November 2002, Volume 44 Issue 11

 

          Research Articles
PSⅡ Photochemistry and Xanthophyll Cycle in Two Superhigh yield Rice Hybrids, Liangyoupeijiu and Hua an 3 During Photoinhibition and Subsequent Restoration
Author: WANG Qiang, ZHANG Qi-De, ZHU Xin-Guang, LU Cong-Ming, KUANG Ting-Yun and LI Cheng-Quan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(11): 1297-1302
      
    

PSⅡ photochemistry and xanthophyll cycle during photoinhibition (exposed to strong light of 2 000 μmol photons·m-2·s-1) and the subsequent restoration were compared between two superhigh yield rice hybrids (Liangyoupeijiu and Hua an 3, the newly developed rice hybrids from two parental lines) and the traditional rice hybrid Shanyou 63 developed from three parental lines. The results showed that the maximal efficiency of PSⅡ photochemistry (Fv/Fm), the efficiency of excitation energy capture by open PSⅡ centers (Fv′/Fm′), and the yield of PSⅡ electron transport (ΦPSⅡ) of the three rice hybrids decreased during photoinhibition. However, a greater decrease in Fv/Fm, Fv′/Fm′, and ΦPSⅡ was observed in Shanyou 63 than in Liangyoupeijiu and Hua an 3. At the same time, the components of xanthophyll cycle, antherxanthin (A) and zeathanxin (Z) increased rapidly while violaxanthin (V) decreased considerably. Both the rate of accumulation and the amount of A and Z in the two superhigh yield rice hybrids were higher than that in Shanyou 63. The de epoxidation state (DES) of xanthophyll cycle increased rapidly with the fast accumulation of A and Z, and reached the maximal level after first 30 min during photoinhibition. Of the three hybrids, the increasing rate of DES in Liangyoupeijiu and Hua an 3 was higher than that in Shanyou 63. After photoinhibition treatment, the plant materials were transferred to a dim light (70 μmol photons·m-2·s-1) for restoration. During restoration, both chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and xanthophyll cycle relaxed gradually, but the rate and level of restoration in the two superhigh yield rice hybrids were higher than those in Shanyou 63. Our results suggest that Liangyoupeijiu and Hua an 3 had higher resistance to photoinhibition and higher capacity of non radiative energy dissipation associated with xanthophyll cycle, as well as higher rate of restoration after photoinhibition, than Shanyou 63 when subjected to strong light.

超高产杂交稻在强光胁迫及其恢复进程中的PS 11活性和叶黄素循环
王 强1  张其德1* 朱新广1  卢从明1 匡廷云1 李成荃2

(1. 中国科学院植物研究所光合作用与环境分子生理学重点实验室,北京100093; 2. 安徽省农业科学院水稻研究所,合肥230031)

摘要: 研究了两系超高产杂交稻(Oryza sativa L.)"两优培九"和"华安3号"以及多年来大面积推广的三系杂交稻"汕优63"剑叶的PSⅡ活性和叶黄素循环对强光胁迫及其恢复进程的响应.结果表明,在2 000 μmol photons.m-2.s-1的强光胁迫下,3个杂交稻的PSⅡ光化学最大效率((Fv′/Fm′)、开放的PSⅡ反应中心捕获激发能效率(Fv′/Fm′)和PSⅡ的实际光化学转能效率(ΦPSⅡ)都随着光抑制进程而下降,其中以"汕优63"下降的幅度最大.光抑制过程中,杂交稻叶黄素循环的紫黄素V组分迅速下降,与此同时,脱环氧化组分环氧玉米黄素A和玉米黄素Z迅速积累,而超高产杂交稻"两优培九"和"华安3号"的A和Z的积累速度大大高于"汕优63".伴随A和Z的快速积累,它们的叶黄素循环的脱环氧化状态DES迅速上升,并在半小时左右基本达到最大值,其中"两优培九"和"华安3号"DES的上升速率仍然较"汕优63"高.光抑制处理结束后,转移到弱光70 μmol photons.m-2.s-1条件下恢复过程中,两个超高产杂交稻的Fv/FmFv′/Fm′和ΦPSⅡ的恢复速率和恢复水平都高于"汕优63".同时,它们的叶黄素循环组分V、A、Z以及DES都逐渐恢复,但"两优培九"和"华安3号"的恢复速率和恢复水平仍然要优于"汕优63".以上结果说明,超高产杂交稻"两优培九"和"华安3号"较对照品种"汕优63"具有更强的抗光抑制及光保护能力,同时在光抑制结束后又能够更迅速地恢复光合功能,较强的抗光抑制能力和较高的恢复能力可能是超高产杂交稻高产的重要生理基础之一.

关键词: 超高产杂交稻;光抑制;光恢复;PSII活性;叶黄素循环

Abstract (Browse 2167)  |  Full Text PDF       
Seasonal Changes in the Ultrastructure of the Vascular Cambium in Shoots of Populus tomentosa
Author: YIN Ya Fang, JIANG Xiao Mei*, CUI Ke Ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(11): 1268-1277
      
    

Wood is the product of cambial activity in trees, and the seasonal activity style of cambium directly influences wood biomass production, structures and properties. The seasonal changes in the ultrastructure of the vascular cambium activity of Populus tomentosa Carr. planted in Beijing area were examined in shoot tissues collected during 15 months by means of transmission electron microscopy. Before xylem mother cells reactivated completely, the dividing fusiform cells in cambium and new phloem cells had appeared at the same time. The initiation of cambial activity may be related to the bud sprouting and the young leaf growth in shoots. More details about the ultrastructural changes of cambial cells at the onset of cambial activity have been gained. When the large vacuole in active cambial cells divided into smaller ones during the dormant phase, proteinaceous material that disappeared in active cambial cells refilled many of these small vacuoles. In addition, lipid droplets and starch granules had the same cycles as proteinaceous material. The plasmalemma invaginations of fusiform cells were observed not only in active phase but also in dormancy. The endomembrane system consisting of nuclear membrane, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), dictyosomes and their secretory vesicles, changed in form and distribution at different phases during a cycle and performed important roles at the onset of active cambium and during the wall formation process of secondary xylem cells. The tangential walls remained relatively thin throughout the year but the radial walls thickened markedly when the cambium was dormant. During the transition from dormancy to activity, a partial autolysis occurred in the radial walls of the cambial cells, especially at the cell wall junctions. A notable feature of the cells at the onset of cambial activity was the thinning of the radial walls.

