun, Ku S.B. MAURICE
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(6): 657-660
      
    

PEPC基因水稻的光合生理特性
迟伟 焦德茂1* 黄雪清1 李霞 匡廷云2 Ku S..B.MAURICE 3

(1.  江苏省农业科学院农业生物遗传生理研究所,南京210014;2.  中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093;3.School of Biological Science,Washington State University,Pullman,WA 99164-4236,usa)

摘要:用转PEPC、PPDK、NADP-ME、PEPC +PPDK** 双基因水稻 (OryzasativaL .)及原种为材料 ,以光合酶活性、饱和光合速率及PSⅡ光化学效率 (Fv/Fm)为指标 ,研究了转PEPC基因水稻的光合生理特征。结果如下 :转PEPC基因水稻PEPC活性比原种提高 2 0倍 ;饱和光合速率比原种高 5 5 % ;用高光强或人工光氧化剂甲基紫精 (MV)处理后 ,与原种相比 ,转PEPC基因水稻光化学效率下降较少 ,证明其耐光抑制、耐光氧化能力增强 ,测定其光合日变化看出 :在 1d中不同时间 ,转PEPC基因水稻的光合速率均高于原种 ,且与PEPC活性的日变化有相似的趋势。上述结果为转PEPC基因水稻的生理机制和育种研究提供了依据和途径。
关键词: 转基因水稻;磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸羧化酶(PEPC);光抑制;光氧化;光合日变化

Abstract (Browse 2100)  |  Full Text PDF       
Simulation Study on the Alkalized-salinized Grassland Ecosystem in the Songnen Plain
Author: GAO Qiong, LI Jian-Dong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(6): 624-630
      
    

Using Object-oriented design and a new programming language JAVA, a physically-based model was built to simulate the hydrological, alkalization/de-alkalization and salinization/desalinization processes in soil. Furthermore, a process-based model was built to evaluate the dynamics of four herbaceous ecosystems (including dynamics of above-ground biomass, below-ground biomass, and litter biomass), each dominated by Aneurolepidium chinense (Trin.) Kitag., Chloris virgata Sw., Puccinellia tenuiflora (Turcz.) Scribn. et Merr. and Suaeda glauca Bunge. This model is a daily-time step model, suitable for simulating hydrological, alkalization/de-alkalization and salinization/desalinization processes of heterogeneous soil, and growth dynamics of different grassland communities. With climatic data and experimental data of Changling Experimental Site in Jilin Province, the soil moisture content (in 1991, 1996, 1997 and 1998), soil salt concentration, exchangeable cation percentage and pH in soil and growth dynamics of these four sorts of grassland communities (in 1991) were simulated and the results were verified to be in accord with observed data.

松嫩平原盐碱化草地生态系统的模拟研究
尚宗波1 高琼2 李建东3

(1.中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学开放实验室,北京100093;
2.  北京师范大学资源科学研究所,北京100875;
3.  东北师范大学植被生态科学教育部重点实验室,长春130024)

摘要:利用面向对象技术及新型编程语言JAVA,建立了物理过程模型来模拟土壤水分、盐化/脱盐过程和碱化/脱碱过程.在此基础上建立了基于过程的模型并分别模拟了以羊草(Aneu rolepidium chinese (Trin.) Kitag.)、虎尾草(Chloris virgata Sw. )、星星草(Puccinellia tenuiflora (Turcz.) Scribn. et Merr.)和碱蓬(Suaeda glauca Bunge)为建群种的4种植物群落的地上生物量、地下生物量以及枯死生物量的变化动态.模型以1 d为步长,适合于模拟异质性强的土壤水盐动态和多种植物群落的生长动态.利用吉林省长岭的气候资料和试验资料,模拟了1991、1996、1997、1998年土壤湿度动态,1991年4种植物群落土壤盐分、碱化度和pH值变化动态,以及1991年4种群落生长动态,并分别利用实验资料进行了验证,模拟效果非常理想.

关键词: 盐碱化草地;水分动态;盐化. 脱盐过程;碱化. 脱碱过程;群落生长动态;生态学模型

Abstract (Browse 2350)  |  Full Text PDF       
Distribution Patterns of Ground Moss Species and Its Relationships with Environmental Factors in Changbai Mountain, Northeast China
Author: GUO Shui-Liang, Cao Tong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(6): 631-643
      
    

The relationships of 42 species of ground moss with six environmental factors in 41 sites on Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve were analyzed. Four site groups and four groups of ground moss ecological species were identified using the method of Two-way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN). The results of Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis (DCCA) showed that altitude, soil sand content, soil acidity, forest canopy coverage and soil water content are the five major environmental factors influencing the distributional patterns of the moss species. The four groups of ecological species, which correspond well with the four site groups, are projected on the species-environment biplot of DCCA. Group 1 dominated in the bogs of Larix olgensis forest, group 2 in the alpine tundra, group 3 in the dense conifer forest, and group 4 mainly in the Betula ermanii community and the Betula ermanii-Larix olgensis forest in sub-alpine respectively.

长白山地表藓类分布格局与环境因子的关系
郭水良1,2  曹同1

(1. 中国科学院沈阳应用生态研究所,沈阳110015;"# 浙江师范大学生命与环境科学学院,金华321004)

摘要:对长白山自然保护区 41个样地中的 42种主要地表藓类分布与 6种重要环境因子间的关系进行了定量研究。应用双向指示种分析法 (TWINSPAN)发现调查的 41个样地可分成 4个样地组 ,42种地面藓类可分成 4种藓类群。应用除趋势典范对应分析 (DCCA)的研究结果表明 ,海拨高度、土壤含砂量、土壤酸度、林冠层郁闭度、土壤含水量是 5个影响 42种地表藓类分布格局的主要环境因子 ,在DCCA排序图上 ,显示出藓类群与样地类型良好的对应性 ,藓类群 1~ 4分别在落叶松 (Larixolgensis)沼泽地、高山苔原、暗针叶林、亚高山岳桦 (Betulaermanni)林和岳桦 落叶松林中占优势。
 

关键词: 藓类植物;长白山;生态分布;除趋势典范对应分析

Abstract (Browse 2243)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation of Plasma and Thylakoid Membranes from the Heterocystous Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120
Author: LI Bin, XU Dong-Yi, ZHAO Jin-Dong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(6): 650-652
      
    

具异型胞蓝细菌 Anabaena sp.PCC 7120质膜和类囊体膜的分离纯化
李斌 徐冬一 赵进东*

(北京大学生命科学学院,北京100871)

摘要:利用水溶性多聚体双相法分离蓝细菌Anabaena sp .PCC 712 0质膜和类囊体膜两种膜系统。吸收光谱分析表明 ,质膜相和类囊体膜相的主要色素分别为类胡萝卜素和叶绿素。SDS-凝胶电泳显示这两种膜系统蛋白组成有很大差别。这种分离方法容易操作 ,对研究蓝细菌的膜蛋白和膜脂非常有用。

关键词: 蓝细菌;质膜和类囊体膜;分离和纯化;双相法

Abstract (Browse 1960)  |  Full Text PDF       
Phylogeny of Saururaceae Inferred from matR Sequence Data
Author: MENG Shao-Wu, CHEN Zhi-Duan, LI De-Zhu, LIANG Han-Xing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(6): 653-656
      
    

基于线粒体matR 基因序列初步探讨三白草科的系统发育
孟少武1 陈之端2  李德铢1  梁汉兴1

(1.  中国科学院昆明植物研究所植物生物多样性与生物地理学开放研究室,昆明650204;
2.  中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学开放研究实验室,北京100093)

摘要:首次报道了三白草科 3个种及其外类群齐头绒 (Zippeliabegoniaefolia Bl.)的matR基因序列。研究材料包括三白草科现存的所有 6个种和两个选定外类群 ,分析软件是PAUP 4.0b 4a。分别采用最大简约法、距离法和最大似然法进行分析 ,都得到一个同样的系统发育树 ,只是支持率有所不同。结果显示三白草科是一个单系 ,AnemopsisHouttuynia的姐妹群 ,并且 ,它们构成三白草科的第一个分支 ,是Gymnotheca-Saururus支的姐妹群。GymnothecaSaururus的姐妹群关系也被强烈支持。
 