毛白杨维管形成层带细胞超微结构的季节性变化
殷亚方1 姜笑梅1* 崔克明2

(1.  中国林业科学研究院木材工业研究所,北京100091;2. 北京大学生命科学学院,北京100871)


摘要: 木材(次生木质部)是树木形成层细胞分化的产物,形成层的活动方式不仅影响木材的产量,而且影响木材的结构和性质。利用透射电子显微镜观察了生长在北京地区的毛白杨(Populus tomentosa Carr.)枝条形成层带细胞一个完整活动周期的超微结构变化。在木质部母细胞完全恢复活动之前,形成层纺锤状原始细胞的分裂和韧皮部细胞的分化已经开始。枝条上芽的展开和幼叶的生长可能决定了形成层带细胞的这种活动方式。透射电镜观察更清楚地揭示了树木形成层细胞在活动初期的分化特点。活动期形成层细胞中的大液泡在进入休眠期后逐渐分成许多小液泡分散在细胞质中。随着液泡融合逐渐消失的深色蛋白类物质又重新充满了大部分液泡。油滴和淀粉颗粒的年变化情况同液泡中的蛋白类物质基本相似。无论在活动期还是休眠期,形成层纺锤形细胞的质膜上都发现有许多可能与物质运输有关的小泡状内折。由核膜、内质网和高尔基体及其分泌小泡组成的细胞内膜系统,在形成层活动周期的不同阶段,其形态和分布明显不同,尤其在形成层细胞的恢复活动及其衍生木质部细胞次生壁的沉积过程中发挥着重要作用。整个活动周期中,形成层纺锤形细胞的径向壁都比弦向壁厚,处在休眠期的形成层带细胞,其径向壁与弦向壁的差别则更明显。形成层恢复活动时,径向壁上特别是与弦向壁相连的角隅处出现部分自溶现象。细胞壁特别是径向壁的变薄是形成层细胞恢复活动的重要特征。
关键词: 维管形成层;超微结构;内膜系统;细胞壁;季节性变化;毛白杨

Abstract (Browse 2480)  |  Full Text PDF       
Evidence of Ultrastructure and Physiology of F-actin as Component of Plasmodesmata
Author: WANG Dong-Mei, WANG Xue-Chen and ZHANG Wei-Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(11): 1278-1285
      
    

The characters and ultrastructure of the intercellular connection were revealed in the outer epidermis of the garlic clove sheath by means of fluorescent probe TRITC-Phalloidin (TRITC-Ph) labeling combined with confocal laserscanning microscopy (CLSM), immuno gold labeling and transmission electron microscopy. These results show that transcellular channel is a complex of rod like cytoplasm channel and grouped plasmodesmata (PDs) in pit. The former remains a portion of the cell protoplast. The diameter of PD is normally 60-70 nm. The PDs are the real interce llular symplasmic connections of the cells. The transcellular fibers labeled with the TRITC-Ph obviously become narrow in the primary pit fields, which is the same as the characters observed under the electron microscope. The bright fluorescent spot in the primary wall reflects the grouped PDs in pit, and hence the presence of F actin in the PDs can be confirmed. In immuno gold labeling experiment, a lot of gold particles were massively distributed in the rod like cytoplasm channel and grouped PDs. The result provides effective support that these fluorescent filaments possibly are the existing form of F actin.

F肌动蛋白作为胞间连丝组分的结构与生理学证据
王冬梅1  王学臣  张伟成3

(1.  河北农业大学生命科学学院,保定071001;2.  中国农业大学生物学院,北京5100094;
3. 中国科学院上海植物生理生态研究所,上海200032)

摘要: 以蒜(Allium sativum L.)瓣鞘外表皮为材料,利用荧光特异探针与共焦镜检术,结合透射电镜与免疫金标记对表皮细胞间胞间联络的性质、结构进行了系统观察.结果表明,加厚壁上的通道是由狭长的管状胞质和初生纹孔场上成束的胞间连丝衔接组成,前者实为原生质体的一部分.单个胞间连丝的孔径为60~70 nm,属正常胞间连丝范围,它们乃相邻细胞间共质联系的所在.荧光探针TRITC-Phalloidin (TRITC-Ph)标记的结果显示,整个通道上呈现红色荧光的纤索在接近初生纹孔场处明显变窄,与超微结构观察中所见的结构特点相吻合,共焦镜下观察到的初生壁上的荧光亮斑乃初生纹孔场中成束胞间连丝被标记的反映,从而有效地证实了F肌动蛋白在常态胞间连丝上的存在.免疫金标记实验显示在管状胞质中和胞间连丝上有金颗粒分布,这一结果为证实荧光标记物具肌动蛋白性质提供了有说服力的补充.

关键词: 胞间连丝;F-肌动蛋白;共焦激光扫描镜检术;超微结构;蒜

Abstract (Browse 2054)  |  Full Text PDF       
Responses of Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Carotenoids Biosynthesis to High Light Stress in Rice Seedling Leaves at Different Leaf Position
Author: YANG Cheng-Wei, PENG Chang-Lian, DUAN Jun, LIN Gui-Zhu and CHEN Yi-Zhu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(11): 1303-1308
      
    

In the present study, we investigated the changes of photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and the content of carotenoid pigments in rice ( Oryza sativa L.) seedling leaves and their responses to high light. The results showed that the rate of photosynthesis, the contents of individual and total carotenoids and the pool size of xanthophyll cycle decreased with age increasing of the leaf. When the leaves were exposed to high light for 2 h, the qN of mature leaf (5th leaf) increased more significantly than that of younger (6th leaf) and older leaves (3rd and 4th leaf). Comparing with the leaves before exposure to high light, the excitation pressure on PSⅡ (1-qP) increased by 44%, 57%, 19% and 45% in the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th leaf under high light, respectively. The highest content of carotenoids and the greatest conversion of violaxanthin to zeaxanthin were found in the 5th leaf, and it was consistent with the 5th leaf exhibiting the strongest resistance to high light. Our results suggested that the ability of rice leaf to resist photoinhibition is related to the level of carotenoids and the ability of carotenoids biosynthesis. 

水稻幼苗不同叶位的叶片叶绿素荧光和类胡萝卜素的生物合成对高光胁迫的响应
阳成伟* 彭长连** 段 俊 林桂珠 陈贻竹
(中国科学院华南植物研究所,广州510650)

摘要: 研究了水稻(Oryza sativa L.)幼苗叶片生长过程中叶绿素荧光和类胡萝卜素各组分含量的变化以及它们对高光胁迫的响应.结果表明:随着叶片的衰老,光合速率、类胡萝卜素不同组分及总的类胡萝卜素含量和叶黄素循环库下降;不同叶龄的叶片经高光胁迫后,第5叶(成熟叶)qN增加的幅度比第6叶(幼嫩叶)和老叶(第3和4叶)大;与高光胁迫前相比,第3、4、5和6叶光系统Ⅱ激发压(1-qP)分别增加了44%、57%、19%和45%;第5叶具有高胡萝卜素含量和高紫黄质到玉米黄质的转化,这与其呈现较强的抗高光胁迫相一致.水稻叶片抵御光抑制的能力与类胡萝卜素水平和类胡萝卜素的生物合成能力以及叶片所处的生长时期相关.