关键词: 三白草科;系统发育;matR基因序列

Abstract (Browse 2092)  |  Full Text PDF       
Characters of Leaf Epidermis and Their Systematic Significance in Menispermaceae
Author: PAN Kai-Yu, CHEN Zhi-Duan, LU An-Ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(6): 615-623
      
    

The epidermal characters of mature leaves of 29 genera, 50 species and 3 varieties (totally 56 samples) representing all the 5 tribes in the family Menispermaceae were examined under the light microscope. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The shape of the epidermal cells is polygonal or irregular, and the anticlinal walls are straight or waved in the family. In some genera a special arrangement of epidermal cells is named as “rosette-cell arrangement" for the first time. The lower epidermal cells were found to have a papilla in Stephania, Diploclisia and Legnephora . (2) In some genera, the anticlinal walls are oblique, rather than perpendicular, to the surface. (3) The stomatal apparatuses, generally restricted to the lower surface of the leaves, were assigned to anomocytic, staurocytic, cyclocytic, anisocytic and actinocytic types, and their distribution on the epidermis may be of diffuse pattern or island congregating pattern. (4) The cells of both upper and lower epidermis in the tribe Pachygoneae and Fibraureae are generally polygonal with straight or arched anticlinal walls, and the stomatal apparatuses are usually staurocytic and actinocytic. The cyclocytic stomatal apparatus was found only in two genera of the tribe Pachygoneae. By contrast, the epidermal cells of the tribes Anomospermeae, Tinosporeae and Menispermeae are generally irregular with waved anticlinal walls, and the stomatal apparatuses are predominantly anomocytic. These correlated characters are of much significance in delimiting tribes within the Menispermaceae, and also provide evidence for studies on systematic relationships of several genera.

防己科植物的叶表皮特征及其系统学意义
洪亚平* 潘开玉 陈之端** 路安民
(中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学开放研究实验室,北京100093)

摘要:利用光学显微镜观察了防己科 2 9属 5 0种 3变种的叶表皮形态。结果表明 :(1)该科植物叶表皮细胞形状为多边形或不规则形 ,垂周壁式样为平直和波状缘 ;首次发现一些属的表皮细胞排列成玫瑰花环式样 ;在Stephania等属发现其下表皮细胞中央有乳突。 (2 )气孔器为无规则型、环列型、十字型、辐射型和不等细胞型 ,几乎均出现在下表皮 ,在表皮上的分布有散生和岛状聚集两种式样。 (3)在五族中 ,Pachygoneae族和天仙藤族的上、下表皮细胞多为多边形 ,垂周壁平直 ,气孔器多为十字型和辐射型 ;而另外三族的上、下表皮细胞多为无规则形 ,垂周壁波状 ,气孔器则以无规则型为主 ,这些相关性状对于科下族的划分具有重要价值 ,同时也为一些属的系统学关

关键词: 防己科;叶表皮;系统学意义

Abstract (Browse 2386)  |  Full Text PDF       
Identification of the Molecular Markers Linked to the Salt-resistance Locus in the Wheat Using RAPD-BSA Technique
Author: SUO Guang-Li, HUANG Zhan-Jing, HE Cong-Fen, SHEN Yin-Zhu,Jian WANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(6): 598-602
      
    

Calli from mature embryo of “Jimai-24” wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) were induced on medium containing Zhengdingmycin then continuously cultured on medium containing 0.5% NaCl till to regenerate plants named 8901-17 salt-tolerant mutant. “Jimai-24” was compared with 8901-17 by using the technique of RAPD. Thirty-five out of 280 random primers could detect DNA polymorphism. The similarity index was 0.978, indicating that they were NILs (near-isogenic lines). Two F2 populations (“Jimai-24”×8901-17 and 8901-17דZhongmai-9”) had been constructed using the method of half-division. The two relative DNA pools (salt tolerant DNA pool and susceptible DNA pool) which come from the two F2 populations, respectively, had been made according to the method of BSA (bulked segregant analysis). RAPD analysis between the two DNA relative pools was carried on with above 35 random primers which could detect DNA polymorphism definitely. The identical polymorphism between the two sets of DNA pools come from the two F2 populations could be determined only by OperonQ4 primer. This result implied that the polymorphic fragment amplified by OperonQ4 primer was the molecular marker of RAPD closely linked to the salt tolerant mutation locus.