关键词: 光抑制;类胡萝卜素;叶黄素循环;衰老;水稻

通讯作者。E-mail: <pengchl @ scib.ac.cn>

Abstract (Browse 2077)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Drought Stress on the Photoprotection in Ammopiptanthus mongolicus Leaves
Author: ZHAO Chang-Ming and WANG Gen-Xuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(11): 1309-1313
      
    

Ammopiptanthus mongolicus (Maxim.) Cheng f. is one of the evergreen shrubs in the desert region of China. In midday its leaves bear photon flux density over 1500 μmol·m-2·s-1 at natural habitat. They show the obvious phenomenon of photoinhibition. For the study of the effects of drought stress on the major protective mechanism against strong light in A. mongolicus leaves, the diurnal variations of photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were investigated under natural conditions with portable photosynthetic measurement system (CIRAS 1) and portable fluorometer (MFMS 2). The experimental results showed that, under normal and drought stress conditions,the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), the primary maximum photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ (Fv/Fm) and the quantum efficiency of noncyclic electron transport of PSⅡ (ΦPSⅡ) decreased obviously at noon (Figs.2,3A,4B). In comparison with plants under normal condition, under drought stress minimal chlorophyll fluorescence (Fo) decreased at first and then increased (Fig.3A), non photochemical quenching (NPQ) quickly increased and sustained at a higher level (Fig.4B). This indicated that the major photoprotective mechanism of A. mongolicus leaves was the xanthophyll cycle dependent thermal energy dissipation under normal condition, while under drought stress, the major photoprotective mechanism was both the xanthophyll cycle dependent thermal energy dissipation and the reversible inactivation of PSⅡ reaction center.

干旱胁迫对沙冬青叶片防御光破坏机制的影响
赵长明 王根轩*

(兰州大学干旱农业生态国家重点实验室,兰州730000)

摘要: 沙冬青(Ammopiptanthus mongolicus (Maxim.) Cheng f.)是生长在沙漠及干旱荒漠地区的常绿灌木.在夏季,其叶片经常遭受中午强光(超过1 500 μmol.m-2.s-1) 胁迫,出现明显的光抑制现象.我们利用便携式光合测定系统(CIRAS-1)和脉冲调制荧光仪(MFMS-2)测定了自然形成的干旱胁迫条件下沙冬青光合和荧光参数的日变化,主要探讨了干旱胁迫对沙冬青叶片防御强光破坏机制的影响.结果表明,正常水分和干旱胁迫下,沙冬青叶片的净光合速率(Pn)、 PSⅡ最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)和PSⅡ非环式电子传递效率(ΦPS )在中午都明显降低;相对正常水分条件而言,干旱胁迫下初始荧光(Fo)先下降后上升,荧光的非光化学淬灭(NPQ)上升较快并在一定水平上维持不变.由此推断晴天中午沙冬青叶片在正常水分条件下主要采取依赖叶黄素循环的热耗散机制;而在干旱胁迫条件下主要采取了依赖叶黄素循环的热耗散和PSⅡ反应中心可逆失活两种保护机制.

关键词: 沙冬青;光抑制;防御光破坏机制;叶绿素荧光参数;PSII反应中心

通讯作者。E-mail:<wamggx @ lzu.edu.cn>.

Abstract (Browse 2419)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Simulative Study on Effects of Climate Warming on Nutrient Contents and In Vitro Digestibility of Herbage Grown in Qinghai-Xizang Plateau
Author: XU Shi Xiao, ZHAO Xin Quan, SUN Ping, ZHAO Tong Biao, ZHAO Wei, XUE Bai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(11): 1357-1364
      
    

The increasing trend of air temperature along with the climate warming has been accepted gradually by scientists and by the general public. Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, a unique geographic unit due to high altitude climate, is one of the most susceptible regions to climate warming. Its ecosystem is very fragile and sensitive to climate change. In order to get a better understanding of the impacts of climate warming on the nutrient contents of herbage grown in Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, a simulative study was implemented at Daban Moutain by using temperature differences resulted from sites selected at different altitudes and nutrient contents and in vitro digestibility were determined for assessing the quality of the grown herbage. There were significant downtrends in crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE) and nitrogen free extract (NFE) contents of herbage along with the increase of temperature. It had a positive correlation between temperature and content of acid detergent fibre (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL) in herbage.In vitro digestibility of herbage decreased along with the increase of temperature. The results of this study indicated that climate warming significantly influence nutrient contents and in vitro digestibility of herbage grown in Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. It is suggested that the future climate warming especially the gradual rise of the night temperature could cause negative effect on herbage quality grown in Qinghai-Xizang Plateau by decreasing CP, EE, and NFE contents and increasing some indigestible ingredients such as crude fibre (CF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), ADF, and ADL. This, consequently, decreases the ruminant assimilation ability.

气候变暖对青藏高原牧草营养含量及其体外消化率影响模拟研究
徐世晓 赵新全* 孙 平 赵同标 赵 伟 薛 白
(中国科学院西北高原生物研究所,西宁810001)

摘要: 全球气候变暖,气温上升的趋势逐步被众人接受,而青藏高原这一独特地理单元的生态系统对气候变暖十分敏感.为更好地了解气候变暖对青藏高原牧草品质的影响,利用大板山北坡3 200~3 800 m的海拔梯度,以温度为主要影响因子,用海拔高度不同造成的温差模拟全球变暖带来的升温效应,研究气候变暖对青藏高原牧草营养含量及其体外消化率的影响.针对羊茅(Festuca ovina)、早熟禾(Poa annua)、草(Koeleria cristata)、矮嵩草(Kobresia humilis)和黑褐苔草 (Carex alrofusca) 5种生长在不同海拔梯度的高原牧草中酸性洗涤纤维(ADF)、木质素(ADL)、粗蛋白(CP)、粗脂肪(EE)、无氮浸出物(NFE)、灰分等营养含量及其经绵羊瘤胃液培养后的体外消化率差异,经过1999和2000年两年的测定分析,结果表明:随着温度升高,牧草CP、EE和NFE的百分含量都呈现降低的趋势;牧草ADF和ADL百分含量与温度存在正相关关系,随着温度升高牧草ADF、ADL百分含量都呈增加的趋势;牧草体外消化率与牧草生长的环境温度存在负相关关联,随着温度升高牧草体外消化率呈降低趋势.模拟研究表明,就温度这一重要环境因素而言,未来气候变暖尤其是夜间温度的升高引起青藏高原牧草营养品质的变化,牧草CP、EE、NFE含量的降低,中性洗涤纤维(NDF)、ADL含量的增加,牧草消化率降低,从而不利于反刍动物对牧草的消化利用.