利用RAPD-BSA技术筛选小麦耐盐突变位点的分子标记
索广力1  黄占景1 何聪芬1  沈银柱1* Jian WANG2(1.河北师范大学生命科学学院,石家庄050016;2. The John Curtin School of Medical Research,PO  Box 334,Canberra ACT2601,Australia)

摘要:以耐盐性差的"冀麦24” (Triticum aestivum L.)和其经正定霉素诱变后获得的耐盐突变体8901-17为材料,用280个引物在两者之间进行RAPD分析,其中35个引物扩增出DNA多态性 ,其相似性系数为0.978,证明二者为近等基因系(near_isogenic line,NIL).用分株法建立两个F2群体("冀麦24”×8901_17和8901_17×"中麦9”),在两个群体中按照BSA (bulke d segregant analysis)方法分别构建两个对应DNA池(耐盐池和不耐盐池),用上述能扩增出明显多态性的35个引物在对应的耐盐和不耐盐DNA池之间进行RAPD分析,发现只有OperonQ 4引物在对应的两个DNA池扩增出的多态性在两个F2群体之间是一致的,说明其扩增产物是与耐盐突变位点紧密连锁的RAPD分子标记.

关键词: 小麦;分子标记;RAPD-BSA;耐盐突变体

Abstract (Browse 2387)  |  Full Text PDF       
Triterpenoids from Rubus buergeri
Author: DENG Ye, PENG Shu-Lin, ZHANG Xiao-Rong, DING Li-Sheng, WANG Ming-Kui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(6): 644-646
      
    

A new triterpenoid, methyl buergericate (12a), which was elucidated as 2α,3α,19α,24-tetrahydroxyl olean-12-en-28-oic acid methyl ester by spectroscopic methods, together with eleven known triterpenoids was isolated from Rubus buergeri Miq. The isolation of the above chemical constituents from this plant was reported for the first time.

寒莓中三萜成分的研究
邓烨 彭树林 张晓王容 丁立生 王明奎*

(中国科学院成都生物研究所,成都610041)

摘要:从蔷薇科悬钩子属植物寒莓 (Rubusbuergeri Miq .)中分离鉴定了 12个三萜类化合物。其中 1个为新化合物 ,命名为寒莓酸甲酯 (12a) ,其结构经波谱分析鉴定为 2α ,3α,19α ,2 4-四羟基齐墩果-12-烯-2 8-酸甲酯。

关键词: 寒莓;三萜;寒莓酸甲酯

Abstract (Browse 2022)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study of Sesquiterpene Alkaloids from Tripterygium wilfordii (IV)
Author: LIN Sui, LI Yuan-Chao, NOBUKO Sakurai, GUO Shun-Min, DENG Fu-Xiao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2001 43(6): 647-649
      
    

Two sesquiterpene alkaloids,wilforine and wilfordsuine were isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. Wilfordsuine was a new alkaloid. The structures of wilforine and wilfordsuine were elucidated on the basis of spectral data,especially 2D-NMR techniques (H'-'H COSY,H'-13C COSY, NOESY, COLOC methods).

雷公藤倍半萜生物碱的研究(IV)
林绥1 李援朝 樱井信子3 郭舜民1  邓福孝1

(1. 福建省医学科学研究所,福州350001;2. 中国科学院上海药物研究所,上海200031;3.Hoshi University, Tokyk 142, Japan)

摘要:从雷公藤 (Tripterygiumwilfordii Hook .f.)的根皮中分离到两个倍半萜生物碱Ⅰ和Ⅱ ,根据理化性质和波谱数据特别是 2D NMR技术 (1H 1HCOSY、1H 13 CCOSY、NOESY、COLOC)数据分析 ,鉴定Ⅰ为wilforine ,Ⅱ为一新的生物碱———雷公藤植碱 (wilfordsuine)。

关键词: 雷公藤;倍半萜生物碱;wilforine;雷公藤植碱

Abstract (Browse 2126)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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