关键词: 气候变暖;大板山;温度;牧草;营养物质;体外消化率

 

Abstract (Browse 2079)  |  Full Text PDF       
Antagonistical Mode of Pichia membranefaciens to Rhizopus stolonifer in Wounds of Peach Fruit
Author: WAN Ya Kun, TIAN Shi Ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(11): 1384-1386
      
    

拮抗菌Pichia membranefaciens与病原菌Rhizopus stolonifer在桃果实伤口处的拮抗作用
万亚坤 田世平*

(中国科学院植物研究所光合作用与环境分子生理学重点实验室,北京100093)

摘要: 膜醭毕赤酵母(Pichia membranefaciens Hansen)是本实验室从果实上分离获得的一种能有效防治桃果实采后软腐病的拮抗菌.本文将P. membranefaciens与葡枝根霉(Rhizopus stolonifer)在桃果实伤口部位共培养24 h后,用扫描电子显微镜观测了它们的拮抗作用.结果表明,在有病原菌的地方聚集了大量的酵母拮抗菌,而且拮抗菌紧密地吸附在病原菌的菌丝体上.结合以前的研究结果可以推断,P. membranefaciens主要通过与病原菌进行营养和空间的竞争,紧密地吸附在病原菌菌丝体上分泌能降解病原菌细胞壁的水解酶(如几丁质酶和β-1,3-葡聚糖酶),并可能诱导寄主产生抗性,从而抑制桃软腐病的发生.

关键词: 拮抗作用;膜醭毕赤酵母;软腐病菌;扫描电镜

通讯作者。E-mail: <shiping @ 95777.com>;Tel: +86 (0)10 62591431-6463;Fax: +86(0)10 82594675

Abstract (Browse 2237)  |  Full Text PDF       
Floral Ontogeny in Itea yunnanensis (Iteaceae)
Author: GE Li-Ping, LU An-Ming and PAN Kai-Yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(11): 1261-1267
      
    

To provide evidence insight into the phylogenetic position of Itea L., we observed floral ontogeny of Itea yunnanensis Franch. under the scanning electron microscope (SEM) for the first time. The floral phyllotaxis is whorled and floral organogenesis follows centripetal pattern. Sepal initiation is in a two fifths helical order. Petal initiation appears simultaneous, and petals grow at an ordinary rate. The haplostemony of this species arises slightly later than petals but earlier than gynoecium in initiation. Two carpels are free at the early stage of floral ontogeny, but incurve, get closer and become appressed to each other later. Paraffin transverse sections series of gynoecium at anthesis show that two carpels are connate on the ventral side through their entire length. At last, two carpels within the ovary fuse completely, forming two locules separated by a septum, the ventral vascular bundles in two stylar lobes are connected through the parenchyma, and the stigma lobes become fused. These observations are different from those by Bensel and Palser (1975). The gynoecia they described might be not mature, but rather at early developmental stage. We compared floral developmental pattern and floral structure of Itea with its related taxa. In I. yunnanensis petals grow in the way that is different from that of some elated taxa such as Saxifragaceae sensu stricto, Hydrangeaceae, Ribes, Brexia. The developing pattern of gynoecium in I. yunnanensis is similar to that of some members in the Saxifragaceae sensu stricto and Hydrangeaceae. The treatment to raise taxonomic rank of Itea from genus to family, Iteaceae, is supported by our results.

滇鼠刺花的形态发生(鼠刺科)
葛丽萍1,2   路安民1* 潘开玉1

(1. 中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学重点实验室,北京100093;2. 山西农业大学林学院,太谷030801)

摘要: 在扫描电镜下,观察了滇鼠刺(Itea yunnanensis Franch.)花的形态发生.花3朵一束,排成总状花序.花器官为轮状结构,向心发生;花萼以2/5螺旋式相继发生,5个花瓣原基几乎同步地在花萼内侧与其互生的位置发生.雄蕊单轮对萼.当雄蕊发生后,花顶中心的分生组织开始凹陷,成为浅锅状;在其周围出现一个环状的分生组织,随之,2心皮原基产生,进而发育为马蹄形.初期的心皮相互分离,随着进一步发育,心皮内卷,彼此靠近、紧贴,逐渐于腹面合生,形成2室的中轴胎座;花柱的腹维管束通过薄壁组织连通;花期柱头融合,因此该种为合生心皮.对鼠刺属(Itea)及相关类群花发育性状和花结构进行了比较,支持把鼠刺属提升为鼠刺科(Iteaceae)的观点.

关键词: 滇鼠刺;花的形态发生

通讯作者。E-mail: <anmin @ ns.ibcas.ac.cn>

Abstract (Browse 2115)  |  Full Text PDF       
Deletion of 93 bp Far upstream Fragment of Rice Cytosolic Fructose 1, 6 Bisphosphatase Promoter Completely Alter Its Expression Pattern
Author: SI Li Zhen, WANG Li, CAO Shou Yun, CHU Cheng Cai*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(11): 1339-1345
      
    

The 1 195 bp 5′flanking region of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cytosolic fructose 1, 6 bisphosphatase (cyFBPase) can direct tissue, cell specific expression in transgenic rice. In order to identify sequence elements responsible for the regulation of mesophyll specific expression, the 5′flanking regions of -1195 bp, -1 102 bp, -768 bp, and -644 bp upstream of the translation initiation ATG codon were fused to the reporter gene encoding β glucuronidase (GUS) and transferred to rice via particle bombardment. Analysis of the 5′ promoter deletions identified that a 93 bp fragment between -1 195 bp and -1 102 bp is essential for directing mesophyll specific expression. High constitutive expression of GUS reporter gene was found in the -768 deletion lines and another two deletion series. These results indicate the great potential utility of the promoter in rice biotechnology.

从水稻细胞质型果糖-1.6-二磷酸酶启动子上游中去除93 bp 可以彻底改变其表达模式
司丽珍 王 力 曹守云 储成才*

(中国科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所,北京100101)

摘要: 细胞质型果糖-1,6-二磷酸基因ATG上游1 195bp侧翼序列可调控GUS基因在水稻(Oryza sativa L.)中特异性表达,因此该片段包含有使报告基因在叶肉细胞中特异性表达的所有顺式元件.为了研究其调控特异表达的顺式元件,对启动子5′端进行了一系列的缺失,得到4种与GUS基因融合的植物表达载体,通过基因枪法转入水稻.结果表明,自启动子5′端-1 195 bp缺失至-1 102 bp时,GUS基因由叶肉细胞特异性表达变为组成型表达,且表达活性有所提高,推测在该区段中存在调控叶肉细胞特异性表达的顺式元件.进一步缺失仍然保持组成性表达的模式,即在转化株的根、茎和叶中的所有细胞中均有表达,同时启动子活性有所提高.这一结果暗示该启动子具有很大的应用潜力.

关键词: 水稻;顺式调控元件;细胞质型果糖-1,6-二磷酸基因;叶肉细胞特异型表达;组成型表达

通讯作者。电话:+86(0)10 64889359; Email: <ccchu @ genetics.ac.cn>

Abstract (Browse 2233)  |  Full Text PDF       
Airborne Pollen Grains Of Afyon, Turkey
Author: Adem BICAKCI, S¨heyla ERGUN, Sevcan TATLIDIL, Hulusi MALYER, Sabri OZYURT, Ahmet AKKAYA and Nihat SAPAN
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(11): 1371-1375
      
    

The airborne pollen grains of Afyon have been studied for a two year period (1999-2000) with a Durham sampler. A total of 14 367 pollen grains belonging to 40 taxa have been identified and recorded with some unidentified ones. Of them, 6 732 were identified in 1999 and 7 635 in 2000. Of the total pollen grains, 69.67% were arboreal, 26.64% non arboreal and 3.68 % unidentified. The majority of the investigated pollen grains were from Pinus,Gramineae, Cupressaceae,Platanus, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Quercus, Ailanthus, Moraceae, Juglans, Salix, Cedrus and Rosaceae. The highest level of pollen grains was in May.

 

Abstract (Browse 2090)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genetic Diversity of Hordeum bogdanii Wilensky Native to Xinjiang, China, Based on STS-PCR Markers
Author: GUO Hong, WEI Yu-Ming, CHEN Fang and ZHENG You-Liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(11): 1327-1332
      
    

The genetic diversity among 32 accessions ofHordeum bogdanii Wilensky native to Xinjiang, China, was evaluated by 22 STS-PCR primer sets derived from RFLP clones of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) or barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mapping. Out of the 22 STS-PCR markers, only three markers gave products which did not generate polymorphic bands upon digestion with HinfⅠ, HhaⅠ, HaeⅢ and RsaⅠ, while 19 out of 22 markers (86.4%) and 46 out of 88 marker/enzyme combinations (52.3%) revealed polymorphisms. Among the 32H. bogdanii accessions, a total of 315 bands were observed in 88 STS-PCR marker/enzyme combinations, with 3.6 bands each. One hundred and twenty three out of 315 bands (39.0%) were polymorphic, among which 1 to 6 polymorphic bands were generated by each polymorphic marker/enzyme combination. The STS-PCR based genetic diversity index (GD) among 32 H. bogdanii accessions ranged between 0.078 to 0.352, with a mean of 0.198. Based on the GD matrix, a dendrogram showing the geneticrelationships between accessions was constructed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA). Results showed that all 32 accessions could be distinguish hed by STS-PCR markers. The accessions originated from the same region were distributed within different groups or subgroups. This study indicates that the genetic diversity of H. bogdanii is not closely correlated with the geographical distribution.

应用STS-PCR 标记研究新疆布顿大麦的遗传多样性
郭 红1,2 魏育明2* 陈 放1  郑有良2*

(1.  四川大学生命科学学院,成都610064;2.  四川农业大学小麦研究所,都江堰611830)

摘要: 利用22个来源于小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)和栽培大麦(Hordeum vulgare L.)的STS-PCR标记,研究了32份新疆布顿大麦(Hordeum bogdanii  Wilensky)的遗传多样性.在这22个STS-PCR标记中,仅有3个标记的扩增产物经HinfⅠ、HhaⅠ、HaeⅢ和RsaⅠ 4种限制性内切酶消化后没有产生多态性DNA片段,而19个标记(占86.4%)和46种标记/酶组合(占52.3%)能够揭示材料间的多态性.在32份布顿大麦材料的88种STS-PCR标记/酶组合中,总共得到315条DNA片段,平均每个标记/酶组合能得到3.6条DNA片段.在这315条DNA片段中,共有123条片段(占39.0%)具有多态性,每一个多态性标记/酶组合能获得1~6条多态性DNA片段.STS-PCR标记揭示的32份布顿大麦的遗传距离变化范围为0.078~0.352,平均为0.198.根据STS-PCR标记的遗传距离矩阵,采用不完全加权算术平均数法(UPGMA)构建了32份布顿大麦群体间的遗传关系树状图,结果表明STS-PCR标记能将32份材料完全区分开来.同时,来源于同一地方的不同居群没有明显地聚类在一起,表明新疆布顿大麦的遗传多样性与其地理分布相关不紧密.

关键词: 布顿大麦;STS-PCR 标记;遗传多样性;遗传关系

通讯作者。-MAIL: <Ymwei @ sc.homeway.com.cn>; <ymwei @ sicau.edu.cn>

Abstract (Browse 2131)  |  Full Text PDF       
Expression of the Thylakoid Membrane Localized PPF1 in Transgenic Arabidopsis Affects Chloroplast Development
Author: XU Yun-Jian, WANG Da-Yong and ZHU Yu-Xian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(11): 1314-1320
      
    

PPF1 is a vegetative growth related gene that encodes a putative membrane protein having high homology with Arabidopsis chloroplast thylakoid protein ALB3. Immunoelectron microscopic assay showed that PPF1 was mainly localized in the thylakoid membrane and was highly expressed in well developed chloroplasts of short day (SD) grown G2 pea while having a very low abundance in chloroplasts of long day (LD) grown plants two weeks after flowering. Comparison of the leaf senescence processes in transgenic Arabidopsis and wild type plants revealed that overexpression of PPF1 delayed leaf senescence, while the depression of its Arabidopsis homologue (ALB3) with PPF1 antisense mRNA accelerated leaf senescence obviously.Ultrastructural analysis of transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed that when PPF1 was overexpressed in Arabidopsis, the chloroplasts were bigger and had much more grana and stroma thylakoid membranes than those of wild type plants. On the contrary, when PPF1 was expressed in antisense orientation to reduce the level of PPF1 homologue in Arabidopsis, the transgenic plants had smaller chloroplasts with less grana and poorly developed thylakoid membrane systems. These results suggested that the developmental status of chloroplasts was positively correlated with the level of PPF1 or its Arabidopsis homologue, ALB3. Our results suggested that PPF1 gene might regulate plant development by controlling chloroplast development.

定位于类囊体膜的PPF1在转基因拟南芥中的表达影响叶绿体的发育
徐云剑 王大勇 朱玉贤*

(北京大学蛋白质工程及植物基因工程国家重点实验室,北京100871)

摘要: PPF1是一个与植物营养生长相关的基因.它编码的产物可能是一个膜蛋白并与拟南芥叶绿体中的类囊体蛋白ALB3有很高的同源性.免疫电镜分析表明PPF1蛋白同样主要定位于类囊体膜,而且在短日照G2豌豆开花两周后仍发育良好的叶绿体中有很高的表达,在长日照豌豆同时期非正常叶绿体中丰度非常低.对转基因拟南芥和野生型植株的叶片衰老进程比较发现, PPF1在拟南芥中的过量表达可以延缓叶片的衰老,而用PPF1反义mRNA抑制拟南芥中的同源基因ALB3则明显加快叶片衰老速度.对转基因拟南芥的超微结构分析显示,PPF1在拟南芥中过量表达时,转基因植株的叶绿体比野生型植株的叶绿体大并含有更多的基粒和基质类囊体膜;相反,反义PPF1表达抑制其在拟南芥中的同源物时,转基因植株的叶绿体比野生型植株的叶绿体小并含有较少的基粒和发育较差的类囊体膜系统.这些数据表明叶绿体的发育状况与PPF1或拟南芥同源物ALB3的表达水平呈正相关.我们的结果提示PPF1基因可能通过控制叶绿体的发育状况来调节植物的发育.

关键词:PPFI免疫定位;叶绿体发育;衰老

通讯作者。E-mail:<zhux  @ eater.pku.edu.cn>

Abstract (Browse 2141)  |  Full Text PDF       
Characterization of a S-locus-related Receptor-like Kinase Cluster in Rice Chromosome 4
Author: LEI Hai-Yan, ZHOU Bo, HONG Guo-Fan and HAN Bin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(11): 1346-1350
      
    

We have identified 14 S locus glycoprotein (SLG) related protein kinase genes in a 323 kb contig of rice (Oryza sativa L.) chromosome 4 and we detected the transcription pattern of this gene cluster by reverse transcription polymerase reaction (RT-PCR). RT PCR results revealed that nine putative genes were transcribed in rice and these genes had the different expression patterns: two genes are expressed predominantly in reproductive tissues while the other seven genes are expressed in both reproductive and vegetative tissues. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences demonstrated that the extracellular receptor domains are highly homologous to SLG of Brassica, whereas the cytoplasmic kinase domains contain conserved amino acids present in serine/threonine kinases.

对水稻4号染色体一个编码S位点相关的受体样蛋白激酶基因簇的分析
雷海燕1,2 周波1,3*  洪国藩1,2**韩 斌6**

(1. 中国科学院上海生命科学研究院国家基因研究中心,上海>200233;
2. 中国科学院上海生命科学研究院生物化学与细胞生物学研究所,上海200031;
3. Department of Plant Pathology, Ohio State University,Columbus,Ohio,43210,USA)

摘要: 通过对水稻(Oryza sativa L.) 4号染色体一段323 kb 的序列测定和分析,在其中108 kb的区域内发现了一个由14个编码S位点相关的受体样蛋白激酶(SRK)基因组成的基因簇.RT-PCR实验证明了这14个基因中有9个基因表达,并且这9个基因有不同的表达模式: 其中2个基因主要在生殖器官中表达, 而另外7个基因在水稻的营养和生殖器官中均有表达.对这些基因的预测的氨基酸序列进行分析表明他们的细胞外受体部分均和甘蓝的SLG蛋白高度同源,而细胞内的激酶区都包含有丝氨酸/苏氨酸激酶中特异的氨基酸.

关键词: 水稻受体样激酶蛋白;S位点受体激酶;S位点糖蛋白;水稻

通讯作者。Fax.+86(0)21 64825775. 韩斌,Tel:+86 (0)21 64848560;E-mail: <bhan @ newnetra.ncgr.ac.cn>.洪国藩,Tel:+86 (0 )21 64822885;E-mail: <gfhong @ enwnetra.ncgr.ac.cn>

Abstract (Browse 2128)  |  Full Text PDF       
Exo-glycosidases Activities in Artemisia sphaerocephala Mucilaginous Achene Germination Process
Author: HUANG Zhen-Ying and Daphne J. OSBORNE
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(11): 1380-1383
      
    

白沙蒿粘液瘦果萌发中外切糖苷酶活动特性
黄振英1* Daphne J.OSBORNE2
(1. 中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学开放研究实验室,北京100093;2.Oxford Research Unit,Foxcombe Hall,Boars Hill,Oxford,OX1,5HR,UK)

摘要: 白沙蒿 (Artemisiasphaerocephala Krasch .)是中国西北沙区分布的多年生植物。瘦果遇湿后其粘液层开始膨胀。对其种子萌发不同阶段的种胚提取物中几种可能降解果皮外层粘液物质的外切糖苷酶进行了检测。结果表明 :β 吡喃半乳糖苷酶在干种子中的活性很高 ,但是随着种子的吸涨而逐渐降低 ,在已萌发的种子中无法探测到。α和 β 吡喃阿拉伯糖苷酶、β 吡喃葡萄糖苷酶以及 β 吡喃甘露糖苷酶在种子萌发过程的胚提取物中也显示出了一些活性 ,但是这些活性在种胚外却无法探测到。所有胚提取物中的外切糖苷酶都无法降解果皮粘液物质。所有的证据都表明果皮外层的粘液物质无法在种子萌发的早期被水解。因此果皮粘液物质在干旱沙质条件下的生态功能被限制在吸收水分以及延长胚吸水的时间。

关键词: 白沙蒿;粘液瘦果;外切糖苷酶;生态功能

通讯作者。E-mail: <zhenying @ ns.ibcas.ac.cn>

Abstract (Browse 1928)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cultivating Rice with Delaying Leaf-Senescence by PSAG12-IPT Gene Transformation
Author: LIN Yong-Jun, CAO Meng-Liang, XU Cai-Guo, CHEN Hao, WEI Jun and ZHANG Qi-Fa
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(11): 1333-1338
      
    

PSAG12-IPT gene was introduced into an elite rice ( Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) restorer line Minghui 63 through Agrobacterium mediated transformation method. Out of 61 independent transgenic plants obtained, a few acquired a recognizable phenotype in which leave senescence was delayed to a great degree. The results of field plot test on two homozygous transgenic lines indicated: (1) the stay green ability of transgenic plants was significantly improved; (2) both the seed setting rate and the number of panicles per plant of transgenic plants were significantly increased compared with that of the non transgenic plants of Minghui 63; and (3) the plant height of transgenic plants was significantly reduced.

通过转PSAG12-IPT基因培育延缓叶片衰老水稻
林拥军* 曹孟良** 徐才国 陈 浩 魏 君 张启发
(华中农业大学作物遗传改良国家重点实验室分子生物学分室,武汉430070)

摘要: 利用农杆菌介导的遗传转化方法将PSAG12IPT导入籼稻品种明恢63。在获得的61个独立的转基因植株中,有一些表现出叶片衰老显著延缓,对选择的两个纯合转基因株系的小区试验的结果显示:(1)转基因植株倒三叶的持性极显著延长;(2)两个纯合转基因株系比原品种的结实率极显著提高,株高极显著降低;(3)两个纯合转基因株系的有效穗数比原品种极显著或显著提高。

关键词: 水稻;农杆菌;转化;PSAG12IPT;持绿性;农艺性状

Abstract (Browse 2637)  |  Full Text PDF       
Photosynthetic Responses to Inorganic Carbon in Ulva lactuca Under Aquatic and Aerial States
Author: ZOU Ding-Hui and GAO Kun-Shan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(11): 1291-1296
      
    

Intertidal macroalgae experience continual alternation of photosynthesis between aquatic state at high tide and aerial state at low tide. The comparative photosynthetic responses to inorganic carbon were investigated in the common intertidal macroalga Ulva lactuca L. along the coast of Shantou between aquatic and aerial state. The inorganic carbon dissolved in seawater at present could fully (at 10 ℃ or 20 ℃) or nearly (at 30 ℃) saturate the aquatic photosynthesis of U. lactuca. However, the aerial photosynthesis was limited by current ambient atmospheric CO2 level, and such a limitation was more severe at higher temperature (20-30℃) than at lower temperature (10℃). The carbon saturated maximal photosynthesis of U. lactuca under aerial state was much greater than that under aquatic state at 10℃ and 20 ℃, while the maximal photosynthesis under both states was similar at 30℃. The aerial values of Km(CO2) for photosynthesis were higher than the aquatic values. On the contrary, the values of apparent photosynthetic CO2 conductance under aerial state were considerably lower than that under aquatic state. It was concluded that the increase of atmospheric CO2 would enhance the primary productivity of U. lactuca through stimulating the photosynthesis under aerial state during low tide.

在水生与气生状态下石莼光合作用对无机碳的响应
邹定辉1  高坤山1,2*

(1. 汕头大学科技中心海洋生物研究所,广东汕头515063;2. 中国科学院水生生物研究所,武汉430072)

摘要: 潮间带海藻光合作用总是处于水生 (高潮时 )与气生 (低潮时 )两种连续变化的环境状态下进行。对汕头沿岸常见的潮间带海藻石莼 (Ulvalactuca L .)在水生和气生不同状态下光合作用对无机碳的响应特性进行了比较研究。在水生状态下 ,现有海水中溶解性无机碳浓度能充分饱和 (10℃和 2 0℃时 )或接近饱和 (30℃时 )石莼的光合作用 ;而在气生状态下 ,石莼光合作用受大气CO2 浓度的限制 ,且这种限制作用在较高温度 (2 0 - 30℃ )下比在低温(10℃ )下更严重。在 10℃和 2 0℃时 ,石莼在气生状态下比在水生状态下具有更高的碳饱和最大光合速率 ;而在30℃时 ,石莼在这两种状态下的碳饱和光合速率相似。石莼光合作用的Km(CO2 )值在气生状态下比在水生状态下高 ;而在气生状态下石莼对CO2 的表观光合导度远小于其在水生状态下的值。认为大气CO2 浓度升高将通过促进石莼在气生状态下的光合作用而增加其初级生产力。

关键词: 石莼;光合作用;无机碳;水生;气生;大气CO2 浓度升高

!通讯作者。E-mail:<ksgao @ stu.edu.cn

Abstract (Browse 2286)  |  Full Text PDF       
Taxol Production in Suspension Cultures of Taxus chinensis as Affected by the Combination of Nutrient Feed with Dissolved Oxygen Control
Author: LUO Jie and MEI Xing-Guo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(11): 1286-1290
      
    

Influence of the combination of nutrient feed with dissolved oxygen control on taxol production in suspension cultures of Taxus chinensis (Pilg.) Rehd. was investigated in bioreactors. Addition of feeding medium with 20 g/L sucrose on day 16 enhanced both the biomass and taxol production in 5 L bioreactors. Further investigation of the fed batch cultures in a 20 L bioreactor showed that cultivation under a low dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) of 20% for the entire culture resulted in the highest taxol content of 0.98 mg/g DW, while the taxol production was lower than that with 40% and 60% DOT. Moreover, taxol accumulation was remarkably improved by the cultivation of cells initially under DOT of 60% for 20 d followed by changing the DOT to 20% for another 12 d. By combining the use of these two strategies, a maximum taxol content of 18.7 mg/L was obtainedin a 20 L bioreactor.

补料培养与溶氧控制联合应用对红豆杉细胞培养的影响
罗杰 梅兴国
(华中科技大学生命科学与技术学院,武汉430074)

关键词:补料培养,溶氧控制,联合应用,红豆杉,细胞培养,紫杉醇
Abstract (Browse 2275)  |  Full Text PDF       
Infrageneric and Sectional Relationships in the Genus Rhododendron(Ericaceae) Inferred from ITS Sequence Data
Author: GAO Lian Ming, LI De Zhu*, ZHANG Chang Qin, YANG Jun Bo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(11): 1351-1356
      
    

The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA (including 5.8S rRNA) of 15 Rhododendronspecies, representing most sections of the genus, one Ledum species and Cassiope fastigiata were sequenced. Together with the ITS sequences of 13 selected Rhododendron species and Bejaria racemosa downloaded from GenBank, we explored the infrageneric and sectional relationships of this important North Temperate genus by employing maximum parsimony analysis using PAUP software. C. fastigiata and B. racemosa were designated as outgroups. The ITS based tree inferred that: (1)Rhododendron was a well supported monophyletic group, while subg.Therorhodion was basal to the rest of the genus; (2) Ledum was a member of Rhododendron, and its close relationship with the lepidote rhododendron was confirmed; (3) the lepidote rhododendron plus Ledum formed a strongly supported monophyletic clade which was sister to the rest of the elepidote rhododendron; (4) the elepidote rhododendron formed a weakly supported clade within which the monophyly of subg. Hymenanthes and subg. Tsutsusi were strongly supported, while subg.Pentanthera and subg.Azaleastrum were polyphyletic; and (5) the monophyly of sect. Choniastrum (subg. Azaleastrum) was strongly supported, while subg. Tsutsusi could be sister to a weakly supported clade composed of two sampled species of sect. Azaleastrum (subg.Azaleastrum) together with R. semibarbatum of subg. Mumeazalea.

基于ITS序列探讨杜鹃属的亚属和组间系统关系
高连明 李德铢* 张长芹 杨俊波
(中国科学院昆明植物研究所生物多样性与生物地理学开放研究实验室,昆明650204)

摘要: 首次报道了 15种杜鹃属 (Rhododendron)植物、1种杜香属 (Ledum)植物和Cassiopefastigiata的内转录间隔区(ITS) (包括 5 .8S)序列。加上从GenBank下载的 13种杜鹃属植物和Bajiariaracemosa的ITS序列 ,以C .fastigiataB .racemosa为外类群 ,用最大简约法对杜鹃属的亚属和组间的系统关系进行了分析。结果表明 :1)杜鹃属是一个单系类群 ,叶状苞亚属为杜鹃属的基部类群 ;2 )杜香属确应归并到杜鹃属中 ,且与有鳞杜鹃亚属有较近的亲缘关系 ;3)有鳞杜鹃亚属和杜香构成一个单系分支 ,该分支是其余无鳞杜鹃花的姐妹群 ;4 )由无鳞杜鹃花组成的一个分支的内部支持率较低 ,其中常绿杜鹃亚属和映山红亚属均为内部支持率很高的单系类群 ,而羊踯躅亚属和马银花亚属均为多系类群 ;5 )在马银花亚属中 ,长蕊杜鹃组和马银花组均分别得到强烈支持 ,马银花组与异蕊杜鹃亚属可能构成姐妹群关系 ,异蕊杜鹃亚属和马银花组组成的一个分支可能与映山红亚属构成姐妹群关系。

关键词: 杜鹃属;内转录间隔区(ITS));系统发育;属下系统关系

通讯作者。E-mail: <dezhuli @ hotmail.com>.

Abstract (Browse 2537)  |  Full Text PDF       
Analysis of Genetic Structure of Natural Populations of Castanopsis fargesii by RAPDs
Author: ZHU Qi-Hui, PAN Hui-Xin, ZHUGE Qiang, YIN Tong-Ming, ZOU Hui-Yu and HUANG Min-Ren
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(11): 1321-1326
      
    

Genetic diversity and population genetic structure in 188 individuals from five natural populations of Castanopsis fargesii Franch. were studied by RAPD markers. Three hundred and eighty five loci were identified with 41 oligonucleotide primers, out of which 157 loci were polymorphic and accounted for 40.78% of total genetic diversity at species level. Shannon's indices of diversity (I) and Nei's gene diversity (h) were 0.459 7 and 0.296 at the species level, respectively. The result showed that genetic variation of C. fargesii populations mainly existed within populations. Genetic differentiation (Hsp Hpop)/Hsp estimated with Shannon's index of diversity and coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst) were 0.0476 and 0.042 9 respectively, which were confirmed by the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Therefore, it is apparent that within population variation accounted for 94.97% and among populations variation accounted for only 5.03% of the total genetic diversity. AMOVA also indicated that there was significant differentiation among populations as well as among individuals within a population.

栲树天然群体遗传结构的RAPD分析
朱其慧 潘惠新 诸葛强 尹佟明 邹惠渝 黄敏仁*

(南京林业大学林木遗传和基因工程重点实验室,南京210037)

摘要: 利用RAPD分子标记对 5个栲树 (CastanopsisfargesiiFranch .)天然群体共计 188个个体的遗传多样性和群体遗传结构进行了分析。 4 1个随机寡核苷酸引物共检测到 385个位点 ,其中多态位点 15 7个 ,占 4 0 .78%。物种水平的Shannon多样性指数I=0 .4 5 97,Nei基因多样度h =0 .2 96。遗传变异分析表明 ,栲树群体的遗传变异主要存在于群体内 ,利用Shannon多样性指数估算的分化 (Hsp-Hpop) /Hsp=0 .0 4 76 ,遗传分化系数Gst =0 .0 4 2 9,分子方差分析 (AMOVA)也证实了这一结论 ,群体内的变异组分占了 94 .97% ,群体间变异只占 5 .0 3%。AMOVA分析结果的显著性检验也表明 ,群体间及群体内个体间均呈现出显著分化 (P <0 .0 0 1)。
 

关键词: 栲树;天然群体;RAPD;遗传结构

Abstract (Browse 2418)  |  Full Text PDF       
Sedum alfredii: A New Lead Accumulating Ecotype
Author: HE Bing, YANG Xiao E, NI Wu Zhong, WEI You Zhang, LONG Xin Xian, YE Zheng Qian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(11): 1365-1370
      
    

In a survey of plant population, Sedum alfredii Hance, a new lead (Pb) tolerant and lead (Pb) accumulating ecotype, was found in an old Pb/Zn mining are a in Zhejiang Province of China. The growth and Pb content of plant ecotypes being able to and unable to accumulate Pb were studied by hydroponic culture with different concentrations of Pb(NO3)2. Growth of shoots of accumulating ecotype was not affected by Pb treatments up to 320 mg/L, whereas that of non accumulating ecotype was inhibited in all Pb treatments. The Pb concentrations in the roots and shoots of accumulating ecotype increased with increasing of Pb level in the nutrient solution. The maximum Pb concentrations in the shoots and roots of accumulating ecotype were 514 mg/kg and 13 922 mg/kg, 2.27 times and 2.62 times as much as that of non accumulating ecotype, respectively. The highest rate of Pb accumulation of accumulating ecotype was 8.62 μg/plant/d, 7.16 times as much as that of non accumulating ecotype. Due to its fast growth rate and high Pb accumulating ability, from a phytoremediation perspective, accumulating ecotype of S. alfredii is a potential plant species for Pb removal from contaminated soils.

一种新的铅富集植物———富集生态型东南景天
何 冰 杨肖娥 倪吾钟 魏幼璋 龙新宪 叶正钱
(浙江大学环境与资源学院资源科学系,杭州310029)

摘要: 对浙江一古老铅锌矿区的土壤和植物种群进行调查后发现一种新的具有耐铅特性和铅富集能力的植物--景天科景天属东南景天(Sedum alfredii Hance),称为铅富集生态型植物.进一步比较和分析了不同浓度硝酸铅处理对富集和非富集生态型东南景天的生长及其对铅的吸收特性的影响.结果表明, 320 mg Pb/L处理对富集生态型的地上部分生长无显著影响,而非富集生态型在20 mg Pb/L时即出现受害症状.富集和非富集生态型的地上部分铅含量、根系铅含量以及单株铅积累速率均随处理浓度的增加而表现出先升后降的变化趋势.其中富集生态型的地上部分铅含量、根系铅含量以及单株铅积累速率最高可达到514 mg/kg、13 922 mg/kg和8.62 μg/plant/d,分别是非富集生态型的2.27、2.62和7.16倍.由于具有生长速度快和高积累铅的能力,从植物修复的观点来说,东南景天铅富集生态型在铅污染土壤的修复方面具有巨大的潜力.

关键词: 铅;污染;东南景天

Abstract (Browse 2443)  |  Full Text PDF       
Determination the Vigor of Rice Seed with Different Degrees of Aging with Ultraweak Chemiluminescence During Early Imbibition
Author: CHEN Wen Li, XING Da*, HE Yong Hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(11)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1833)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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